Japanese spider crab
|Japanese spider crab|
De Haan, 1839
The Japanese spider crab (タカアシガニ takaashigani?, lit. "tall-legged crab"), Macrocheira kaempferi, is a species of marine crab that lives in the waters around Japan. It has the largest leg span of any arthropod. It is the subject of small-scale fishery which has led to some conservation measures.
The Japanese spider crab has the greatest leg span of any arthropod, reaching 5.5 metres (18 ft) from claw to claw. The body may grow to a size of 40 cm or 16 in (carapace width) and the whole crab can weigh up to 19 kilograms (42 lb)—second only to the American lobster among all living arthropod species. The males have the longer chelipeds; females have much shorter chelipeds, which are shorter than the following pair of legs. Apart from its outstanding size, the Japanese spider crab differs from other crabs in a number of ways. The first pleopods of males are unusually twisted, and its larvae appear primitive. The crab is orange, with white spots along the legs. It is reported to have a gentle disposition, despite its ferocious appearance. The Japanese name for this species is taka-ashi-gani literally translating to “tall legs crab.” Their armored exoskeletons help protect them from larger predators such as octopuses, but giant spider crabs also use camouflage. The crab's bumpy carapace blends into the rocky ocean floor. To further the illusion, a spider crab will adorn its shell with sponges and other animals.
Distribution and habitat
Japanese spider crabs are mostly found off the southern coasts of the Japanese island of Honshū, from Tokyo Bay to Kagoshima Prefecture. Outlying populations have been found in Iwate Prefecture and off Su-ao in Taiwan. Adults can be found at depths between 50 and 600 m (160 and 1,970 ft). They like to inhabit vents and holes in the deeper parts of the ocean. The temperature preference of adults is unknown, but the species is regular at a depth of 300 m (980 ft) in Suruga Bay where the water generally is about 10 °C (50 °F). Based on results from public aquariums, Japanese spider crabs tolerate between 6 and 16 °C (43 and 61 °F), but most are maintained at 10–13 °C (50–55 °F).
Female crabs carry the fertilized eggs attached to their abdominal appendages until they hatch into tiny planktonic larvae. Development of the planktonic larvae is temperature-dependent and takes between 54 and 72 days at 12–15 °C (54–59 °F). During the larval stage the young crab looks nothing like its parents. It is small and transparent with a round, legless body and usually drifts as plankton at the surface of the ocean. The Japanese spider crab is an omnivore, consuming both plant matter and animals. It also sometimes acts as a scavenger consuming dead animals. Some have been known to scrape the ocean floor for plants and algae while others pry open the shells of mollusks. They live at depths of 150–300 metres (490–980 ft) or more. The giant spider crabs migrate up to a depth of around 50 metres (160 ft) during breeding season. 
The Japanese spider crab was originally described by western science in 1836 by Coenraad Jacob Temminck under the name Maja kaempferi, based on material from Philipp Franz von Siebold collected near the artificial island Dejima. The specific epithet commemorates Engelbert Kaempfer, a German naturalist who lived in Japan from 1690 to 1692 and wrote about the country's natural history. It was moved to the genus Inachus by Wilhem de Haan in 1839, but placed in a new subgenus, Macrocheira. That subgenus was raised to the rank of genus in 1886 by Edward J. Miers. Aplaced in the family Inachidae, M. kaempferi does not fit cleanly into that group, and it may be necessary to erect a new family just for the genus Macrocheira. As well as the single existent species, four species belonging to the genus Macrocheira are known from fossils.
Temminck, in his original description, noted that the crab was known to the Japanese for the serious injuries it can cause with its strong claws. The Japanese spider crab is "occasionally collected for food," and even considered a delicacy in many parts of Japan and other areas in the region. A total of 24.7 tonnes (54,000 lb) were collected in 1976, but only 3.2 tonnes (7,100 lb) in 1985. The fishery is centred on Suruga Bay. The crabs are typically caught using small trawling nets. The population has decreased in number due to overfishing, forcing fishermen into exploring deeper waters to catch them. Harvesting of the crab is forbidden during the spring, when crabs move to shallower water to reproduce. Populations of this species of crab have diminished over recent years and there are many efforts to protect them. The average size caught by fishermen is a leg span of 1.0–1.2 m (3 ft 3 in–3 ft 11 in).
- Peter K. L. Ng, Danièle Guinot & Peter J. F. Davie (2008). "Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant Brachyuran crabs of the world" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 17: 1–286. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06.
- An ugly giant crab of Japan Popular science, 1920, 96 (6): 42.
- Maurice Burton & Robert Burton (2002). "Spider crab". International Wildlife Encyclopedia (3rd ed.). Marshall Cavendish. pp. 2475–2476. ISBN 978-0-7614-7266-7.
- G. F. Mees (1957). "Over het belang van Temminck's "Discours Préliminaire" voor de zoologische nomenclatuur" [On the importance of Temminck's "Discours Préliminaire" for zoological nomenclature]. Zoologische Mededelingen (in Dutch). 35 (15): 205–227.
on dit, que ce Crustacé est redouté des habitants par les blessures graves, qu'il est en état de faire au moyen de ses fortes serres
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- Kazutoshi Okamoto (1993). "Influence of temperature on survival and growth of larvae of the giant spider crab Macrocheira kaempferi (Crustacea, Decapoda, Majidae)" (PDF). Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi. 59 (3): 419–424. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-22.
- "Giant Japanese Spider Crab". The Tennessee Aquarium. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
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- Hans G. Hansson. "Engelberg Kaempfer". Biographical Etymology of Marine Organism Names. Göteborgs Universitet. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
- De Grave, Sammy; Pentcheff, N. Dean; Ahyong, Shane T.; et al. (2009). "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 21: 1–109. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06.
- Kent E. Carpenter & Volker H. Niem, ed. (1998). "Majidae". The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 2: Cephalopods, crustaceans, holothurians and sharks (PDF). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Food and Agriculture Organization. pp. 1136–1137. ISBN 92-5-104052-4.
|External identifiers for Macrocheira kaempferi|
|Encyclopedia of Life||3103113|
|Also found in: Wikispecies, ADW|