Jasmine

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Jasmine
Jasminum flower
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Tribe: Jasmineae
Genus: Jasminum
L.
Type species
Jasminum officinale
Species

More than 200, see List of Jasminum species[1][2][3]

Synonyms[4]
  • Mogorium Juss.
  • Noldeanthus Knobl.
  • Nyctanthos St.-Lag.
Common jasmine

Jasmine (taxonomic name: Jasminum; /ˈjæsmɪnəm/, YASS-min-əm[5]) is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family of Oleaceae.[4][6][7]: 193  It contains around 200 species native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania.[7]: 194  Jasmines are widely cultivated for the characteristic fragrance of their flowers. Additionally a number of unrelated species of plants or flowers contain the word "jasmine" in their common names (see Other plants called "jasmine").

Description[edit]

Jasmine can be either deciduous (leaves falling in autumn) or evergreen (green all year round), and can be erect, spreading, or climbing shrubs and vines. Their leaves are borne in opposing or alternating arrangement and can be of simple, trifoliate, or pinnate formation.

Flowers and fruit[edit]

The flowers are typically around 2.5 cm (0.98 in) in diameter. They are white or yellow, although in rare instances they can be slightly reddish. The flowers are borne in cymose clusters with a minimum of three flowers, though they can also be solitary on the ends of branchlets. Each flower has about four to nine petals, two locules, and one to four ovules. They have two stamens with very short filaments. The bracts are linear or ovate. The calyx is bell-shaped. They are usually very fragrant.[7][additional citation(s) needed]

The fruits of jasmines are berries that turn black when ripe.

The basic chromosome number of the genus is 13, and most species are diploid (2n=26). However, natural polyploidy exists, particularly in Jasminum sambac (triploid 3n=39), Jasminum flexile (tetraploid 4n=52), Jasminum mesnyi (triploid 3n=39), and Jasminum angustifolium (tetraploid 4n=52).[7][additional citation(s) needed]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Jasmines are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Eurasia, Africa, Australasia within Oceania, although only one of the 200 species is native to Europe.[8][9][10] Their center of diversity is in South Asia and Southeast Asia.[11]

Several jasmine species have become naturalized in Mediterranean Europe. For example, the so-called Spanish jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum) was originally from West Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Northeast Africa, and East Africa, and is now naturalized in the Iberian peninsula.[7][12]

Jasminum fluminense (which is sometimes known by the inaccurate name "Brazilian Jasmine") and Jasminum dichotomum (Gold Coast Jasmine) are invasive species in Hawaii and Florida.[13][14] Jasminum polyanthum, also known as pink jasmine, is an invasive weed in Australia.[15]

Etymology[edit]

The name comes from Old French jessemin, from Persian: یاسمن‎, romanizedyāsamin[16] which is derived from the Middle Persian word yāsaman and yāsamīn (يَاسَمِين) in Arabic.[17][18] The word entered Middle French around 1570 and was first used in English in 16th century England.[18] The Persian name is also the origin of the genus name, Jasminum.[19]

Taxonomy[edit]

Species belonging to the genus are classified under the tribe Jasmineae of the olive family (Oleaceae).[7] Jasminum is divided into five sectionsAlternifolia, Jasminum, Primulina, Trifoliolata, and Unifoliolata.[20]

Species[edit]

Species include:[21]

Jasmonates[edit]

Jasmine lends its name to jasmonate plant hormones, as methyl jasmonate isolated from the oil of Jasminum grandiflorum led to the discovery of the molecular structure of jasmonates.[22] Jasmonates occur ubiquitously across the plant kingdom, having key roles in responses to environmental cues, such as heat or cold stress, and participate in the signal transduction pathways of many plants.[23]

Cultural importance[edit]

Jasmine is cultivated commercially for domestic and industrial uses, such as the perfume industry.[24] It is used in rituals like marriages, religious ceremonies, and festivals.[25] Jasmine flower vendors sell garlands of jasmine, or in the case of the thicker motiyaa (in Hindi) or mograa (in Marathi) varieties, bunches of jasmine are common.[26] They may be found around entrances to temples, on major thoroughfares, and in major business areas.

A change in presidency in Tunisia in 1987[27][28] and the Tunisian Revolution of 2011 are both called "Jasmine revolutions" in reference to the flower.[29]

"Jasmine" is a common female given name.

Symbolism[edit]

Several countries and states consider jasmine as a national symbol.

Other plants called "jasmine"[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Jasminum". Index Nominum Genericorum. International Association for Plant Taxonomy. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
  2. ^ "10. Jasminum Linnaeus". Chinese Plant Names. 15: 307. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
  3. ^ UniProt. "Jasminum". Retrieved 2008-06-03.
  4. ^ a b "Tacca J.R.Forst. & G.Forst". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2023. Retrieved 25 March 2023.
  5. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. pp. 606–607.
  6. ^ "Jasminum L." World Flora Online. World Flora Consortium. 2023. Retrieved 25 March 2023.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Singh, A. K. (2006). Flower Crops: Cultivation and Management. New India Publishing. pp. 193–205. ISBN 978-81-89422-35-6.
  8. ^ Townsend, C. C. and Evan Guest (1980). "Jasminum officinale," in Flora of Iraq, Vol. 4.1. Baghdad, pp. 513–519.
  9. ^ Ernst Schmidt; Mervyn Lötter; Warren McCleland (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park. Jacana Media. p. 530. ISBN 978-1-919777-30-6.
  10. ^ Jasminum @ EFloras.org.
  11. ^ Panda, H. (2005). Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants. National Institute Of Industrial Research. p. 220. ISBN 978-81-7833-027-3.[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ "Jasminum". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.
  13. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Jasminum fluminense". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team.
  14. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Jasminum dichotomum". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team.
  15. ^ "Weeds of the Blue Mountains Bushland – Jasminum polyanthum". Archived from the original on 2014-02-04.
  16. ^ Weekley, Ernest (1921). "Jasmine, Jessamine". An etymological dictionary of modern English. London J. Murray. p. 779.
  17. ^ "Definition of Jasmine". Merriam-Webster. 2021-10-23. Retrieved 2022-01-20.
  18. ^ a b "Jasmine". Online Etymology Dictionary. 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  19. ^ Bayton, Ross (2019). The Gardener's Botanical: An Encyclopedia of Latin Plant Names. London, UK: Royal Horticultural Society. p. 170. ISBN 978-1-78472-677-5.
  20. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "Jasminum L." Germplasm Resources Information Network, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ GRIN. "Jasminum information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  22. ^ Demole E; Lederer, E.; Mercier, D. (1962). "Isolement et détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant odorant caractéristique de l'essence de jasmin". Helv Chim Acta. 45 (2): 675–85. doi:10.1002/hlca.19620450233.
  23. ^ Sharma, M; Laxmi, A (2016). "Jasmonates: Emerging Players in Controlling Temperature Stress Tolerance". Frontiers in Plant Science. 6: 1129. doi:10.3389/fpls.2015.01129. PMC 4701901. PMID 26779205.
  24. ^ "What's So Great About the Jasmine Flower?". Earth.com. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
  25. ^ August 8; Comments, 2018 | Micaela Nerguizian |. "Hopa! Rituals and Symbols of an Armenian Wedding". Smithsonian Folklife Festival. Retrieved 2022-04-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  26. ^ "10 Different Types of Jasmine Plants (Photos) - Garden Lovers Club". www.gardenloversclub.com. 22 February 2020. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
  27. ^ Michael, Ayari; Vincent Geisser (2011). "Tunisie : la Révolution des "Nouzouh"* n'a pas l'odeur du jasmin" (in French). Témoignage chrétien. Archived from the original on 2011-01-28. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  28. ^ "La révolution par le feu et par un clic" (in French). Le Quotidien d'Oran/moofid.com. 2011-02-25. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  29. ^ Kim, Elvis H (September 2021). "Democratization and Authoritarianism in the Information Age". International Area Studies Review. 24 (3): 205–223. doi:10.1177/22338659211026006. ISSN 2233-8659. S2CID 237434616.
  30. ^ Anabel Bachour (23 February 2017). "Damascus, the City of Jasmine". Peacock Plume, Student Media, The American University of Paris, France. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  31. ^ Hitt, Christine (1 May 2018). "7 of Hawaii's Most Popular Lei and What Makes Them Unique". Hawaii Magazine. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  32. ^ Keputusan Presiden No. 4 Tahun 1993 Archived 2012-04-02 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Akhtar, Moin (26 October 2020). "Pakistan National Flower, Animal and Bird". ILM.com.pk. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  34. ^ "Philippine National Flower- Sampaguita". National Museum of the Philippines. 10 November 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  35. ^ "Symbolic and spiritual meaning of jasmine flowers". Gardening Tips | Flower Wiki. 2017-01-03. Retrieved 2019-04-25.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]