Jaromír, Duke of Bohemia

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Jaromír
Duke of Bohemia
Jaroměř-Jaromír.jpg
Bust of Jaromír in Jaroměř
Reign 1003
1004 - 1012
1033 - 1034
Noble family Přemyslid dynasty
Father Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia
Mother Emma of Mělník
Died 4 November 1035(1035-11-04)
Lysá nad Labem

Jaromír (died 4 November 1035), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia, in 1003, from 1004 to 1012, and again from 1034 to 1035.

Life[edit]

He was the second son of Duke Boleslaus II the Pious (d. 999). His mother may have been either one of his father's two wives: Adiva or Emma of Mělník.

In 1002, Jaromír rebelled against the rule of his elder brother Boleslaus III, who had him castrated[1] and expelled with his mother and his brother Oldřich to the Bavarian court at Regensburg. Nevertheless, Boleslaus was unable to secure the Prague throne, as he was deposed by the Bohemian nobility and the rule was subsequently taken by his Přemyslid cousin Vladivoj, backed by the Polish duke Bolesław I the Brave. Vladivoj also secured the support of the German king Henry II, when he received the Duchy of Bohemia as a royal fief.

When Vladivoj died the next year, Jaromír and Oldřich returned to Bohemia and Jaromír was proclaimed duke by the Bohemian nobles. In turn the lands were occupied by the Polish forces of Bolesław who reinstated Boleslaus III as duke. After he ordered a massacre of the rivalling Vršovci clan, however, he lost the support from the Polish ruler and was finally deprived of power. Meanwhile, Jaromír had sought military backing from King Henry II. At Merseburg, he promised to hold Bohemia as a vassal of the king. This action definitively placed Bohemia within the jurisdiction of the Holy Roman Empire.

In 1004, Jaromír occupied Prague with a German army and proclaimed himself Bohemian duke. Nevertheless, the state he regained was a small one, as Polish forces still held Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia. Jaromír's reign—like so many of the other early Czech rulers—was a struggle to regain lost lands. He remained a loyal supporter of King Henry in the smouldering German–Polish War. Nonetheless, the German king took no action, when in 1012 Jaromír was dethroned by Oldřich (who had him blinded[1]) and forced once again into exile. In a surprise campaign, Jaromír once again managed to depose Oldřich with the support of Emperor Conrad II in 1033, but his second reign was short-lived. A year later, Oldřich was restored by his son Bretislaus I.

Jaromír was imprisoned at Lysá nad Labem and died in 1035, a year after the death of his brother. He was assassinated by one of the Vršovci clan.

Ancestry[edit]

Jaromír, Duke of Bohemia
Died: 4 November 1035
Preceded by
Boleslaus III
Duke of Bohemia
1003
Succeeded by
Boleslaus III
Preceded by
Boleslaus IV
Duke of Bohemia
1004–1012
Succeeded by
Oldřich
Preceded by
Oldřich
Duke of Bohemia
1033–1034
Succeeded by
Oldřich

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Czech radio