Japonica rice

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Japonica rice grains
Japonica rice growing in Japan

Japonica rice (O. sativa subsp. japonica), sometimes called sinica rice, is one of the two major domestic types of Asian rice varieties. Japonica rice is extensively cultivated and consumed in East Asia, whereas in most other regions indica rice [ja] is the dominant type of rice. Japonica rice originated from Central China, where it was first domesticated along the Yangtze River basin approximately 9,500 to 6,000 years ago.[1][2][3]

Characteristics[edit]

Japonica rice grains are rounder, thicker, and harder, compared to longer, thinner, and fluffier indica rice grains. Japonica rice is also stickier due to the higher content of amylopectin, whereas indica rice starch consists of less amylopectin and more amylose.[4] Japonica rice plants are shorter than indica rice plants.[citation needed]

Classification[edit]

Japonica rice can be classified into three subgroups, 'temperate japonica',[5] 'tropical japonica' (also known as 'javanica', Oryza sativa subsp. javanica [ja]),[6][7] and 'aromatic'.[8] Temperate japonica is cultivated in East Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan), while tropical japonica is in Indonesia, Madagascar, and also the Americas where it was brought to with slave trade.[9]

Cultivars[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ M. A., Anthropology; B. Ed., Illinois State University; Twitter, Twitter. "The Origins and History of Rice in China, India/Pakistan and Africa". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 2020-08-02.
  2. ^ "Rice's origins point to China, genome researchers conclude | The Source | Washington University in St. Louis". The Source. 2011-05-02. Retrieved 2020-08-02.
  3. ^ Gross, Briana L.; Zhao, Zhijun (2014-04-29). "Archaeological and genetic insights into the origins of domesticated rice". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (17): 6190–6197. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111.6190G. doi:10.1073/pnas.1308942110. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 4035933. PMID 24753573.
  4. ^ Kim, Jin-young (4 November 2016). "Endless Variations on Rice". Koreana. Korea Foundation. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  5. ^ "Oryza sativa temperate japonica subgroup". www.uniprot.org.
  6. ^ "javanica rice". International Rice Research Institute. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  7. ^ "Oryza sativa tropical japonica subgroup". www.uniprot.org.
  8. ^ "Oryza sativa aromatic subgroup". www.uniprot.org.
  9. ^ 松尾 弌之. (2009).“「アメリカ50州」の秘密 “ レッカ社 ISBN 4569673023