Wojciech Jaruzelski

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Wojciech Jaruzelski
Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski 13 grudnia 1981.JPG
Jaruzelski in 1981
1st President of Poland
In office
19 July 1989 – 22 December 1990
Prime MinisterMieczysław Rakowski
Czesław Kiszczak
Tadeusz Mazowiecki
Preceded byOffice restored
Himself (As Chairman of the Council of State)
Bolesław Bierut (As President before office was abolished)
Succeeded byLech Wałęsa
6th First Secretary of the
Polish United Workers' Party
In office
18 October 1981 – 29 July 1989
Preceded byStanisław Kania
Succeeded byMieczysław Rakowski
6th Chairman of the Council of State
In office
6 November 1985 – 19 July 1989
Prime MinisterZbigniew Messner
Mieczysław Rakowski
Preceded byHenryk Jabłoński
Succeeded byOffice abolished
Himself (As President)
8th Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Poland
In office
11 February 1981 – 6 November 1985
Chairman of the Council of StateHenryk Jabłoński
Preceded byJózef Pińkowski
Succeeded byZbigniew Messner
Minister of National Defence of the
People's Republic of Poland
In office
11 April 1968 – 22 November 1983
Prime MinisterJózef Cyrankiewicz
Piotr Jaroszewicz
Edward Babiuch
Józef Pińkowski
Himself
Preceded byMarian Spychalski
Succeeded byFlorian Siwicki
Personal details
Born
Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski

(1923-07-06)6 July 1923
Kurów, Poland
Died25 May 2014(2014-05-25) (aged 90)
Warsaw, Poland
Resting placePowązki Military Cemetery, Warsaw
Political partyPolish Workers' Party (1944–1948)
Polish United Workers' Party (1948–1990)
Independent (1990–2014)
Spouse(s)
ChildrenMonika Jaruzelska
ProfessionMilitary
AwardsVirtuti Militari, Order of Polonia Restituta, Cross of Valor
Signature
WebsiteOfficial website
Military service
Allegiance Soviet Union
Polish People's Republic
Branch/service Polish People's Army
Years of service1943–1989
RankGeneral of the Army
Battles/warsWorld War II
Battle of Berlin

Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (Polish: [ˈvɔjt͡ɕɛx ˈvitɔlt jaruˈzɛlskʲi] (About this soundlisten); 6 July 1923 – 25 May 2014) was a Polish military officer and politician. He was First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party from 1981 to 1989, and as such was the last leader of the People's Republic of Poland. He also served as Prime Minister from 1981 to 1985 and the country's head of state from 1985 to 1990 (titled as Chairman of the Council of State from 1985 to 1989 and as President from 1989 to 1990). He was also the last commander-in-chief of the Polish People's Army (LWP). He resigned after the Polish Round Table Agreement in 1989, which led to multi-party elections in Poland.

Early life[edit]

Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski was born on 6 July 1923 in Kurów,[1] into a family of Polish gentry.[1][2] He was the son of Wanda (née Zaremba) and Władysław Mieczysław Jaruzelski, a Czech-educated agronomist and volunteered soldier who fought in the war against Soviet Russia in 1920[3][4] and was raised on the family estate near Wysokie (in the vicinity of Białystok). From 1933 until September 1939, he was educated in a Catholic school in Warsaw where he received strict religious education.[3][1]

Jaruzelski (right, in uniform) with Fidel Castro (left) in Poland, May 1972

World War II commenced on 1 September 1939 with the invasion of Poland by Germany, aided by the Soviet invasion of Poland sixteen days later. These resulted in the complete defeat of Poland by October, and a partition between Soviet and German zones of control. Jaruzelski and his family fled to Lithuania to stay with some friends. However, a few months later, after Lithuania and the other Baltic states were forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union, Jaruzelski and his family were captured by the Red Army and deported to Siberia.[1][5] In June 1941, they were deprived of all their valuable possessions and deported. In the railway station, Jaruzelski was separated from his father, who was sent directly to a labour camp. Jaruzelski and his mother were sent on a month-long journey to Biysk, Altai Krai. After that, Jaruzelski walked for 180 kilometres to Turochak where he was responsible for forest cleaning.[3][6] During his labour work, he was stricken with snow blindness, suffering permanent damage to his eyes as well as to his back.[2] His eye condition forced him to wear dark sunglasses most of the time for the rest of his life, which became his trademark.[5] Jaruzelski's father died on 4 June 1942 from dysentery; his mother and sister survived the war (his mother died in 1966).[citation needed]

Military career[edit]

Jaruzelski was selected by the Soviet authorities for enrolment into the Soviet Officer Training School.[1] During his time in the Kazakh Republic, Jaruzelski wanted to join the non-Soviet controlled Polish exile army led by Władysław Anders,[6] but in 1943,[7] by which time the Soviet Union was fighting in Europe against Germany in the Eastern Front, he joined the Polish army units being formed under Soviet command.[2] He served in this Soviet-controlled First Polish Army during the war.[1] He participated in the 1945 Soviet military takeover of Warsaw and the Battle of Berlin.[1] By the time the war ended that year, he had gained the rank of lieutenant.[2] He "further credited himself in Soviet eyes"[1] by engaging in combat against the non-Communist Polish Home Army, from 1945 to 1947.[1]

After the end of the war, Jaruzelski graduated from the Polish Higher Infantry School and then from the General Staff Academy.[7] He joined Poland's Communist party, the Polish United Workers' Party, in 1948[7] and became an informant for the Soviet supervised Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army using the cover name Wolski.[8] In the initial post-war years, he was among those who fought the Polish anti-Communists ("cursed soldiers") in the Świętokrzyskie region. A BBC News profile of Jaruzelski states that his career "took off after the departure [from Poland] in 1956 of the Soviet Marshal, Konstantin Rokossovsky",[2] who had been Poland's Commander in Chief and Minister of Defence.[2] Jaruzelski became the chief political officer of the Polish armed forces in 1960, its chief of staff in 1964; and Polish Minister of Defense in 1968,[2] four years after he was elected to be a member of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party.[7][9] Even the minister of defence, Marshal Marian Spychalski was persecuted.[10] Jaruzelski obtained his post.

Jaruzelski in 1968

In August 1968, Jaruzelski, as the defence minister, ordered the 2nd Army under General Florian Siwicki (of the "LWP") to invade Czechoslovakia, resulting in military occupation of northern Czechoslovakia until 11 November 1968 when under his orders and agreements with the Soviet Union his Polish troops were withdrawn and replaced by the Soviet Army. In 1970, he was involved in the successful plot against Władysław Gomułka, which led to the appointment of Edward Gierek as General Secretary of the Polish United Workers Party. There is some question whether he took part in organising the brutal suppression of striking workers; or whether his orders to the Communist military led to massacres in the coastal cities of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Elbląg and Szczecin. As Minister of Defense general Jaruzelski was ultimately responsible for 27,000 troops used against unarmed civilians.[11] He claims that he was circumvented, which is why he never apologised for his involvement, but he could have resigned, especially after the resignation of foreign minister Adam Rapacki, but did not.[11] Jaruzelski became a candidate member for the Politburo of the Polish United Workers' Party, the chief executive body of the party, obtaining full membership the following year.[1]

Leader of the Polish military government[edit]

Jaruzelski in 1987

On 11 February 1981, Jaruzelski was named Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister). On 18 October, Stanisław Kania was ousted as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party after a listening device recorded him criticising the Soviet leadership. Jaruzelski was elected his successor, becoming the only professional soldier to become leader of a ruling European Communist party.[5][7]

Jaruzelski in a television studio, preparing to announce the imposition of martial law, 1981

A fortnight after taking power, Jaruzelski met with Solidarity head Lech Wałęsa and Catholic bishop Józef Glemp, and hinted that he wanted to bring the church and the union into a sort of coalition government. However, his intention was to crush Solidarity.[12] As early as September, while he was still merely prime minister, he met with his aides to find an excuse to impose martial law.[12] On 13 December, citing purported recordings of Solidarity leaders planning a coup, Jaruzelski organised his own coup by proclaiming martial law.[5] A Military Council of National Salvation was formed, with Jaruzelski as chairman. A BBC News profile of Jaruzelski contends that the establishment of martial law was "an attempt to suppress the Solidarity movement."[2]

According to Jaruzelski, martial law was necessary to avoid a Soviet invasion.[13] In a May 1992 interview with Der Spiegel, Jaruzelski said: "Given the strategic logic of the time, I probably would have acted the same way if I had been a Soviet general. At that time, Soviet political and strategic interests were threatened."[14] However, at a press conference in September 1997 Viktor Kulikov, former supreme commander of Warsaw Pact forces, denied that the Soviet Union had either threatened or intended to intervene.[15] According to Politburo minutes from 10 December 1981, Yuri Andropov stated "We do not intend to introduce troops into Poland. That is the proper position, and we must adhere to it until the end. I don't know how things will turn out in Poland, but even if Poland falls under the control of Solidarity, that's the way it will be."[16]

Jaruzelski also claimed in 1997 that Washington had given him a "green light", stating that he had sent Eugeniusz Molczyk to confer with Vice-President George H. W. Bush, who had agreed with Molczyk that martial law was the lesser of two evils.[17] Whether this meeting with the American vice-president occurred is disputed. While it is erroneously cited,[clarification needed] Harvard historian Mark Kramer has pointed out that no documents support Jaruzelski's claim.[18]

Jaruzelski was chiefly responsible for the imposition of martial law in Poland on 13 December 1981 in an attempt to crush the pro-democracy movements, which included Solidarity, the first non-Communist trade union in Warsaw Pact history and to prevent growing anarchy (robberies, rapes, muggings) especially in big cities at times when communist militia was often attacked by the citizens. Subsequent years saw his government and its internal security forces censor, persecute, and jail thousands of journalists and opposition activists without charge; few lost their lives in the first days of introduction of martial law. The socio-economic crisis deepened even more than in the late 1970s and rationing of basic foods such as sugar, milk, and meat, as well as materials such as gasoline and consumer products continued while the median income of the population fell by as much as 10 percent. During Jaruzelski's rule from 1981 to 1989, around 300,000 people left the country.[18]

Historical evidence released under Russian President Boris Yeltsin indicates that the Soviet Union did not plan to invade Poland. In fact, Jaruzelski actually tried to persuade the Soviets to invade in order to support martial law, only to be sternly turned down. This left the Solidarity "problem" to be sorted out by the Polish government (see also Soviet reaction to the Polish crisis of 1980–1981). However, the exact plans of the Soviet Union at that time have never been determined. Jaruzelski, however, justified cracking down by alleging that the threat of Soviet intervention was quite likely had he not dealt with Solidarity internally. This question, as well as many other facts about Poland in the years 1945–1989, are presently under the investigation of government historians at the Instytut Pamięci Narodowej (IPN), whose publications reveal facts from the Communist-era archives. Additionally, there are numerous confirmations from Czech army officers of the time speaking of Operation Krkonoše, plan of armed invasion of Poland, because of which many units of the Czechoslovak People's Army were stationed on highest alert, ready for deployment within hours.[19]

In 1982, Jaruzelski helped reorganise the Front of National Unity, the organisation the Communists used to manage their satellite parties, as the Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth.[18]

In 1985, Jaruzelski resigned as prime minister and defence minister and became the Chairman of the Polish Council of State — a post equivalent to that of head of state of Poland. However, his power centered on and firmly entrenched in his coterie of "LWP" generals and lower ranks officers of the Polish Communist Army.[18]

Presidency[edit]

Jaruzelski with Nicolae Ceaușescu

The policies of Mikhail Gorbachev stimulated political reform in Poland. By the close of its tenth plenary meeting in December 1988, the Polish United Workers Party was forced by spreading labour unrest to approach leaders of Solidarity for talks.[citation needed]

From 6 February to 15 April 1989, negotiations were held between 13 working groups during 94 sessions of the roundtable talks. These negotiations "radically altered the shape "of the Polish government and society", and resulted in an agreement which stated that a great degree of political power would be given to a newly created bicameral legislature. It also restored a post of president to act as head of state and chief executive. Solidarity was also declared a legal organisation. During the ensuing partially-free elections, the Communists and their allies were allocated 65 percent of the seats in the Sejm. Solidarity won all the remaining elected seats, and 99 out of the 100 seats in the fully elected Senate were also won by Solidarity-backed candidates.[1] Amid such a crushing defeat, there were fears Jaruzelski would annul the results. However, he allowed them to stand.[20] Jaruzelski was elected by parliament to the position of president. He was the only candidate.

Jaruzelski was unsuccessful in convincing Lech Wałęsa to include Solidarity in a "grand coalition"[1] with the Communists. He resigned as first secretary of the PZPR on 29 July 1989.[1][21] Mieczysław Rakowski succeeded him as party leader.[21]

The Communists initially intended to give Solidarity a few token cabinet posts for the sake of appearances. However, Wałęsa persuaded the Communists' two allied parties, the United People's Party (ZSL) and the Alliance of Democrats (SD), to break their alliance with the PZPR.[22] Accepting that he would have to appoint a Solidarity member as prime minister, Jaruzelski then asked Wałęsa to select three candidates, one of whom he would ask to form a government. Ultimately, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, who had helped organise the roundtable talks, was selected as first non-Communist prime minister of an Eastern Bloc country in four decades.[23] Jaruzelski resigned as president in 1990.[1] He was succeeded by Wałęsa, who had won the presidential election on 9 December.[24]

On 31 January 1991, Jaruzelski retired from the army.[25]

After retirement[edit]

Jaruzelski in 2006

In October 1994, while attending a book-selling activity in Wroclaw, Jaruzelski was attacked by a male pensioner with a stone and had his jaw injured, after which he was sent to a hospital to receive surgery. The man had been arrested in prison during the martial law period. Later, the man was sentenced two years and fined 200 zloty.[26]

In an interview in 2001, Jaruzelski said that he believed Communism failed, and that he was now a social democrat. He also announced his support for then-President Aleksander Kwaśniewski, as well as future Prime Minister Leszek Miller. Both Kwaśniewski and Miller were members of the Democratic Left Alliance, the social democratic party that includes most of the remains of the PUWP.[6]

In May 2005, Russian President Vladimir Putin awarded a medal commemorating the 60th anniversary of victory over Nazi Germany to Jaruzelski and other former leaders, such as former Romanian King Michael I.[27] Czech President Václav Klaus criticised this step, claiming that Jaruzelski was a symbol of the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Jaruzelski said that he had apologised and that the decision on the August 1968 invasion had been a great "political and moral mistake".[28]

On 28 March 2006, Jaruzelski was awarded a Siberian Exiles Cross by Polish President Lech Kaczyński. However, after making this fact public Kaczyński claimed that this was a mistake and blamed the bureaucracy for giving him a document containing 1293 names without notifying him of Jaruzelski's presence within it. After this statement, Jaruzelski returned the cross.[29][30]

On 31 March 2006, the IPN charged Jaruzelski with committing Communist crimes, mainly the creation of a criminal military organisation with the aim of carrying out criminal acts — mostly concerned with the illegal imprisonment of people. A second charge involved inciting state ministers to commit acts beyond their competence.[30] Jaruzelski evaded most court appearances citing poor health. In December 2010, Jaruzelski suffered from severe pneumonia,[31] and in March 2011, he was diagnosed with lymphoma.[32]

Death[edit]

Jaruzelski's grave at Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw

Jaruzelski died on 25 May 2014, in a Warsaw hospital after suffering a stroke earlier that month.[33][34] Prior to his death, he reportedly requested last rites by a Catholic priest.[35][36] President Bronisław Komorowski and former Presidents Lech Wałęsa and Aleksander Kwaśniewski as well as hundreds of other Poles attended his funeral mass at the Field Cathedral of the Polish Army in Warsaw on 30 May. Wałęsa and Komorowski, who were among the thousands imprisoned during the crackdown on Solidarity in 1981, both stated that judgment against Jaruzelski "would be left to God".[36][37] Jaruzelski was then cremated and buried with full military honours at Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw, near the grave of Bolesław Bierut, the first Communist leader of Poland after World War II.[38] The decision to bury Jaruzelski at Powązki, the resting place of Polish soldiers killed defending their country since the early 19th century, resulted in protests.[35]

Personal life[edit]

Jaruzelski married Barbara Halina Jaruzelska (1931–29 May 2017)[39] in 1961.[40] They had a daughter, Monika who was born on 11 August 1963. Monika has a son, Gustav.[citation needed]

In 2014, his wife Barbara threatened to file for divorce, saying she had caught his nurse Dorota in a compromising position with him.[41][42][43]

Legacy[edit]

The BBC reported in 2001 that "for some Poles — particularly the Solidarity generation — he is little short of a traitor",[2] even comparing his philosophy of "a strong Poland within a Soviet dominated bloc" to Vidkun Quisling's philosophy of a similar status for Norway within the Nazi controlled hemisphere.[citation needed] Meanwhile, opinion polls as of 15 May 2001 suggested that a majority of the Polish people were open to agreeing with his explanation that martial law was implemented to forestall a Soviet invasion.[2] Available documents indicate that Jaruzelski actually lobbied for Soviet intervention.[11] In interviews in Russian media (Rossiyskaya Gazeta for example) he has been presented as the harbinger of Poland's democracy.[citation needed]

Croatian writer Slavenka Drakulić described Jaruzelski as a "tragic believer in Communism who made a pact with the devil in good faith".[44]

Written works[edit]

Różnić się mądrze (English translation: To Differ Wisely) (1999).[7]

"Być może to ostatnie słowo (wyjaśnienia złożone przed Sądem)" (English translation:"It may be the last word (explanations given in the Court)") (2008).

Honours and awards[edit]

Polish
Foreign

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Profile: Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski". Cable Network News (CNN). Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Repa, Jan (16 May 2001). "Profile: Poland's last Communist leader". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) News. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  3. ^ a b c Liu, Yanshun (1 July 2016). Jaruzelski, the Shaker of Polish History (in Chinese) (1 ed.). Beijing, China: Shijiezhishi. pp. 14–15. ISBN 9787501252299.
  4. ^ Jaruzelski, prime minister of Poland: selected speeches – Wojciech Jaruzelski, Robert Maxwell. 3 November 2006. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d Sebetsyen, Victor (2009). Revolution 1989: The Fall of the Soviet Empire. New York City: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-375-42532-2.
  6. ^ a b c Green, Peter S. (27 May 2001). "An Aging Ex-Dictator Who Refuses To Recant". The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
  8. ^ "The Jaruzelski Case: The Ascent of Agent 'Wolski'". www.worldpoliticsreview.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  9. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1332541.stm
  10. ^ The Struggle in the Polish Leadership and the Revolt of the Apparat Archived 27 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ a b c Szporer, Michael. "General Wojciech Jaruzelski". Global Museum on Communism. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011.
  12. ^ a b Poland marks Communist crackdown, BBC News, 13 December 2006
  13. ^ Suraska, Wisła (1 April 1998). "How the Soviet Union Disappeared: An Essay on the Causes of Dissolution". Duke University Press. Retrieved 1 April 2018 – via Google Books.
  14. ^ Das war psychische Folter Der Spiegel, 11 May 1992.
  15. ^ Malcolm Byrne, "New Evidence on the Polish Crisis 1980–1981", Cold War International History Project Bulletin 11 (Winter 1998), p. 4
  16. ^ Minutes of CPSU CC Politburo, 10 December 1981, Document No. 21, p. 165.
  17. ^ Jane Perlez, "Warsaw Journal: Old Cold War Enemies Exhume One Battlefield", The New York Times, 11 November 1997, p. 14.
  18. ^ a b c d CIA’s Historical Review (24 October 1997). "Cold War era analysis" (PDF). Soviet – East European Military Relations in Historical Perspective Sources and Reassessments. The Historical Collections Division (HCD) of the Office of Information Management Services. 1 (1): 18 of 44. Archived from the original (PDF file, direct download 12.2 MB) on 24 November 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  19. ^ "Petr Klan » Když disident ujede". Aktuálně.cz - Víte, co se právě děje. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  20. ^ Sarotte, Mary Elise. The Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall. New York City: Basic Books. p. 23. ISBN 9780465064946.
  21. ^ a b Butturini, Paula (30 July 1989). "Solidarity Foe Is New Polish Party Chief". Chicago Tribune. Warsaw. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  22. ^ Piotr Wróbel, Rebuilding Democracy in Poland, 1989-2004, in M. B. B. Biskupski; James S. Pula; Piotr J. Wrobel (25 May 2010). The Origins of Modern Polish Democracy. Ohio University Press. pp. 273–275. ISBN 978-0-8214-1892-5. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
  23. ^ Martin, Douglas (28 October 2013). "Tadeusz Mazowiecki, Ex-Premier of Poland, Dies at 86".
  24. ^ "A Biographical Note". Lech Wałęsa Institute. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009.
  25. ^ "Stanisław Ciosek: Gen. Jaruzelski to wielki Polak. Powinniśmy być mu wdzięczni". Wiadomosci.onet.pl. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  26. ^ Liu, Yanshun (1 July 2016). Jaruzelski, the Shaker of Polish History (in Chinese) (1 ed.). Beijing, China: Shijiezhishi. p. 354. ISBN 9787501252299.
  27. ^ "Putin gives medal to Poland's communist-era strongman - AFP - Find Articles at BNET.com". archive.org. 1 May 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  28. ^ "Former Polish President Apologizes for 1968 Soviet-Led Invasion of Cz…". mosnews.com. 17 January 2004. Archived from the original on 17 January 2004. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  29. ^ "Wyborcza.pl". wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  30. ^ a b "Gwardianie generała". Wiadomosci.onet.pl. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  31. ^ "Wojciech Jaruzelski 'admitted to hospital with pneumonia'". Telegraph. 29 December 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  32. ^ Herald, Catholic. "Do not judge Jaruzelski, say Polish archbishops". CatholicHerald.co.uk. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  33. ^ Poland's last Communist leader Wojciech Jaruzelski dies. 25 May 2014, BBC News.
  34. ^ Poland's Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski dies at 90. Warsaw, Poland (AP), 25 May 2014.
  35. ^ a b "Prayers, protests at Polish general's funeral - US News". usnews.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  36. ^ a b Poland's Walesa kneels in prayer at funeral mass for former foe Jaruzelski | Reuters. 30 May 2014
  37. ^ "Walesa: 'I will leave God to judge Jaruzelski'". scotsman.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  38. ^ Three presidents to attend Jaruzelski funeral - National. 30 May 2014, TheNews.pl
  39. ^ "Zmarła Barbara Jaruzelska, żona Wojciecha Jaruzelskiego - Wiadomości". onet.pl. 5 June 2017. Archived from the original on 5 June 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  40. ^ Hella Pick, General Wojciech Jaruzelski obituary, The Guardian, retrieved 29 October 2014
  41. ^ Poland's Last Soviet-Era Dictator, aged 90, Seduces his Nurse, International Business Times
  42. ^ Wife of former Polish dictator seeking divorce over his affair with nurse: report, New York Daily News
  43. ^ Polish ex-dictator's wife wants divorce after his love affair with caretaker, Voice of Russia
  44. ^ Vanessa Gera, Poland's last Communist leader, Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, dies at age 90, The Associated Press, retrieved 28 May 2014
  45. ^ "Jaruzelski gets highest Soviet prize". Reading Eagle. Moscow. AP. 5 July 1983. Retrieved 7 September 2013.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Berger, Manfred E. Jaruzelski: Traitor or Patriot? London: Hutchinson, 1990. ISBN 0091744660
  • Berger, Manfred E., and Zbigniew Bauer. Jaruzelski. Kraków: Oficyna Cracovia, 1991. ISBN 8385104216
  • Labedz, Leopold. Poland Under Jaruzelski: A Comprehensive Sourcebook on Poland During and After Martial Law. New York: Scribner, 1984. ISBN 0684181169
  • Pelinka, Anton. Politics of the Lesser Evil: Leadership, Democracy, & Jaruzelski's Poland. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1999. ISBN 1560003677
  • Swidlicki, Andrzej. Political Trials in Poland, 1981–1986. London: Croom Helm, 1988. ISBN 0709944446
  • Weschler, Lawrence. The Passion of Poland, from Solidarity Through the State of War. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982. ISBN 0394722868
  • Yanshun, Liu [zh], "Jaruzelski, the Shaker of Polish History" Beijing, Shijiezhishi, 2016 ISBN 9787501252299

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Józef Pińkowski
Prime Minister of Poland
11 February 1981 – 6 November 1985
Succeeded by
Zbigniew Messner
Preceded by
Henryk Jabłoński
Chairman of the Council of State
6 November 1985 – 19 July 1989
Succeeded by
Himself
as President of Poland
Preceded by
Ryszard Kaczorowski (in Exile)
Himself as Chairman of the Council of State
President of Poland
19 July 1989 – 22 December 1990
Succeeded by
Lech Wałęsa
Party political offices
Preceded by
Stanisław Kania
First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party
18 October 1981 – 29 July 1989
Succeeded by
Mieczysław Rakowski