Jasminum grandiflorum

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Jasminum grandiflorum
Jazmín limonero.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Genus: Jasminum
Species:
J. grandiflorum
Binomial name
Jasminum grandiflorum

Jasminum grandiflorum, also known variously as the Spanish jasmine, Royal jasmine, Catalan jasmine, among others,[2] is a species of jasmine native to South Asia, the Arabian peninsula, East and Northeast Africa and the Yunnan and Sichuan regions of China. The species is widely cultivated and is reportedly naturalized in Guinea, the Maldive Islands, Mauritius, Réunion, Java, the Cook Islands, Chiapas, Central America, and the Caribbean.[1]It is closely related to, and sometimes treated as merely a form of, Jasminum officinale.[3] The plant is known as "saman pichcha" or "pichcha" in Sri Lanka.

Description[edit]

It is a scrambling deciduous shrub growing to 2–4 m tall. The leaves are opposite, 5–12 cm long, pinnate with 5–11 leaflets. The flowers are produced in open cymes, the individual flowers are white having corolla with a basal tube 13–25 mm long and five lobes 13–22 mm long.[4][5] The flower's fragrance is unique and sweet and is commonly used worldwide.

Etymology[edit]

'Jasminum' is a Latinized form of the feminine Persian given name 'Yasmin' for sweetly scented plants.[6] 'Grandiflorum' is a Latin term meaning large, showy flowers.[7]

Morphology[edit]

J. grandiflorum grow in shrubs that are semi-spreading. These plants have green, woody, pubescent stems that are either angular or grooved shape. The green colored leaves are ovate-acute, or acuminate shaped and are either pinnatipartite or pinnately compound. The surface of the leaves are glabrous, have no hairs, with a wavy leaf margin and contain no stipules. These leaves are about 0.35 mm thick that are arranged in whorls of three and also include short petioles. The sepals of the flowers are green with white, glabrous flowers in a linear arrangement. There are 2 stamen, each with a yellow colored anther, in the center of the corolla tube per flower. These flowers contain no fruit.[8]

Subspecies[edit]

Two subspecies are recognized:[1]

  • Jasminum grandiflorum subsp. floribundum (R.Br. ex Fresen.) P.S.Green[9] (syn., Jasminum floribundum R. Br. ex Fresen.)[10] - African and Arabian portions of natural range
  • Jasminum grandiflorum subsp. grandiflorum - South Asian plants as well as cultivars and naturalized populations

Uses[edit]

All parts of the plant, including leaves, flowers, and root, are used for different purposes. In India, its leaves are widely used as an Ayurvedic herbal medicine and its flowers are used to adorn the coiffure of women. In Pakistan, it grows wild in the Salt Range and Rawalpindi District at 500–1500 m altitude.[4] Buddhist and Hindu temples use these flowers in abundance. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in warm temperate and subtropical regions. By method of solvent extraction, the Jasmine flowers are converted into Jasmine Concrete and Jasmine Oleoresin (sold as Jasmine Absolute). Both products have a huge demand in the fragrance industry.

Medicine[edit]

Famous Indian figures who have made significant contributions to medicine, such as Charaka and Sushruta, have used Jasminum grandiflorum for various medicinal purposes. This flower is also given a variety of names in India as it is used for different remedies. Parts of J. grandiflorum, including their sprouts and flowers (dried), have been used for prescriptions. This type of holistic medicine was used to treat various sicknesses such as dermatosis, coryza, and nasal haemorrhage.[11] The leaves J. grandiflorum is utilized as an ingredient for clarified butter, a treatment for infected wounds and cleaning and sterilizing ulcers. In addition, the leaves can be made into an oil as a remedy for infection. The leaves may also be chewed on to aid in toothaches and stomatitis. The root of the plant would be cooked with goat's milk and sugar to relieve pain in urine retention and kidney stone release. The root was also made into a paste to improve the skin and removing freckles or dark shades. [12] The root paste would be applied to the foreheads as well for any headaches. This plant is used as another ingredient for hair oil to treat baldness and alopecia. It can also be used as a component for an eye-salve to help vision loss. [13] In India, Jasminum grandiflorum, was additionally prescribed for severe skin diseases and leprosy. In the West, the flowers have also been made into a syrup as a medicine for throat issues such as coughs and hoarseness.

Fragrance[edit]

Jasmine has been made into a well-known scent around the world. It was introduced as a perfume in Europe in the 16th century. The flowers create an aroma that exudes a calm atmosphere, relieving mental and emotional strains. [14] Due to the pleasing scent, J. grandiflorum are commonly made into essential oils, perfumes, soaps, and cosmetics worldwide.

Chemical Composition[edit]

J. grandiflorum is composed of benzyl acetate (23.7%), benzyl benzoate (20.7%), phytol (10.9%), linalool (8.2%), isophytol (5.5%), geranyl linalool (3.0%), methyl linoleate (2.8%) and eugenol (2.5%).[15] These components contribute to creating the popular jasmine fragrance. Methyl jasmonate isolated from the jasmine oil of Jasinum grandiflorum led to the discovery of the molecular structure of the jasmonate plant hormones.[16]

Conservation[edit]

Jasminum grandiflorum

Because of the valued medicinal properties of this plant, there have been efforts to conserve it. Pharmaceutical companies rely on the export of Jasminum grandiflorum from countries such as India and Bangladesh. Commercial cultivation is rarely seen of the plant. In vitro micropropagation is a method that has been used to conserve the plant by rapidly producing clones of the original parent species under a short time period and in sterile conditions. [17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Jasminum grandiflorum". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  2. ^ "Jasminum grandiflorum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  3. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  4. ^ a b Flora of Pakistan: Jasminum grandiflorum
  5. ^ Flora of China v 15 p 313: Jasminum grandiflorum
  6. ^ Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866453 (hardback), ISBN 9780521685535 (paperback). pp 220
  7. ^ Festschrift, Prithipalsingh (2012). Plant Taxonomy: Past, Present, and Future. New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute.
  8. ^ Sampath, Mukundan; Narayanappa, Sathyanarayana; Sondur, Suresh; Simon, Luke (2008). "Analysis of Genetic Diversity among Jasminum sambac (Linn.) Ait. and J. grandiflorum Linn. Varieties using Morphological and Molecular Markers". Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology.
  9. ^ Green, Peter Shaw. 1986. Kew Bulletin 41: 414.
  10. ^ Fresenius, Johann Baptist Georg Wolfgang. 1837. Museum Senckenbergianum. Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Beschreibenden Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main 2: 16.
  11. ^ Khare, C.P. (2004). Indian Herbal Remedies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  12. ^ Khare, C.P. (2004). Indian Herbal Remedies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  13. ^ Khare, C.P. (2004). Indian Herbal Remedies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  14. ^ Khare, C.P. (2004). Indian Herbal Remedies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  15. ^ Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Schweiger, Thomas; Denkova, Zapriana; Slavchev, Alexander; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Geissler, Margit (April 2007). "Chemical Composition, Olfactory Evaluation and Antimicrobial Activities of Jasminum grandiflorum L. Absolute from India". Natural Product Communications. 2 (4): 1934578X0700200. doi:10.1177/1934578X0700200411. S2CID 133207224.
  16. ^ Demole E (1962). "Isolement et détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant odorant caractéristique de l'essence de jasminIsolement et détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant odorant caractéristique de l'essence de jasmin". Helv Chim Acta. 45: 675–85. doi:10.1002/hlca.19620450233.
  17. ^ Rahman, M.S.; Mouri, N.; Nandi, N.; Akter, S.; Khan, M.S. (2018). "In vitro micropropagation of Jasminum grandiflorum L." Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 53 (4): 277–282. doi:10.3329/bjsir.v53i4.39191.

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