Jarama River in Titulcia
|- location||Sierra de Ayllón|
|- elevation||2,119 m (6,952 ft)|
|494 m (1,621 ft)|
|Length||194 km (121 mi)|
|Basin size||5,047 km2 (1,949 sq mi)|
|- average||31.7 m3/s (1,120 cu ft/s)|
|- left||Henares, Tajuña|
|- right||Lozoya, Guadalix, Manzanares|
Jarama (Spanish pronunciation: [xaˈɾama]) is a river in central Spain. It flows north to south, and passes east of Madrid where the El Atazar Dam is built on a tributary, the Lozoya River. It flows into the river Tagus in Aranjuez. The Manzanares is a tributary of the Jarama.
Spanish Civil War
During the Spanish Civil War at Paracuellos del Jarama, 1000 (other sources give the number of 4000) civilian prisoners were killed by the Republican Militia guards during the Battle of Madrid (November 8–9, 1936). It is disputed whether Santiago Carrillo, the Communist leader in Madrid, ordered these executions or not, albeit they were committed under his authority. He denied his involvement in several interviews.
The Jarama was also the scene of fierce fighting in 1937. Nationalist forces crossed the river in an attempt to cut the main road from Madrid to the Republican capital at Valencia. Nationalist forces led by Spanish Legionnaires and Moroccan soldiers (Regulares) of the Army of Africa were confronted by forces from the Republic including the 15th International Brigade. The 15th Brigade contained both the British Battalion of Volunteers and American volunteers in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Despite heavy casualties (over 270 British out of 600) the Nationalists were stopped short of their objective. A period of trench warfare followed before the front stabilised. The battle cost both sides a combined total of up to 45,000 casualties.
The song Jarama Valley, with lyrics referencing the battle, became popular among the Republican battalions.
El Jarama is a 1955 novel by Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio about a group of working-class youngsters from Madrid meeting for a picnic by the river on a summer day. Its realistic dialog renovated Spanish novels, and it won the Premio Nadal (Nadal Prize) in 1955.
The Circuito Permanente Del Jarama (commonly referred to only as "Jarama") is the main motor racetrack of Madrid. Before the construction of the safer Montmeló, Montjuïc and Jerez racetracks, it hosted nine Formula One Championship races and several motorbike prizes.
- Media related to Jarama River at Wikimedia Commons