Japanese sea bass

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Japanese sea bass
Suzuki201302.jpg
Not evaluated (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
L. japonicus
Binomial name
Lateolabrax japonicus
(G. Cuvier, 1828)
Synonyms
  • Labrax japonicus G. Cuvier, 1828
  • Percalabrax japonicus (G. Cuvier, 1828)
  • Holocentrum maculatum McClelland, 1844
  • Lateolabrax maculatus (McClelland, 1844)
  • Percalabrax poecilonotus Dabry de Thiersant, 1872
  • Percalabrax spilonotus Dabry de Thiersant, 1872
  • Percalabrax tokionensis Döderlein, 1883

The Japanese seabass, also suzuki () (Lateolabrax japonicus), is a species of Asian seabass native to the western Pacific Ocean, where it occurs from Japan to the South China Sea. They inhabit fresh, brackish, and marine waters of inshore rocky reefs and in estuaries at depths of at least 5 m (16 ft). This species is catadromous, with the young ascending rivers and then returning to the sea to breed. Its tail is slightly forked and the mouth is large with the lower jaw projecting beyond the upper. Young fish have small black spots on the back and dorsal fin. These spots tend to disappear as fish grows larger.[1] This species can reach a length of 102 cm (40 in), though most do not exceed 16.1 cm (6.3 in). The greatest weight recorded for this species is 8.7 kg (19 lb). This species is important commercially, popular as a game fish, and farmed.[2]

Japanese seabass have shiny white flesh with an easily recognizable, broad-flaked structure and a mild flavor. They have traditionally been one of the most popular targets for Japanese anglers. In the Kantō region, including Shizuoka Prefecture, it is called seigo when under 25 cm. At three years of age, when it has attained a length of near 60 cm, it is called fukko or suzuki. Because their name changes as they grow – in Japanese such fish are called shusseuo (出世魚) – the Japanese have associated them with advancement in life and believe Japanese seabass symbolizes good fortune.

Like hirame, suzuki makes an elegant paper-thin sashimi, suzuki usu zukuri. Suzuki sashimi is often served with ponzu, a citrus-flavored mild soy sauce, or served in the summertime on a bed of ice cubes with tangy perilla leaf and a scattering of red pepper flakes.

Evolutionary History[edit]

Lateolabrax japonicus, more commonly known as "Japanese Sea Bass", is a species that falls under the genus of lateolabrax. The genus also includes the sister species of L. maculatus, which along with L. japonicus was used to determine the history of the genus and the specific species.[3]

Habitat[edit]

Compared to L. maculatus, which is found along the Chinese coast all the way to North Korea, the Japanese sea bass is more geographically restricted, as its habit ranges from Japan to the Southern coast of Korea. The species can both be found in some coastal areas of South Korea. Related to the genus, almost all Lateolabrax species are found in rocky reefs with constant moving waters. However, it is not rare for either species to be found in freshwater as the young tend to enter rivers L.japonicus is also widely farmed in China, since it is a carnivorous species that has delicious meat and grows rapidly.[4]

Morphology characteristics[edit]

Lateolabrax japonicus is characterized by many black dots on the lateral body region. Its tail is slightly split and the mouth is large with a lower jaw length of 46.43mm and an upper jaw length of 42.36mm. Its body has 12 to 15 spines in the first dorsal followed by 12 to 14 soft rays in its second dorsal. The anal fin has 3 spines and 7 to 9 soft rays. Its common length is 121.69 mm and its weight is 8.7Kg.[5]

Diet[edit]

Japanese seabass larvae commence feeding at day 4 after hatching. The diet of the early larvae is exclusively on smaller zooplankton such as cyclopoids and copepods. Copepods are the most dominant component in the diet of larval JSB, contributing 69.4%. Once this species reaches the juvenile stage, its diet includes sardines, anchovies, and shrimp, as well as any other small fishes and crustaceous.[6]

Reproduction and Development[edit]

The spawning of this species occurs in the coastal waters around Japan, specifically in the shelf areas with a depth of <100m during late October to late January. Generally, Lateolabrax japonicus eggs are distributed between bay water and outer water because thermohaline regions are formed. However, once their eggs have developed, they are shifted from the surface layer to the middle layer of water. The water temperature where the eggs are placed in a significant factor for the survival rate since their eggs do not tolerate temperatures below 10 °C. The eggs of this species are pelagic, spherical, colorless, and measure about 1.34mm to 1.44mm in diameter with a single oil globule. The transformation from the larva to the juvenile stage is around 49 to 70 days of age and juvenile stage begins at 60 days of age.[6]

Migration[edit]

Juveniles are dispersed and transported kilometers away from the spawning grounds into coastal areas and river estuaries by tidal currents during late winter or early spring. Some of their nursery habitats are located around Japanese seas, such as Tamara River estuary, Tokyo Bay, Tango sea, Ariake Bay, and Lake Shinji. [7] Most of the early juveniles migrate to the upriver turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) which is known as an area of high prey concentration in estuaries. Juveniles that migrate to these areas have a better chance to survive than those who remain in coastal areas. The area of estuaries is smaller and its environmental conditions are more variable, allowing them to have higher growth rate, a lower starvation rate, and less risk of predation.[8]

Human Usage[edit]

The Japanese sea bass is also commonly referenced to as Suzuki when it comes to food. It is widely fished and even farmed in order to be used as a delicacy that is served as sushi. However, not to be confused, there is a Japanese Suzuki, and a Chinese Suzuki, both out of different species, but in the same genus. The Japanese Suzuki is more appreciated as a rinsed sashimi as it is more favored than other fish used for sashimi because of the clean white flesh of the fish. The name Suzuki refers to type of Asian seabass that is used for sushi. However, the fish mainly depends on chopped trash fish, which deteriorates quickly and could result in the spread of diseases. The fish can also be used as Chinese medicine.[3]

Behaviors[edit]

L. japonicus in comparison to its sister species, L. maculatus, has little dispersal, therefore resulting in a centered population with little genetic variation. The restricted geographical area of the Japanese sea bass also indicates that they have only just recently migrated into their current habitat. The young tend to leave the rocky reefs and enter fresh water rivers but as they become adults at around the age of two, they return to the deeper rocky reefs during the winter to lay their eggs. When they are young, the Japanese sea bass feed on zooplankton and eventually small fish and shrimps as adults.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://Japaneseseabass.com
  2. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Lateolabrax japonicus" in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  3. ^ a b Liu, Jin-Xian; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Yokogawa, Koji; Zhang, Ya-Ping (2006). "Differential population structuring and demographic history of two closely related fish species, Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) in Northwestern Pacific". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 39 (3): 799–811. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.01.009. PMID 16503171.
  4. ^ Liu, Jin-Xian; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Yokogawa, Koji; Zhang, Ya-Ping (2006). "Differential population structuring and demographic history of two closely related fish species, Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) in Northwestern Pacific". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 39 (3): 799–811. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.01.009. PMID 16503171.
  5. ^ Yokogawa K, Taniguchi N, Seki S. 1997.Morphological and genetic characteristics of sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus, from the Ariake Sea, Japan. Ichthyol Res 44:51–60
  6. ^ a b Tanaka Masaru, Yamashita Yoh, Islam Shahidul. 2011. A Review on the Early Life History and Ecology of Japanese Sea Bass and Implication for Recruitment. Environ Biol Fish. 91:389-405. Doi: 10.1007/s10641-011-9798-y.
  7. ^ Yokogawa K, Taniguchi N, Seki S. 1997.Morphological and genetic characteristics of sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus, from the Ariake Sea, Japan. Ichthyol Res 44:51–60.
  8. ^ Yamashita Yoh, Kasai Akihide, Fuji Taiki, and Suzuki W. Keita. 2018. Partial migration of juvenile temperate seabass Lateolabrax japonicus: a versatile survival strategy. Fisheries Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12562-017-1166-1
  9. ^ Xue, Min; Luo, Lin; Wu, Xiufeng; Ren, Zelin; Gao, Peng; Yu, Yu; Pearl, Gary (2006). "Effects of six alternative lipid sources on growth and tissue fatty acid composition in Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus)". Aquaculture. 260: 206–14. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.05.054.