Jasper County, Missouri

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Jasper County
Jasper County Courthouse in Carthage (August 2008)
Jasper County Courthouse in Carthage (August 2008)
Map of Missouri highlighting Jasper County
Location within the U.S. state of Missouri
Map of the United States highlighting Missouri
Missouri's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 37°12′N 94°20′W / 37.2°N 94.34°W / 37.2; -94.34
Country United States
State Missouri
FoundedJanuary 2, 1841
Named forWilliam Jasper
Largest cityJoplin
 • Total641 sq mi (1,660 km2)
 • Land638 sq mi (1,650 km2)
 • Water2.8 sq mi (7 km2)  0.4%
 • Total122,761
 • Density192.3/sq mi (74.2/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district7th

Coordinates: 37°12′N 94°20′W / 37.20°N 94.34°W / 37.20; -94.34

Jasper County is a county located in the southwest portion of the U.S. state of Missouri. As of the 2020 census, the population was 122,761.[1] Its county seat is Carthage,[2] and its largest city is Joplin. The county was organized in 1841 and named for William Jasper, a hero of the American Revolutionary War.

Jasper County is included in the Joplin Metropolitan Statistical Area. The Jasper County Sheriff's Office has legal jurisdiction throughout the county.


Portrait of an Osage warrior, painted by George Catlin in 1834.

Osage Nation[edit]

Before European contact, the area that today makes up Jasper County was the domain of the Osage Native Americans who called themselves the Children of the Middle Waters (Ni-U-Kon-Ska).[3] This was probably[citation needed] because their dominion encompassed the land between the Missouri and Osage rivers to the north, the Mississippi River to the east, and the Arkansas River to the south. To the west were the Great Plains where they hunted buffalo. By the late 17th century, the Osage were calling themselves Wah-Zha-Zhe.[4]

The earliest record of European-Osage contact is a 1673 map by French Jesuit priest and explorer Jacques Marquette. He noted the people he encountered as the Ouchage, his way of expressing the sound of the name with French spelling.[5] A few years after the Marquette expedition, French explorers discovered a Little Osage village and called it Ouazhigi.[6] French transliterations of the tribe's name settled on a spelling of Osage, which was also used by European Americans.[7]

In 1682 Robert de La Salle canoed down the length of the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico, naming the entire Mississippi basin “La Louisiane” in honor of King Louis XIV. In 1699 Louisiana was named an administrative district of New France therefore, as far as the Europeans (France, England and Spain) were concerned, the area of Jasper County was French territory. The French further divided the Louisiana district into an upper and lower parts with the Arkansas River being the dividing line.

With France and Spain's defeat in the Seven Years' War in 1763, France ceded Louisiana to Spain and most of the rest of New France to the British who also received Florida from Spain. The Spanish District of New Madrid, containing present day Jasper County, was the southernmost of the five Spanish districts comprising Upper Louisiana. France regained control of Louisiana through the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1800 but Napoleon Bonaparte I decided to sell the territory to the United States in 1803.

The Osage began treaty-making with the United States in 1808 with the first cession of lands in Missouri in the (Osage Treaty). The Osage moved from their homelands on the Osage River in 1808 to the Jasper County area of Southwest Missouri. In 1825, the Osages ceded their traditional lands across Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. They were first moved onto a southeastern Kansas reservation in the Cherokee Strip, on which the city of Independence, Kansas now sits and finally to Indian Territory in 1872.

Missouri Territory[edit]

Map defining borders of Missouri Territory, 1812.

The Upper Louisiana Territory, including the Jasper County area, was renamed the Missouri Territory on June 4, 1812 to avoid confusion with the state of Louisiana which joined the Union in 1812, and the New Madrid District became New Madrid County. Old Lawrence County was established in 1815 from New Madrid County west of the St. Francis River and north of Arkansas County and consisted of all of present-day southwestern Missouri and part of northwestern Arkansas.

Lawrence County was short-lived, however, as three years later (1818) it was combined with part of Cape Girardeau County and renamed Wayne County. By 1819, Arkansas Territory had been created, and Wayne County lost some of its area but still consisted of most of southern Missouri from present-day Wayne County west to the Kansas State Line and south along the Arkansas State Line.

In 1820, all of Missouri Territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Missouri, and in 1831 Crawford County was carved out of the original Wayne. This new division covered all of the southern part of Missouri and included Jasper County in its boundaries. This alignment was also short-lived as in 1833 Greene County was split from Crawford County from the Niangua River west to the Kansas State Line.

On January 5, 1835, a big piece was cut out of Greene County and organized as Barry County. In 1838 Barry County was divided into four parts called Barry, Dade, Newton and Jasper counties. At this time Jasper was not a full-fledged county but was attached to Newton County and it would not be until 1841.

County organization[edit]

Log home of George Hornback, used as the initial Jasper County Courthouse in 1841. It has been preserved and can be viewed on the grounds of the Old Cabin Shop at 155 North Black Powder Lane, off of West Mound Street in Carthage.

On January 29, 1841, the Missouri Legislature enacted a bill authorizing the organization of Jasper County and was named in honor of Sergeant William Jasper, a hero in the American Revolutionary War.[8][9] The Jasper County Court first divided the area into three townships: North Fork, Center Creek and Marion, but later it was divided into 15 townships which remain in an unincorporated status to the present time.

A temporary seat of justice was established, Thursday, February 25, 1841 in the home of George Hornback. It was a 12×16 foot log cabin, one and a half miles northwest of Carthage on Spring River. The officers of the court were Charles S. Yancey, judge, and Elwood B. James, clerk. Mount Vernon attorney Robert W. Crawford was appointed circuit attorney pro tem. John P. Osborn, the first sheriff, was ordered to give public notice that the county court of Jasper County would meet in the home of George Hornback until the permanent seat of justice was established. The first session of the court was two days; the proceedings covered four pages of record.

A permanent county seat was chosen in March 1842 and designated by the name of Carthage. A one-story single-room wooden structure with a large door in the south, was completed on June 29, 1842, and was located on the north side of the present public square in Carthage. This courthouse was later replaced by a larger two-story brick-and-stone structure that was completed in 1854, which also functioned as the county jail. At the second term of the court held in October of the same year, attorneys Robert W. Crawford and John R. Chenault were cited for contempt and fined the sum of ten dollars for "fighting in the presence and view of said court during the said sitting."[10]

At the March 1861 Secession Convention held in Jefferson City, Chenault represented Jasper County while Crawford represented Lawrence County. Possibly for their own self-preservation, and to buy time to make preparations in Southwest Missouri for the inevitable war that would soon ravage both of these border counties, the two former adversaries voted in favor of keeping Missouri in the Union. Missouri was the only state to hold a convention on secession and then vote to remain in the Union.[11]

Cave Spring School, the site of Jasper County circuit court in 1865, is located at 4323 County Road 4 near La Russell.

At the outset of the war Chenault, by then a circuit court judge, moved with his family to Texas. Following the Battle of Carthage, on July 12, 1861 Crawford was elected Lieutenant Colonel of the 13th Missouri Cavalry Regiment and 5th Missouri Infantry, both of the 8th Division, Missouri State Guard.[12] After leading the 13th Cavalry Regiment into numerous battles, in a command that included two of his sons in first lieutenant and quartermaster ranks, Crawford moved his noncombatant family to Texas; he then served as a recruiter for the Confederate Army in Missouri, a post he was nominated for by Waldo P. Johnson, formerly a United States Senator from Missouri in a letter to Missouri governor-in-exile Claiborne Fox Jackson dated October 24, 1862.[13][14]

By the start of the American Civil War in 1861 there were several small river mill settlements, some mining camps and about nine or ten towns (seven platted) in Jasper County, Missouri. The county seat of Carthage, Missouri had an estimated population between four and five hundred at that time. The newer brick courthouse was used as a hospital during the American Civil War and was destroyed by fire during fighting in October 1863. By the end of the Civil War, Carthage had been evacuated and completely destroyed, and much of Jasper County laid in ruins. Other than military tribunals no courts were held in Jasper County between May 11, 1861 and October 10, 1865.

By order of the Governor in 1865, the courthouse was relocated to the pioneer schoolhouse at Cave Springs (near present-day La Russell, Missouri) with John C. Price of Mount Vernon appointed as the circuit court judge. Price later (before?) served as treasurer of the United States under President Buchanan.[15] Other temporary locations within the county were later used over the next three decades until the current Jasper County Courthouse was constructed on the Carthage square in the mid-1890s.[16]

The county adopted an official flag in 2001, which was unveiled during the county's 160th birthday celebration. The flag depicts the county courthouse surrounded by 15 stars representing Jasper County's 15 townships. The center blue and red stars memorialize the struggle in Jasper County during the Civil War years, including the Battle of Carthage in 1861 and second battle in 1863.

Towns established prior to the Civil War[edit]


Current Town Name Accepted Date Founded Official Date of Plat Notes
Sarcoxie 1833 1840 The first settlement in Jasper County Missouri, initially known as Centerville. The first settler was Thackeray Vivion in 1831.
(Old) Jasper 1840 1842 Was located northeast of Carthage and no longer exists. Later, another settlement named Jasper existed southeast of Carthage. The present town of Jasper, Missouri, north of Carthage, is a different community previously known as Coon Creek settlement or "Midway."
Carthage 1841 1842 Historic Carthage was planned from the start with the purpose of being the Jasper County seat and was promptly rebuilt after being completely destroyed during the Civil War. The current Jasper County Courthouse was erected in the mid-1890s.
(Old) Sherwood 1846 1856 First called Rural and was located near present-day Webb City. It was not rebuilt after being destroyed during the Civil War and no longer exists.
Oronogo 1848 1856 Known as Minersville around the time of the Civil War, it evolved from early mining camps and had other names such as Leadville Hollow. The Post Office had also used the name Center Mines.
(Old) Medoc 1848 After the Civil War Started as an old Indian trading post near the Kansas state line, it was destroyed during the Civil War and later resettled, but the plat was abandoned by the 20th century and the town no longer exists.
Avilla 1856 1858 Founded by merchant-landowners as a business center on the edge of the frontier in the mid-1850s. The citizens of Avilla formed a town militia for defense at the beginning of the Civil War and the site later served as a Union Army garrison (Enrolled Missouri Militia), subsequently prevailing intact and undamaged after the war. The town's growth was ultimately stunted after being bypassed by the railroad in the latter 19th century and it remains a small village in the 21st century today.
Fidelity 1856 After the Civil War Considered to have been founded by William Cloe about the same time as Avilla for similar reasons (mirroring it in some ways), Fidelity was not platted until after the Civil War.
Waco 1857 After the Civil War, 1878 Started as an old trading post first known as Loshick
(Old) Preston 1859 1860 A village northwest of Carthage, plat abandoned and town no longer exists.


President Barack Obama greets a tornado survivor on May 29, 2011 in Joplin.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 641 square miles (1,660 km2), of which 638 square miles (1,650 km2) is land and 2.8 square miles (7.3 km2) (0.4%) is water.[19]

On Sunday, May 22, 2011 Jasper County was struck in Joplin with a catastrophic EF5 multiple-vortex tornado. The 2011 Joplin tornado ranked as the seventh deadliest in America's history.

Adjacent counties[edit]

Major highways[edit]


Historical population
Census Pop.
U.S. Decennial Census[20]
1790-1960[21] 1900-1990[22]
1990-2000[23] 2010-2019[24]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 117,404 people, 45,639 households, and 30,202 families residing in the county. The population density was 164 people per square mile (63/km2). There were 50,668 housing units at an average density of 71 per square mile (28/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 88.24% White, 1.93% Black or African American, 1.51% Native American, 0.99% Asian, 0.25% Pacific Islander, 3.89% from other races, and 3.18% from two or more races. Approximately 6.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 45,639 households, out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.8% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 24.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.05

In the county, the population was spread out, with 27.17% under the age of 19, 7.4% from 20 to 24, 25.11% from 25 to 44, 22.24% from 45 to 64, and 12.14% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $31,323, and the median income for a family was $37,611. Males had a median income of $28,573 versus $20,386 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,227. About 10.40% of families and 14.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.20% of those under age 18 and 10.30% of those age 65 or over.


Public schools[edit]

  • Avilla R-XIII School DistrictAvilla
    • Avilla Elementary/Middle School (K-08)
  • Carl Junction R-I School DistrictCarl Junction
    • Carl Junction Primary School (K-01)
    • Carl Junction Primary School (02-03)
    • Carl Junction Intermediate School (04-06)
    • Carl Junction Junior High School (07-08)
    • Carl Junction High School (09-12)
  • Carthage R-IX School DistrictCarthage
    • Columbian Elementary School (PK-04)
    • Fairview Elementary School (PK-04)
    • Mark Twain Elementary School (PK-04)
    • Pleasant Valley Elementary School (PK-04)
    • Steadley Elementary School (PK-04)
    • Carthage Middle School (05-06)
    • Carthage Junior High School (07-08)
    • Carthage High School (09-12)
  • Jasper R-V School DistrictJasper
    • Jasper County Elementary School (K-06)
    • Jasper High School (07-12)
  • Joplin R-VIII School DistrictJoplin
    • Memorial Education Center (PK)
    • Cecil Floyd Elementary School (K-05)
    • Columbia Elementary School (K-05)
    • Soaring Heights Elementary School (K-05)
    • Eastmorland Elementary School (PK-05)
    • Irving Elementary School (K-05)
    • Jefferson Elementary School (K-05)
    • Kelsey Norman Elementary School (K-05)
    • McKinley Elementary School (K-05)
    • Royal Heights Elementary School (K-05)
    • Stapleton Elementary School (K-05)
    • West Central Elementary School (K-05)
    • East Middle School (06-08)
    • North Middle School (06-08)
    • South Middle School (06-08)
    • Joplin High School (09-12)
  • Sarcoxie R-II School DistrictSarcoxie
    • Wildwood Elementary School (PK-05)
    • Sarcoxie High School (06-12)
  • Webb City R-VII School DistrictWebb City
    • Franklin Early Childhood Center (PK)
    • Madge T. James Kindergarten Center (PK-K)
    • Bess Truman Primary Center (K-01)
    • Webster Primary Center (01-02)
    • Carterville Elementary School (PK-04)
    • Eugene Field Elementary School (03-04)
    • Harry S. Truman Elementary School (02-04)
    • Mark Twain Elementary School (03-04)
    • Webb City Middle School (05-06)
    • Webb City Junior High School (07-08)
    • Webb City High School (09-12)

Private schools[edit]


Public libraries[edit]

  • Carthage Public Library[25]
  • Joplin Public Library[26]
  • Sarcoxie Public Library[27]
  • Webb City Public Library[28]



The Republican Party completely controls politics at the local level in Jasper County. Republicans hold every elected position in the county. In 2016, Hillary Clinton received 21.9% of the vote in Jasper County, lower than any Democratic presidential candidate in the county's history.

Jasper County, Missouri
Elected countywide officials
Assessor Lisa Perry Republican
Auditor Sarah Hoover Republican
Circuit Clerk Melissa Holcomb Republican
County Clerk Charlie Davis Republican
Collector Steven E. McIntosh Republican
John Bartosh Republican
(District 1)
Tom Flanigan Republican
(District 2)
Darieus K. Adams Republican
Coroner Rob Chappel Republican
Prosecuting Attorney Theresa Kenney Republican
Public Administrator Angela Casavecchia Republican
Recorder Charlotte Pickering Republican
Sheriff Randee Kaiser Republican
Treasurer Denise Rohr Republican


Past gubernatorial election results
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 69.11% 33,436 27.36% 13,236 3.53% 1,710
2012 53.78% 24,218 43.21% 19,457 3.01% 1,356
2008 58.61% 27,764 39.42% 18,676 1.97% 932
2004 74.54% 33,293 24.30% 10,853 1.16% 519
2000 65.31% 24,335 32.75% 12,203 1.94% 721
1996 56.55% 18,977 40.63% 13,637 2.82% 946

Jasper County is divided into four districts in the Missouri House of Representatives, all of which are held by Republicans.

  • District 127 — Mike Kelley (R-Lamar) Consists of the communities of Alba, Asbury, Avilla, Carytown, Jasper, La Russell, Neck City, Purcell, Reeds, Sarcoxie, and Waco.
Missouri House of Representatives — District 127 — Jasper County (2016)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Mike Kelley 5,690 85.10% -14.90
Independent George R. Parsons 996 14.90% +14.90
Missouri House of Representatives — District 127 — Jasper County (2014)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Mike Kelley 3,034 100.00%
Missouri House of Representatives — District 127 — Jasper County (2012)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Mike Kelley 5,857 100.00%
  • District 161 — Bill White (R-Joplin) Consists of the communities of Duquesne and part of Joplin.
Missouri House of Representatives — District 161 — Jasper County (2016)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Bill White 8,953 100.00% +27.55
Missouri House of Representatives — District 161 — Jasper County (2014)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Bill White 3,092 72.45% -27.55
Democratic Charles Shields 1,176 27.55% +27.55
Missouri House of Representatives — District 161 — Jasper County (2012)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Bill White 7,789 100.00%
  • District 162 — Charlie Davis (R-Webb City) Consists of the communities of Airport Drive, Duenweg, and parts of Carl Junction, Carterville, Joplin, and Webb City.
Missouri House of Representatives — District 162 — Jasper County (2016)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Charlie Davis 13,941 100.00%
Missouri House of Representatives — District 162 — Jasper County (2014)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Charlie Davis 6,263 100.00%
Missouri House of Representatives — District 162 — Jasper County (2012)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Charlie Davis 12,893 100.00%
  • District 163 — Cody Smith (R-Carthage) Consists of communities of Carthage, Fidelity, Oronogo, and parts of Carl Junction, Carterville, and Webb City.
Missouri House of Representatives - District 129 - Jasper County (2016)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Cody Smith 13,502 100.00% +17.68
Missouri House of Representatives — District 163 — Jasper County (2014)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Tom Flanigan 5,850 82.32% -17.68
Democratic Michael Jarrett 1,256 17.68% +17.68
Missouri House of Representatives — District 163 — Jasper County (2012)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Tom Flanigan 12,663 100.00%

All of Jasper County is a part of Missouri's 32nd District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Ron Richard (R-Joplin).

Missouri Senate — District 32 — Jasper County (2014)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Ron Richard 19,362 100.00%


U.S. Senate — Missouri — Jasper County (2016)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Roy Blunt 32,123 66.35% +11.47
Democratic Jason Kander 13,799 28.50% -10.56
Libertarian Jonathan Dine 1,240 2.56% -3.50
Green Johnathan McFarland 552 1.14% +1.14
Constitution Fred Ryman 699 1.44% +1.44
U.S. Senate — Missouri — Jasper County (2012)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Todd Akin 24,563 54.88%
Democratic Claire McCaskill 17,485 39.06%
Libertarian Jonathan Dine 2,713 6.06%

All of Jasper County is included in Missouri's 7th Congressional District and is represented by Billy Long (R-Springfield) in the U.S. House of Representatives.

U.S. House of Representatives — Missouri's 7th Congressional District — Jasper County (2016)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Billy Long 33,855 70.83% -1.81
Democratic Genevieve Williams 11,681 24.51% +2.61
Libertarian Benjamin T. Brixey 2,218 4.65% -0.77
U.S. House of Representatives — Missouri's 7th Congressional District — Jasper County (2014)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Billy Long 15,989 72.64% +4.43
Democratic Jim Evans 4,819 21.90% -5.56
Libertarian Kevin Craig 1,193 5.42% +1.09
Write-in Write-ins 9 0.04% +0.04
U.S. House of Representatives — Missouri's 7th Congressional District — Jasper County (2012)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Billy Long 30,145 68.21%
Democratic Jim Evans 12,138 27.46%
Libertarian Kevin Craig 1,913 4.33%
Presidential election results
Presidential election results[29]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2020 72.1% 37,728 25.9% 13,549 2.1% 1,075
2016 72.6% 35,070 21.9% 10,572 5.6% 2,684
2012 69.3% 31,349 28.3% 12,809 2.3% 1,060
2008 65.7% 31,667 32.6% 15,730 1.7% 822
2004 70.6% 31,846 28.8% 13,002 0.5% 237
2000 66.4% 24,899 31.3% 11,737 2.3% 845
1996 54.4% 18,361 34.0% 11,462 11.7% 3,938
1992 49.0% 17,592 32.7% 11,727 18.3% 6,553
1988 63.9% 19,934 35.8% 11,159 0.3% 94
1984 71.4% 23,066 28.6% 9,259
1980 62.5% 21,664 34.5% 11,953 3.0% 1,049
1976 53.2% 17,086 46.4% 14,910 0.5% 153
1972 74.6% 22,482 25.4% 7,652
1968 54.2% 16,794 35.5% 10,987 10.3% 3,181
1964 46.2% 15,481 53.8% 18,045
1960 59.3% 21,804 40.7% 14,962
1956 60.4% 20,414 39.6% 13,404
1952 61.0% 23,065 38.8% 14,665 0.2% 82
1948 48.5% 14,593 51.2% 15,404 0.3% 81
1944 56.8% 17,301 43.0% 13,111 0.2% 63
1940 50.5% 18,755 49.2% 18,249 0.3% 107
1936 41.8% 14,440 57.3% 19,822 0.9% 323
1932 39.8% 11,788 58.6% 17,349 1.6% 467
1928 70.9% 20,587 28.5% 8,292 0.6% 180
1924 55.1% 13,701 36.9% 9,176 8.0% 1,983
1920 58.4% 17,074 37.7% 11,006 3.9% 1,145
1916 44.5% 9,358 50.0% 10,513 5.5% 1,166
1912 27.4% 4,571 40.6% 6,789 32.0% 5,344
1908 49.0% 9,143 43.6% 8,130 7.4% 1,379
1904 50.5% 7,851 38.7% 6,006 10.8% 1,680
1900 45.9% 8,747 50.7% 9,658 3.4% 647
1896 40.4% 4,835 58.7% 7,026 0.9% 111
1892 44.2% 5,369 39.6% 4,805 16.3% 1,976
1888 48.9% 4,522 39.8% 3,684 11.3% 1,042




Unincorporated communities[edit]

Former community[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ {{cite web|title=2020 Census Demographic Data Map Viewer|url=https://mtgis-portal.geo.census.gov/arcgis/apps/MapSeries/index.html?appid=2566121a73de463995ed2b2fd7ff6eb7%7Caccess-date=August 16, 2021|
  2. ^ a b "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Osage". Oklahoma Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Archived from the original on January 2, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2009.
  4. ^ "Osage | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  5. ^ "Today in History: January 29th". Library of Congress.
  6. ^ "History of the Osage". rootsweb.ancestry.com. Archived from the original on May 9, 2018.[better source needed]
  7. ^ "Osage Culture". Minnesota State University. Archived from the original on January 11, 2011.
  8. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. pp. 168.
  9. ^ Eaton, David Wolfe (1916). How Missouri Counties, Towns and Streams Were Named. The State Historical Society of Missouri. pp. 178.
  10. ^ The History of Jasper County, Missouri: Including a Condensed History of the State, a Complete History of Carthage and Joplin, Other Towns and Townships. 1883.
  11. ^ "Civil War Moments: Missouri to hold secession convention" Archived September 17, 2014, at archive.today, Springfield News Leader, March 7, 2011.
  12. ^ List of Field Officers, Regiments and Battalions in the Confederate States Army, 1861-1865. 1912.
  13. ^ Waldo P. Johnson letter (October 24, 1862), Miscellaneous Correspondence, Peter W. Alexander Collection, Columbia University: C. F. Jackson letter, October 24, 1862, Miscellaneous Correspondence, Peter W. Alexander Collection.
  14. ^ Banasik, Michael E. (2010). Confederate Tales of the War in the Trans-Mississippi Part One: 1861 edited by Michael E. Banasik. ISBN 9781929919222.
  15. ^ McGregor, Malcolm G. (1901). The Biographical Record of Jasper County, Missouri by Malcolm G. McGregor.
  16. ^ Livingston, Joel Thomas (1912). A history of Jasper County, Missouri, and its people, Volume 1 By Joel Thomas Livingston.
  17. ^ "M.A. Thesis "Place Names In The Southwest Counties Of Missouri" by Robert Lee Meyers, University of Missouri-Columbia, 1930". Archived from the original on April 25, 2011.
  18. ^ ""Directory of Towns, Villages, and Hamlets Past and Present of Jasper County, Missouri" compiled by Arthur Paul Moser".
  19. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  20. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  21. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  22. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  23. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  24. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
  25. ^ Breeding, Marshall. "Carthage Public Library". Libraries.org. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  26. ^ Breeding, Marshall. "Joplin Public Library". Libraries.org. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  27. ^ Breeding, Marshall. "Sarcoxie Public Library". Libraries.org. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  28. ^ Breeding, Marshall. "Webb City Public Library". Libraries.org. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  29. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 25, 2018.

External links[edit]