Jared Lee Loughner
|Jared Lee Loughner|
|Born||September 10, 1988|
|Residence||Tucson, Arizona, U.S.|
Mountain View High School (dropped out)|
Pima Community College (withdrew)
|Known for||2011 Tucson shooting|
|Criminal penalty||7 life sentences without parole, and an additional 140 years|
|Weapons||Glock 19 9mm|
|January 8, 2011|
|Imprisoned at||Federal Medical Center, Rochester|
Jared Lee Loughner (//; born September 10, 1988) is an American mass murderer and terrorist who pled guilty to 19 charges of murder and attempted murder in connection with the January 8, 2011 Tucson shooting, in which he shot and severely injured U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords, his target, and killed six people, including Chief U.S. District Court Judge John Roll, as well as a nine-year-old bystander, Christina-Taylor Green. Loughner shot and injured a total of 13 people, while one man was injured while subduing him.
Acquaintances say that Loughner's personality had changed markedly in the years prior to the shooting, a period during which he was also abusing alcohol and drugs. He had been suspended from Pima Community College in September 2010 because of his bizarre behavior and disruptions in classes and the library. After his arrest, two medical evaluations diagnosed Loughner with paranoid schizophrenia and ruled him incompetent to stand trial. He was placed on medication while in jail, as part of his treatment. He was again judged incompetent in May 2012.
In August 2012, Loughner was judged competent to stand trial, and at the hearing, he pleaded guilty to 19 counts. In November 2012, he was sentenced to life plus 140 years in federal prison.
- 1 Personal background
- 2 Expressed views
- 3 Tucson shooting
- 4 Arrest and legal proceedings
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Jared Lee Loughner is the only child of Randy and Amy (née Totman) Loughner. They were described by a neighbor as a very private family. Amy Loughner worked for the City Parks Department. Randy Loughner was a retired gasoline truck driver, but journalists did not determine if he worked outside the house at the time of the shooting. While Loughner had friends in high school, neighbors noted that in the following years, he kept more to himself and rarely spoke to others.
Loughner attended Mountain View High School, and dropped out in 2006. Around this time, when he was about eighteen years old, those who knew him noted a change in his personality. Kelsey Hawkes, who dated Loughner for several months in high school, later said she was shocked after hearing of his arrest. "I've always known him as the sweet, caring Jared," said Hawkes, 21, then a student at the University of Arizona.
At some point, Loughner was fired from his job at a Quiznos restaurant, with his manager saying he had undergone a personality transformation. After this, Loughner briefly volunteered at a local animal shelter, walking dogs, but he was eventually asked not to return. The shelter manager later said, "He was walking dogs in an area we didn't want dogs walked...he didn't understand or comprehend what the supervisor was trying to tell him. He was just resistant to that information."
Tong Shan, a former friend and classmate of Loughner's, recalled observing significant changes in his attitude and demeanor a year prior to the shooting. Shan, who became friends with Loughner on the day of their high school graduation, said that they would often spend time together after class in college but lost touch after the semester ended. When they met again in mid-2010, Shan recalled that Loughner appeared "radically different... From the way he was talking to me [online]... you can see. It was just questions and questions and random, weird questions that didn't go together... He wanted to know everything...he would just trip out." Recounting her early experiences with Loughner in light of the shooting, Shan said Loughner was "a good person that just somehow changed so much. I don't know what the hell happened to him."
Shan stated that her last encounter with Loughner was in October 2010, after he was suspended and dropped out of college and just before he purchased the semi-automatic handgun used in the massacre. She said that while Loughner was "anti-government," he never appeared violent, nor did he mention his plans to buy a gun.
According to court records, Loughner had two previous offenses: in October 2007, he was cited in Pima County for possession of drug paraphernalia and on October 13, 2008, he was charged after defacing a street sign in Marana, near Tucson (a charge that was dismissed following the completion of a diversion program in March 2009). The police report noted that he drew a stylized CX, which Laughner said were Christian symbols.
Zach Osler, a high-school classmate of Loughner's and his closest friend, indicated that Loughner's life began to unravel after his high-school girlfriend broke up with him. He began to abuse alcohol and other drugs, including cannabis (marijuana), cocaine, psychedelic mushrooms, LSD, and Salvia divinorum (a hallucinogen legal in Arizona).
After struggling with drugs for more than two years, Loughner gave up alcohol, tobacco, and recreational drugs in late 2008 and has not used since, according to one of his longtime friends. The U.S. Army confirmed that Loughner had been rejected as "unqualified" for service in 2008. According to military sources, Loughner admitted to marijuana use on numerous occasions during the application process.
Former classmate Caitie Parker remembers Loughner as a "pot head". Loughner has a history of drug use, having been arrested in September 2007 for possession of marijuana and drug paraphernalia. "I haven't seen him in person since '07," Parker recalled in early 2011. "I'm looking back at this [as] a 14–19 year old...who knows if any of us knew what for sure we were yet."
In the months leading up to the shooting, Loughner's parents became increasingly alarmed at their son's behavior, at one point resorting to disabling his car every night in order to keep him at home. On one occasion, his father confiscated his shotgun and both parents urged him to get help. Loughner also became obsessed with controlling what he perceived to be lucid dreams.
Suspension from college
From February to September 2010, while a student at Pima Community College, Loughner had five contacts with college police for classroom and library disruptions. Some of his teachers complained to the administration about his disruptions and bizarre behavior, as they thought it a sign of mental illness and feared what he might do. On September 29, 2010, college police also discovered a YouTube video shot by Loughner, in which his spoken commentary stated that the college was illegal according to the United States Constitution. He described his school as "one of the biggest scams in America".
The college decided to suspend Loughner and sent a letter to his parents, to consult with them and him together. The college told Loughner that if he wanted to return, he needed to resolve his code of conduct violations and obtain a mental health clearance (indicating, in the opinion of a mental health professional, that his presence did not constitute a danger to himself or others). On October 4, Loughner and his parents met with campus administrators and Loughner indicated he would withdraw from the college. During Loughner's time at Pima, a classmate said she worried that he might commit a school shooting. One of his teachers has claimed a similar suspicion after the Tucson shooting. He never submitted to a mental health evaluation and did not return to the college.
Several college classmates recalled an incident in which Loughner, during a class discussion, had mocked and laughed at a young woman who was describing her abortion. One classmate described Loughner's reaction as "wildly inappropriate". "(Loughner) started making comments about terrorism and laughing about killing the baby," former classmate Don Coorough recalled to ABC News. Yet another classmate, Lydian Ali, recalled that "a girl had written a poem about an abortion. It was very emotional and she was teary eyed and he said something about strapping a bomb to the fetus and making a baby bomb out of it."
Views on politics
Loughner's high-school friend Zach Osler said, "He did not watch TV; he disliked the news; he didn't listen to political radio; he didn't take sides; he wasn't on the Left; he wasn't on the Right." A former classmate, Caitie Parker, who attended high school and college with Loughner, described his political views – prior to his 2007 personality transformation – as "left wing, quite liberal." The tone of Loughner's online writings and videos from immediately before the attack were described by an opinion piece of The Guardian as "almost exclusively conservative and anti-government, with echoes of the populist campaigning of the Tea Party movement".
Mark Potok of the Southern Poverty Law Center said that Loughner's position that currency not backed by a gold or silver standard is worthless was a "hallmark of the far right and the militia movement." Jesse Walker of Reason expressed deep skepticism at the connections drawn by Potok. In the aftermath of the shooting, the Anti-Defamation League reviewed messages by Loughner, and concluded that there was a "disjointed theme that runs through Loughner's writings", which was a "distrust for and dislike of the government." It "manifested itself in various ways" – for instance, in the belief that the government used the control of language and grammar to brainwash people, the notion that the government was creating "infinite currency" without the backing of gold and silver, or the assertion that NASA was faking spaceflights.
Dislike for Gabrielle Giffords
According to a former friend, Bryce Tierney, Loughner had expressed a longstanding dislike for Gabrielle Giffords. Tierney recalled that Loughner had often said that women should not hold positions of power. He repeatedly derided Giffords as a "fake". This belief intensified after he attended her August 25, 2007 event when she did not, in his view, sufficiently answer his question: "What is government if words have no meaning?" Loughner kept Giffords' form letter, which thanked him for attending the 2007 event, in the same box as an envelope which was scrawled with phrases like "die bitch" and "assassination plans have been made". Zane Gutierrez, a friend, later told The New York Times that Loughner's anger would also "well up at the sight of President George W. Bush, or in discussing what he considered to be the nefarious designs of government."
His friend Zach Osler noted that conspiracy theories had a profound effect on Loughner. He was a member of the message board Above Top Secret, which discusses conspiracy theories; members of the site did not respond warmly to posts believed to be from his account. Loughner espoused conspiracy theories about the 9/11 attacks, the New World Order, and believed in a 2012 apocalypse, among other controversial viewpoints. Reports appearing after the shooting noted similarities between the statements made by Loughner and those publicized by the far-right conspiracy theorist David Wynn Miller. The Anti-Defamation League's report also confirmed Loughner's longstanding interest in conspiracy theories.
Views on religion
Journalists had speculated that Loughner was anti-Semitic due to his attack on Rep. Giffords, who is Jewish, but the Anti-Defamation League's analysis of the messages by Loughner found that he had a more generalized dislike of religion, and of government. A police report noted that he had previously been caught making graffiti associated with Christian anti-abortion groups.
Loughner has been described as an anti-theist by those who knew him. Loughner declined to state his religion in his Army application. In his "Final Thoughts" video, Loughner stated, "No, I don't trust in God!", in reference to the United States national motto printed on coins and paper currency, "In God We Trust". He expressed a dislike for all religions, and he was particularly critical of Christians.
Loughner allegedly purchased the 9mm Glock pistol used in the shooting from a Sportsman's Warehouse in Tucson on November 30, 2010. The night before the shooting, at 2:05 a.m. he left a message on a friend's voicemail saying, "Hey man, it's Jared. Me and you had good times. Peace out. Later." In a MySpace post the morning of the shooting at 4:12 am, he wrote, "Goodbye friends. Please don't be mad at me. The literacy rate is below 5%. I haven't talked to one person who is literate. I want to make it out alive. The longest war in the history of the United States. Goodbye. I'm saddened with the current currency and job employment. I had a bully at school. Thank you. P.S. --plead the fifth!"
The MySpace page showed a close-up photo of a handgun sitting atop a document titled "United States History."
On January 8, 2011, at 7:04 a.m. MST, Loughner went to a Walmart store near the Foothills Mall to purchase ammunition, but left that store and completed his purchase at Walmart on North Cortaro Road at 7:28 a.m. He was stopped by Arizona Game and Fish Department officer Alen Edward Forney at 7:34 a.m. for running a red light, but once the officer determined there were no outstanding warrants for Loughner, he was allowed to proceed to his destination with a warning to drive carefully. Loughner took a taxi to a Safeway supermarket location in Casas Adobes, where Rep. Giffords was holding a constituents meeting. The shooting occurred at 10:10 a.m. MST.
Loughner opened fire on Giffords from close range, hitting her as well as numerous bystanders, and killing six people. Thirteen other people were injured by gunfire, and one person was injured while fleeing the scene of the shooting. Giffords, the apparent target of the attack, was shot in the head and critically injured.
Arrest and legal proceedings
Loughner was stopped by bystanders and was arrested by police, saying, "I plead the Fifth," as he was taken into custody. A photograph taken by the Pima County Sheriff's Office's forensic unit was released to the media on January 10, 2011 and published on front pages nationwide. The Washington Post described Loughner's expression in the photo as "smirking and creepy, with hollow eyes ablaze," while the art director for The New York Times said the photo was featured on the front page because it "was the picture of the day [...] it was intense and arresting. It invited you to look and study, and wonder."
Charges and imprisonment
Loughner was charged in federal court with one count of attempted assassination of a member of Congress, two counts of murder of a federal employee (Giffords' aide and Judge Roll), and two counts of attempting to murder a federal employee, based on his injury of two of Giffords' aides. He was indicted on three of the charges on January 19, 2011. Loughner was held without bail in the Federal Correctional Institution at Phoenix, kept isolated from other inmates 23 hours a day and allowed out of his cell for one hour a day to shower and exercise. On February 24, 2011, he was transferred to the United States Penitentiary in Tucson.
Attorney Judy Clarke, a former federal public defender who in the past had represented suspects in several high-profile murder and terrorism cases, was appointed to represent Loughner in federal court. The entire federal judiciary of Arizona recused themselves from hearing the case because of their ties to fellow judge John Roll, who was killed. Federal prosecutors opposed motions to move the case outside of Arizona because of pre-trial publicity. At the direction of Ninth Circuit Appeals court Chief Judge Kozinski, the federal case was assigned to Larry Alan Burns, a San Diego-based judge from the Southern District of California.
Prosecutors representing the State of Arizona, which has concurrent jurisdiction in the matter, announced they intended to file murder and attempted murder charges on behalf of the other victims, those who were not members of Congress or federal employees (although they could legally file charges on behalf of all the victims). Arizona state prosecutors normally have ten days from the time a suspect is brought into custody to file charges, but time spent in federal custody does not count towards this limitation. Arizona law does not permit a verdict of "not guilty by reason of insanity", but does allow for a verdict of "guilty but insane."
Initial pleading and additional charges
On January 24, 2011, Loughner appeared at the Sandra Day O'Connor U.S. Courthouse in Phoenix, before Judge Larry Alan Burns from San Diego. Loughner, whose hair had partially regrown since his arrest, smiled while presented with the charges related to the shooting, including the attempted killing of Giffords and two of her aides. Loughner's attorney, Judy Clarke, requested that Judge Burns select a plea on her client's behalf, to which a plea of not guilty was recorded. When Burns asked Clarke if Loughner understood the charges against him, she replied that they were "not raising that issue" at the time. She did not object to a request by prosecutors to have future hearings moved back to Tucson. On March 3, 2011, a federal grand jury indicted Loughner on additional charges of murder and attempted murder for a total of 49 counts. On March 9, 2011, Loughner pleaded not guilty to all 49 charges.
Relationship with lawyers
On May 25, 2011, Judge Burns stated, "I got some letters declaring some conflict with his counsel...I intend to table them at this time. At such a point that his competency is restored, if he wants to bring up the matter of counsel, he can renew it then." The judge suppressed the letters from the court record.
On May 25, 2011, Judge Burns ruled Loughner was then incompetent to stand trial, based on two medical evaluations. Court proceedings were suspended while Loughner, who had been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, received psychiatric treatment at the psychiatric wing of the U.S. Medical Center for Federal Prisoners in Springfield, Missouri. He was scheduled to appear in court on September 21, 2011, but that hearing was delayed until September 28, 2011, when the judge reviewed whether he could understand the charges against him and could assist in his own defense. (Loughner's lawyers unsuccessfully objected to him appearing at the hearing.)
Loughner disrupted the court hearing with an outburst, and was carried from the court room. According to The New York Times, Loughner believed he succeeded in killing Giffords, and clashed with his lawyer when she informed him that the congresswoman had survived. He was judged still incompetent to stand trial following medical evaluations and a hearing in May 2011.
Forced medication rulings
But, on July 12, 2011, a three-judge federal appeals panel from the Ninth Circuit ruled that Loughner could refuse anti-psychotic medication, since he "has not been convicted of a crime, is presumptively innocent and is therefore entitled to greater constitutional protections than a convicted inmate." However, the ruling stated that it "does not preclude prison authorities from taking other measures to maintain the safety of prison personnel, other inmates and Loughner himself, including forced administration of tranquilizers".
A week after the ruling, prison medical authorities resumed forcible treatment of Loughner with the antipsychotic risperidone, this time citing Washington v. Harper and stating the purpose of treatment was the need to control the danger he posed to himself and others in prison, rather than rendering him fit for trial. Loughner's defense team submitted an emergency motion to the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, claiming that this treatment was in violation of their ruling and seeking an immediate injunction to halt treatment. The request for an injunction was denied by the court, allowing treatment to continue pending a full hearing into the matter. Arguments began on August 30 as to the lawfulness of this treatment. In March 2012, a federal appeals court denied a request by Loughner's lawyers to halt his forced medication.
On May 24, 2012 a federal judge ordered a competency hearing for June 27 (later postponed until August 7) to determine Loughner's mental fitness to stand trial. He remained at a federal prison hospital in Missouri pending the entry of his plea. A request by Loughner's lawyers to rehear arguments on forced medication was denied on June 5, 2012.
Guilty plea and sentencing
This section of a biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. (August 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
On August 7, 2012, Judge Burns found Loughner competent to stand trial based on medical evaluations. Loughner pleaded guilty to 19 counts at the hearing, which spared him the death penalty. The hearing began with Loughner listening calmly to testimony from Christina Pietz, Loughner's forensic psychologist, who testified that he had displayed depressive symptoms in 2006 and was formally diagnosed with schizophrenia in 2011. Pietz said that she believed that, after having been forcibly medicated for more than a year, Loughner had expressed remorse and was a changed individual. She said that he was competent to stand trial and agree to a plea. Sentencing was set for November 15, 2012 at 10 a.m. local time. The sentence could not include the death penalty, because the guilty plea bargain was made with an assurance that it would not be sought; Loughner under the law faced a mandatory sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. Former U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords and her husband, retired NASA astronaut Mark Kelly, U.S. Representative Ron Barber, a former aide to Mrs. Giffords who was shot in the attack, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, and the U.S. Attorney for Arizona, John S. Leonardo, had all approved the plea. It was offered and accepted after consultation with them and with the families of the other victims.
By pleading guilty in the deal, Loughner automatically waived his right to any further appeals and cannot later alter his plea to an insanity plea. Loughner must pay a restitution of $19 million, $1 million for each of the victims. He forfeited the weapons he used in the incident, and any money earned from efforts to sell his story. Loughner calmly answered that he understood each charge, and signed his initials after each page of the agreement and shakily signed his name to it, dated August 6.
On November 8, 2012, Loughner appeared in front of U.S. District Court Judge Larry Alan Burns in a court in Tucson. He was sentenced to serve seven consecutive life terms plus 140 years in prison without parole. Even though he was convicted and sentenced in federal court, there was still a possibility that Loughner could be tried for murder and other crimes in Arizona court. Pima County Attorney Barbara LaWall declared later that afternoon that she would not prosecute Jared Loughner on behalf of the State of Arizona. LaWall explained that her decision would afford the victims and their families, as well as the community in Tucson and Pima County, an opportunity to move forward with their lives. She said that, after speaking and consulting personally with each of the surviving victims and with the family members of those killed, it was clear that they would not be benefitted by a State prosecution. Surviving victims and family members told LaWall that they are "completely satisfied with the federal prosecution", that "justice has been served", and that the federal sentence is "suitably severe".
- Jacob, Jijo (January 10, 2011). "Who is Jared Lee Loughner?". International Business Times. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
- "Arizona Congresswoman Giffords shot; doctors 'optimistic' about recovery chances". The Arizona Republic. January 8, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Lacey, Marc; Herszenhorn, David M. (January 9, 2011). "In Attack's Wake, Political Repercussions". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- CNN Wire Staff (January 8, 2011). "Police 'actively pursuing' second person in Tucson shooting". CNN. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
- "Criminal Complaint Against Jared Lee Loughner". The New York Times.
- Taylor Jr., Tony M. (January 9, 2011). "Criminal Complaint: United States of America vs. Jared Lee Loughner (Case #11-0035M)". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Quinones, Sam (January 10, 2011). "Jared Lee Loughner's parents alone with their anguish, neighbor says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Berger, Judson (January 10, 2011). "Loughner's Meltdown Began in Adulthood, Those Near Him Say". Fox News. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Cizmar, Martin (January 10, 2011). "Jared Lougher's Mother, Amy, a Pima County Employee, Reportedly Not at Work Today". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Berger, Judson (January 10, 2011). "Mental Health Warnings Preceded Rampage, as Arizona Gunman Likely Went Untreated". Fox News. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Strauss, Gary; Eisler, Peter; Gillum, Jack; Welch, William M. (January 10, 2011). "Friends, co-workers: Loughner had curious, dark change". tucsoncitizen.com. USA Today. Retrieved January 16, 2011.[dead link]
- Gary Strauss; Peter Eisler; Jack Gillum; William M. Welch (January 10, 2011). "Friends, co-workers: Shooting suspect had curious, dark change". USATODAY.com. USA Today. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- "Jared Loughner Radically Changed Before Alleged Shooting, Friend Says – ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. January 9, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- Swaine, Jon (January 8, 2011). "Gabrielle Giffords shooting: strange internet trail of 'loner' Jared Lee Loughner, the alleged Tucson gunman". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
- CBS /AP staff reporters (January 10, 2011). "Who is Jared Loughner? Friends Reveal Alienation". CBS News. Associated Press. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Vasilogambros, Matt (2011-01-10). "What We Know About Jared Lee Loughner". The Wire. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
- Banfield, Ashleigh; Jessica Hopper; Josey Crews; Emily Friedman (January 12, 2011). "Tucson Shooting: Jared Loughner Stopped By Authorities Hours Before Shooting". ABC News. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Thompson, Mark (January 11, 2011). "How Jared Loughner Changed: The View from His Schools". Time. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
- Baumann, Nick (January 10, 2011). "Exclusive: Loughner Friend Explains Alleged Gunman's Grudge Against Giffords". Mother Jones. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- "Profile of Jared Loughner: 'I can't trust the current government'". MSNBC. January 8, 2011. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
- U.S. Army Statement on status of suspect, U.S. Army Information Service, January 8, 2011
- Steller, Tim (January 8, 2011). "Man linked to Giffords shooting called 'very disturbed'". Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
- Glynnis MacNicol (January 8, 2011). "Alleged Shooter Jared Loughner May Have Met Rep. Giffords Previously – Business Insider". Articles.businessinsider.com. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- "Sheriff Releases Loughner's Arrest Records". CBS News. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- "Who is Jared Lee Loughner? Caitie Parker's tweets". There Live. January 9, 2011. Archived from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- Martinez, Michael; Carter, Chelsea (March 27, 2013). "New details: Loughner's parents took gun, disabled car to keep him home". CNN. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- Wright, David (January 12, 2011). "Did Alleged Arizona Shooter Jared Loughner Think He Was Dreaming During Attack?". ABC News. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- Anglen, Robert (January 9, 2011). "Jared Lee Loughner, suspect in Gabrielle Giffords shooting, had college run-ins". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Lin II, Rong-Gong; Reston, Maeve; Rojas, Rick (January 15, 2011). "School releases YouTube post from Loughner". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- Daily Mail reporter (January 10, 2011). "'We have a mentally unstable person in the class that scares the living c**p out of me': Emails reveal student's fears of Jared Loughner months before shootings". Daily Mail. United Kingdom: Associated Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Swaine, Jon (January 9, 2011). "Jared Lee Loughner: 'mentally unstable dropout' who had met Gabrielle Giffords before". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Quinones, Sam; Hennessy-Fiske, Molly; Powers, Ashley (January 11, 2011). "A troubled mind in Tucson". Los Angeles Times.
- "Jared Loughner: A Puzzle, Even Before Arizona Shooting". NPR. January 12, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- "Jared Lee Loughner: Suspected Tucson shooter 'slowly spiraled into madness' – Page 3". baltimoresun.com. January 17, 2011. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- Abcarian, Robin; Reston, Maeve; Hennessy-Fiske, Molly. "Suspected Tucson Shooter 'Slowly Spiraled Into Madness'". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 2012-07-21.
- Costa, Robert (January 12, 2011). "Sebelius: Some Take Rhetoric as 'Call to Action'". National Review. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Cillizza, Chris. "Jared Lee Loughner was a registered independent, didn't vote in 2010 election". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- CNN Political Unit (January 10, 2011). "Accused gunman had no party affiliation". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Lipton, Eric; Savage, Charlie; Shane, Scott (January 8, 2011). "Arizona Suspect's Recent Acts Offer Hints of Alienation". The New York Times.
- "Loughner's Meltdown Began In Adulthood, Those Near Him Say". Fox News. January 10, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- "Jared Lee Loughner: erratic, disturbed and prone to rightwing rants". The Guardian. January 9, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- Johnson, Kirk; Kovaleski, Serge F.; Frosch, Dan; Lipton, Eric (2011-01-09). "Suspect's Odd Behavior Caused Growing Alarm". New York Times.
- Walker, Jesse (20 January 2011). "Unpacking Jared Lee Loughner". Reason.com.
- Scocca, Tom (January 17, 2011). "Maybe Jared Loughner Was a Bigot, After All". Slate.
- Barry, Dan (January 15, 2011). "Looking Behind the Mug-Shot Grin". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 21, 2011.
- CNN Wire Staff (January 13, 2011). "Loughner's dad feared he was 'out of control,' neighbor says". CNN. Retrieved January 13, 2011.
- Herreras, Mari (October 14, 2011). "Occupy Tucson Starts Saturday, 9 a.m., Armory Park | The Range: The Tucson Weekly's Daily Dispatch". Tucsonweekly.com. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Bosch, Torie (January 10, 2011). "Jared Lee Loughner's Worldview a Conspiracy Theory Laundry List (VIDEO)". AOL News. Archived from the original on January 11, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Fahrenthold, David A. (January 11, 2011). "Jared Lee Loughner apparently sought community online at Abovetopsecret.com". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- CNN wire staff (January 9, 2011). "Arizona massacre suspect: 'Kind of a troubled past'". CNN. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Johnson, Kirk; Serge F. Kovaleski; Dan Frosch; Eric Lipton (January 9, 2011). "Jared L. Loughner's Odd Behavior Caused Alarm". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Mozgovaya, Natasha (January 12, 2011). "ADL analysis claims suspected Arizona shooter not anti-Semitic – Israel News | Haaretz Daily Newspaper". Haaretz.com. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- Hendley, Matthew (2013-03-28). "FBI Agent Said Jared Loughner Made Graffiti Used by "Christian Anti-Abortion Groups"". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
- "Who is Jared Loughner? Friends Reveal Alienation". CBS News. 2011-01-10. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
- "Jared Lee Loughner grew delusional in months before Tucson rampage, police reports show". CBS News. 2013-03-27. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
- The Mindset of Jared Lee Loughner: Loughner and Religion, Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- Gibson, Dan (January 8, 2011). "The Crazed Internet Rantings of Jared Loughner". tucsonweekly.com. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
- Vo, Tammy (January 8, 2011). "9OYS Investigates: Who is Jared Loughner?". KGUN-TV. Archived from the original on January 10, 2011. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
- NBC, msnbc.com and news services. "Loughner's parents 'devastated,' 'hurting'". MSNBC. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Johnson, Kirk; Tanweer, Anissa (January 10, 2011). "Shooting Suspect Was Calm During Cab Ride to Supermarket, His Driver Reports". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Winter, Jana (January 9, 2011). "Suspected Arizona Gunman Reportedly Planned Shooting in Advance". Fox News Channel. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- msnbc.com news services. "Suspect charged in congresswoman's attack". MSNBC. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
- Bell, Melissa; Buck, James (January 14, 2011). "Updated: List of injured victims in Arizona shooting released by Pima County sheriff". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Grinberg, Emanuella (January 8, 2011). "Witness: Arizona gunman 'was ready for war'". CNN. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
- Smith, Dylan (January 10, 2011). "Photo of accused gunman Jared Loughner released". Tucson Sentinel. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Farhi, Paul (January 11, 2011). "Publications grapple with Jared Loughner mug shot". Washington Post. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- "Grand jury indicts Arizona shooting suspect". MSNBC. January 19, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- ABC15.com staff, wire reports (January 9, 2011). "Tucson shooting suspect held without bail". KNXV-TV. Archived from the original on January 10, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- Markon, Jerry (January 17, 2011). "Federal court authorities plan to move trial of Tucson shooting suspect". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 18, 2011.
- "Inmate Locator: Jared Lee Loughner". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved January 13, 2011.
- "Loughner now in federal prison in Tucson". Arizona Daily Star. February 25, 2011. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- Hoffer, Steven (January 10, 2011). "Judy Clarke, Who Defended the 'Unabomber,' Will Represent Jared Lee Loughner". AOL News. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Johnson, Kevin (January 12, 2011). "In Loughner case, Ariz. federal judiciary considers recusal". USA Today. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- O'Neill, Ann (January 12, 2011). "Lawyer keeps even the most loathed criminals off death row". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Reilly, Ryan J. (January 12, 2011). "Due To Arizona Conflicts, California Judge Takes Over Loughner Case". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- Sherman, Mark (January 11, 2011). "Insanity Defense Could Be Difficult for Ariz. Shooting Suspect". Law.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
- Bryan, Wright (January 24, 2011). "Loughner Pleads 'Not Guilty'". National Public Radio. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
- Riccardi, Nicholas (January 25, 2011). "Not guilty plea is entered for Jared Loughner in Tucson attacks". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
- Cratty, Carol (March 4, 2011). "Alleged Tucson gunman indicted on 49 charges in shooting". CNN. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- "Jared Loughner Pleads Not Guilty to 49 Charges, Including Murder". ABC News. March 9, 2011. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
- court transcript, 2011-May-25. p. 52.
- docket report.
- Lacey, Marc (May 25, 2011). "Suspect in Shooting of Giffords Ruled Unfit for Trial". The New York Times. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- "APNewsbreak: Loughner wants to be at hearing". Associated Press. September 21, 2011. Archived from the original on September 22, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011.
- Graham, Marty (June 29, 2011). Judge rules prison can forcibly medicate Loughner. Reuters
- Perry, Tony (June 30, 2011). Suspected Tucson gunman can be forced to take antipsychotic drugs, judge rules. Los Angeles Times
- USA v Jared Lee Loughner – Order July 12, 2011 – US Court of Appeals for the Ninth District Archived January 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Thompson, Scott (July 13, 2011). Court: Jared Loughner can refuse anti-psychotic medication. CNN
- Emshwiller, John R.; Audi, Tamara (July 12, 2011). Federal Court Sides With Loughner in Drug Debate, Wall Street Journal.
- "Court: Jared Loughner can refuse anti-psychotic medication". CNN. July 13, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- USA vs Loughner – Defence: Second Emergency Motion July 21, 2011 (p7) – US Courts for the Ninth District
- "Doctors: Ariz. shooting suspect still not competent for trial". msnbc.com. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
- USA v Loughner: Order denying emergency motion for injunctive relief. July 22, 2011 – US Courts for the Ninth District
- "USA v Loughner – oral arguments Aug 30, 2011". Retrieved September 13, 2014.
- Williams, Carol J. (August 31, 2011). "Judges consider Jared Lee Loughner's medication". Los Angeles Times.
- "Jared Lee Loughner Loses 3 Appeals Over Forced Medication". Huffington Post. March 5, 2012. Archived from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- Schwartz, David (June 12, 2012). "Accused Tucson shooter's competency hearing rescheduled". MSNBC. Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
- "Judge orders hearing on accused Tucson shooter's competency". Toronto Sun. May 24, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- "Jared Lee Loughner Rehearing Request Denied By Appeals Court". Huffington Post. June 6, 2012. Archived from the original on June 13, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- "Accused Tucson shooter mentally fit, pleads guilty". Retrieved 2017-12-31.
- Ball, James (2012-11-08). "Loughner faces victims in being sentenced to life in prison without parole". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-12-31.
- Stein, Sam (2014-07-29). "Gabrielle Giffords Opposed Death Penalty For Her Shooter". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2017-12-31.
- "Rule 11. Pleas | Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure". Retrieved October 2, 2017.
- "Jared Loughner is found competent to stand trial". Arizona Republic. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- "Jared Loughner pleads guilty to Tucson shootings, avoids death penalty – U.S. News". NBC News. August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- "Loughner sentenced to life in prison without parole". CNN. November 8, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- Ball, James (November 8, 2012). "Jared Lee Loughner sentenced to life in prison". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- Duke, Alan (November 9, 2012). "Loughner sentenced to life for Arizona shootings". CNN. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- Santos, Fernanda (November 8, 2012). "Gunman in Giffords Shooting Sentenced to 7 Life Terms". The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "Pima County Attorney won't prosecute Loughner - The Explorer: News". The Explorer. Archived from the original on July 6, 2015. Retrieved September 13, 2014. ()
- Simmons, Taj (September 29, 2015). "Rochester Federal Medical Center marks 30th anniversary". Frankly Media and KTTC. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- United States of America v. Jared Lee Loughner. U.S. District Court of Arizona. January 9, 2011.
- "FOR PUBLICATION UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT United States of America vs. Jared Lee Loughner." (Archive)
- "Pima Community College Statement on Today's Tragic Events." (Archive) Pima Community College. January 8, 2011.
- Jared Loughner documents collection, Arizona Daily Star
- Tucson Shooting Documents, Arizona Daily Star (March 27, 2013)