Jasper Johns Jr.
May 15, 1930
Augusta, Georgia, U.S.
|Known for||Painting, printmaking|
|Notable work||Flags, Numbers, Maps, Stenciled Words, Targets|
|Movement||Abstract expressionism, Neo-Dada, pop art|
|Awards||(1988) Golden Lion 43rd Venice Biennale|
(1990) National Medal of Arts
(1993) Praemium Imperiale
(2011) Presidential Medal of Freedom
Jasper Johns (born May 15, 1930) is an American painter, sculptor, draftsman, and printmaker whose work is associated with abstract expressionism, Neo-Dada, and pop art. He is well known for his depictions of the American flag and other common objects and signs, such as targets, maps, letters, and numbers. At multiple points in his career, his work has held the title of highest known price paid for an artwork by a living artist.
Johns has received many honors throughout his career, including the National Medal of Arts in 1990 and Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2011. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1973 and the American Philosophical Society in 2007. In 2018, the New York Times called him the United States' "foremost living artist".
Johns is also a co-founder of the Foundation for Contemporary Arts. He currently lives and works in Connecticut.
Born in Augusta, Georgia, Jasper Johns spent his early life in Allendale, South Carolina, with his paternal grandparents after his parents' marriage failed. He then spent a year living with his mother in Columbia, South Carolina, and thereafter, several years living with his Aunt Gladys in Lake Murray, South Carolina, twenty-two miles from Columbia. He spent time with his father Jasper, Sr., and stepmother, Geraldine Sineath Johns, who encouraged his art by buying materials for him to draw and paint. He completed Edmunds High School (now Sumter High School) class of 1947 in Sumter, South Carolina, where he once again lived with his mother. Recounting this period in his life, he said, "In the place where I was a child, there were no artists and there was no art, so I really didn't know what that meant. I think I thought it meant that I would be in a situation different than the one that I was in."
Johns studied a total of three semesters at the University of South Carolina, from 1947 to 1948. He then moved to New York City and studied briefly at the Parsons School of Design in 1949. In 1952 and 1953, he was stationed in Sendai, Japan, during the Korean War.
In 1954, after returning to New York, Johns met Robert Rauschenberg and they became long-term lovers. For a time they lived in the same building as Rachel Rosenthal. During the same period he was strongly influenced by the choreographer Merce Cunningham and his partner, the composer John Cage. Working together they explored the contemporary art scene, and began developing their ideas on art.
In 1958, gallery owner Leo Castelli discovered Johns while visiting Rauschenberg's studio. “And we went down," Castelli remembered. "And then I was confronted with that miraculous array of unprecedented images -- flags, red, white and blue... All white... Large ones... small ones, targets... numbers, alphabets. Just an incredible sight ... Something one could not imagine, new and out of the blue." Castelli immediately offered Johns his first solo show. It was here that Alfred Barr, the founding director of New York's Museum of Modern Art, purchased four works from this show. In 1960 he received the Vincent van Volkmer Prize. In 1963, Johns and Cage founded the Foundation for Contemporary Performance Arts, now known as the Foundation for Contemporary Arts in New York City.
Johns currently lives in Sharon, Connecticut, and on the island of Saint Martin. Until 2012, he lived in a rustic 1930s farmhouse with a glass-walled studio in Stony Point, New York. He first began visiting Saint Martin in the late 1960s and bought the property there in 1972. The architect Philip Johnson is the principal designer of his Saint Martin home, a long, white, rectangular structure divided into three distinct sections.
Johns is best known for his series of flags, maps, targets, letters and numbers, a practice he began in 1954 after burning all his previous artwork. He started introducing text and numbers into his abstract paintings, such as Gray Numbers (1957) and False Start (1959), thus reinstating content. His use of defined or extant symbols differentiated his paintings from the gestural abstraction of the Abstract Expressionists, whose paintings were often understood as expressive of the individual personality or psychology of the artist. Because Johns imported well-known motifs into the fine arts, his paintings could be read as both representational (a flag, a target) and as abstract patterns (stripes, circles). Some art historians and museums characterize his choice of subjects as freeing him from decisions about composition. Johns has remarked: "What’s interesting to me is the fact that it isn’t designed, but taken. It’s not mine,” or, that these motifs are "things the mind already knows."
His encaustic painting Flag (1954–55), which he painted after having a dream of the American flag, marks the beginning of this new period. Flag allowed Johns to create a painting that was not completely abstract because it depicted a symbol (the American flag), yet drew attention to the graphic design of the symbol itself; was not personal because it was a national symbol, and yet, retained a sense of the handmade in the wax brushstrokes; and was not itself a literal flag, yet was not simply a painting. The painting raises a set of complex questions with no clear answers through its combination of symbol and medium. Museum of Modern Art director Alfred H. Barr had to convince the museum trustees to buy the painting, as they were afraid its ambiguity might lead to boycott or attack by patriotic groups. Johns has made over forty variations of American flag paintings.
He also often used plaster reliefs in his paintings (such as Targets with Four Faces, 1955), which challenge typical conceptions of paintings as two-dimensional. Johns often used encaustic as a painting method to create bumpy, textured surfaces unusual in painting. Johns' 2020 work Slice includes a drawing of a knee by Jéan-Marc Togodgue, a Cameroonian emigre student basketball player who attends the Salisbury School near Johns' estate in Sharon. Johns' use of Togodgue's artwork without first notifying him led to a dispute which was settled amicably.
Johns makes his sculptures in wax first, working the surfaces in a complex pattern of textures, often layering collaged elements such as impressions of newsprint, or of a key, a cast of his friend Merce Cunningham's foot, or one of his own hand. He then casts the waxes in bronze, and, finally, works over the surface again, applying the patina. Flashlight is one of his earliest pedestal-based sculptures. One sculpture, a double-sided relief titled Fragment of a Letter (2009), incorporates part of a letter from Vincent van Gogh to his friend, the artist Émile Bernard. Using blocks of type, Johns pressed the letters of van Gogh's words into the wax. On the other side he spelled out the letter in the American Sign Language alphabet with stamps he made himself. Finally, he signed his name in the wax with his hands in sign language. Numbers (2007) is the largest single bronze Johns has made and depicts his now classic pattern of stenciled numerals repeated in a grid.
Johns also produces intaglio prints, sculptures and lithographs. Since 1960 Johns has worked closely with Universal Limited Art Editions, Inc (ULAE) in a variety of printmaking techniques to investigate and develop existing compositions. Initially, lithography suited Johns and enabled him to create print versions of iconic depictions of flags, maps, and targets that filled his paintings. In 1971, Johns became the first artist at ULAE to use the handfed offset lithographic press, resulting in Decoy — an image realized in printmaking before it was made in drawing or painting. However, apart from the Lead Reliefs series of 1969, he has concentrated his efforts on lithography at Gemini G.E.L. In 1976, Johns partnered with writer Samuel Beckett to create Foirades/Fizzles; the book includes 33 etchings, which revisit an earlier work by Johns and five text fragments by Beckett. He has also worked with Atelier Crommelynck in Paris, in association with Petersburg Press of London and New York; and Simca Print Artists in New York. In 2000, Johns produced a limited-edition linocut for the Grenfell Press.
In 1973, Johns produced a print called Cup 2 Picasso, for XXe siècle, a French publication. For the May 2014 issue of Art in America, he created a black-and-white lithograph depicting many of his signature motifs, including numbers, a map of the United States and sign language.
For decades Johns worked with others to raise both funds and attention for Merce Cunningham's choreography. He privately assisted Robert Rauschenberg in some of his 1950s designs for Cunningham. In spring 1963, Johns helped start the Foundation for Contemporary Performance Arts, then intended to sponsor and raise funds in the performance field; the other founders were John Cage, Elaine de Kooning, the designer David Hayes, and the theater producer Lewis B. Lloyd. Johns later was the Merce Cunningham Dance Company's artistic adviser from 1967 to 1980. In 1968 Johns and Cunningham made a Duchamp-inspired theater piece, Walkaround Time, in which Johns's décor replicates elements of Duchamp's work The Large Glass (1915–23). Earlier, Johns also wrote neodada lyrics for The Druds, a short-lived avant-garde noise music art band that featured prominent members of the New York proto-conceptual art and minimal art community. Johns himself was a subject of a painting when Chuck Close painted him in one of his large scale portraits in 1998.
In 1964, architect Philip Johnson, a friend, commissioned Johns to make a piece for what is now the David H. Koch Theater at Lincoln Center. After presiding over the theatre's lobby for 35 years, Numbers (1964), an enormous 9-foot-by-7-foot grid of numerals, was supposed to be sold by the center for a reported $15 million. Art historians consider Numbers a historically important work in part because it is the largest of the artist's numbers motifs and the only one where each unit is on a separate stretcher, fashioned from a material called Sculpmetal, which was chosen by the artist for its durability. Responding to widespread criticism, the board of Lincoln Center had to drop its selling plans.
Johns's work is sometimes grouped in with Neo-Dadaist and pop art: he uses symbols in the Dada tradition of the readymades of Marcel Duchamp, but unlike many Pop artists like Andy Warhol, he does not engage with celebrity culture. Other scholars and museums position Johns and Rauschenberg as predecessors of Pop Art.
In 1998, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York bought Johns's White Flag. While the Museum would not disclose how much was paid, The New York Times reported that "experts estimate [the painting's] value at more than $20 million". The National Gallery of Art acquired about 1,700 of Johns's proofs in 2007. This made the gallery home to the largest number of Johns's works held by a single institution. The exhibition showed works from many points in Johns's career, including recent proofs of his prints. The Greenville County Museum of Art in Greenville, South Carolina, has several of his pieces in their permanent collection.
Johns was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1984. In 1990, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts. On February 15, 2011, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama, becoming the first painter or sculptor to receive a Presidential Medal of Freedom since Alexander Calder in 1977. In 1990 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member and became a full Academician in 1994. In 1994 he was awarded the Edward MacDowell Medal.
His text Statement (1959) has been published in Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists' Writings.
Since the 1980s, Johns typically produces only four to five paintings a year; some years he produces none. His large-scale paintings are much favored by collectors. His works from the mid to late 1950s, typically viewed as his period of rebellion against abstract expressionism, remain his most sought after. Skate's Art Market Research (Skate Press, Ltd.), a New York-based advisory firm servicing private and institutional investors in the art market, has ranked Jasper Johns as the 30th most valuable artist in the world. The firm's index of the 1,000 most valuable works of art sold at auction—Skate's Top 1000—contains 7 works by Johns.
In 1980 the Whitney Museum of American Art paid $1 million for Three Flags (1958), then the highest price ever paid for the work of a living artist. In 1988, Johns's False Start was sold at auction at Sotheby's to Samuel I. Newhouse, Jr., for $17.05 million, setting a record at the time as the highest price paid for a work by a living artist at auction, and the second highest price paid for an artwork at auction in the U.S. In 2006, private collectors Anne and Kenneth Griffin (founder of the Chicago-based hedge fund Citadel LLC) bought False Start (1959) from David Geffen for $80 million, making it the most expensive painting by a living artist. On November 11, 2014, a 1983 version of Flag was auctioned at Sotheby's in New York for $36 million, establishing a new auction record for Johns.
In 2010, Flag (1958), one of a series, was sold privately to hedge fund billionaire Steven A. Cohen for a reported $110 million (then £73 million; €81.7 million). The seller was Jean-Christophe Castelli, son of Leo Castelli, Johns's legendary dealer, who had died in 1999. While the price was not disclosed by the parties, art experts say Cohen paid about $110 million. "Flags" are Johns's most famous works. The artist painted his first American flag in 1954–1955, a work now at the MoMA.
- Flag (1954–1955)
- White Flag (1955)
- Target with Plaster Casts (1955)
- Tango (1955)
- Target with Four Faces (1955)
- Numbers in Color (1958–1959)
- Device circle (1959)
- False Start (1959)
- Three Flags (1958)
- Coat Hanger (1960)
- Painting With Two Balls (1960)
- Painted Bronze (1960)
- Target (1961)
- Painting With Ruler (1961)
- Painting Bitten by a Man (1961)
- The Critic Sees (1961)
- Study for Skin (1962)
- Diver (1962)
- Device (1961-1962)
- Map (1963)
- Periscope (Hart Crane) (1963)
- Figure Five (1963–1964)
- Voice (1966-1967)
- Walkaround Time (1968)
- Untitled (Skull) (1973)
- Titanic (1976–1978)
- Tantric Detail (1980)
- Usuyuki (1981)
- Perilous Night (1982)
- The Seasons (1986)
- Green Angel (1990)
- After Hans Holbein (1993)
- Bridge (1997)
- Regrets (2013)
- Slice (2020)
In popular culture
- In "Mom and Pop Art", a 1999 episode of the animated television series The Simpsons, Johns guest stars as himself. He is depicted as a thief who steals whatever he can get his hands on.
- "Lifetime Honors: National Medal of Arts". National Endowment for the Arts. n.d. Archived from the original on January 20, 2010. Retrieved October 14, 2021.
- "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- Solomon, Deborah (February 7, 2018). "Jasper Johns Still Doesn't Want to Explain His Art". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- "Jasper Johns (b. 1930)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. January 16, 2009. Retrieved May 3, 2021.
- "Untitled I". scaaic.org. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
- Rosenthal, Nan (October 2004). "Jasper Johns (born 1930) In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
- Horne, Peter; Lewis, Reina, eds. (1996). Outlooks: lesbian and gay sexualities and visual cultures. Routledge. p. 43. ISBN 0-415-12468-9.
Rauschenberg, who was better known in 1963 than Warhol was, and Jasper Johns were both prototypical Pop artists as well as gay men; they also were lovers.
- "Gay Artist Robert Rauschenberg Dead at 82". The Advocate. May 14, 2008.
He met Jasper Johns in 1954. He and the younger artist, both destined to become world-famous, became lovers and influenced each other's work. According to the book Lives of the Great 20th Century Artists, Rauschenberg told biographer Calvin Tomkins that 'Jasper and I literally traded ideas. He would say, 'I've got a terrific idea for you,' and then I'd have to find one for him.'
- Zongker, Brett (November 1, 2010). "Smithsonian explores impact of gays on art history". The Associated Press.
When artist Jasper Johns was mourning the end of his relationship with Robert Rauschenberg, he took one of his famous flag paintings, made it black, and dangled a fork and spoon together from the top. Hidden symbols in Johns' "In Memory of My Feelings," tell part of story, curators said. Color from the relationship is gone. A fork and spoon elsewhere in the painting are separated. Here we have a coded glimpse into a six-year relationship that was rarely acknowledged even in Rauschenberg's 2008 obituary. The Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery is decoding such history from abstract paintings and portraits in the first major museum exhibit to show how sexual orientation and gender identity have shaped American art.
- Vaughan, David (July 27, 2009). "Obituary: Merce Cunningham". The Observer.
- Lanchner, Carolyn; Johns, Jasper (2010). Jasper Johns. The Museum of Modern Art. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-87070-768-1.
- Miller, M.H. (February 18, 2019). "Jasper Johns, American Legend". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
- Finkel, Jori (May 1, 2010). "Artist Dossier: Jasper Johns". Art+Auction. Archived from the original on May 13, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
- "Vincent van Volkmer Kunstpreis". www.vincentvanvolkmer.com (in German). Retrieved August 22, 2019.
- "Founders". foundationforcontemporaryarts.org. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
- Hertz, Betti-Sue (2007). "Jasper Johns' Green Angel: The Making of A Print". Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
- Vogel, Carol (February 3, 2008). "The Gray Areas of Jasper Johns". New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
- Crow, Thomas (2015). The Long March of Pop : Art, Music, and Design, 1930-1995. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-0-300-20397-4. OCLC 971188663.
- Johns, Jasper (1961). "Target". The Art Institute of Chicago. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- "Word Art: Text-based Painting, Prints, Sculpture". Art Encyclopedia. Visual-Arts-Cork.com. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- Durner, Leah (2004), Tymieniecka, Anna-Teresa (ed.), "Gestural Abstraction and the Fleshiness of Paint", Metamorphosis: Creative Imagination in Fine Arts Between Life-Projects and Human Aesthetic Aspirations, Analecta Husserliana, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 187–194, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-2643-0_14, ISBN 978-1-4020-2643-0, retrieved April 21, 2021
- Stiles, Kristine; Selz, Peter (1996). Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists' Writings. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-520-20251-1.
- Rutherfurd, Chanler (April 20, 2018). "The Story Behind Jasper Johns' American Flag & His Most Famous Print". Sotheby's.
Source cited: The Prints of Jasper Johns 1960 – 1993, A Catalogue Raisonné, introduction
- Wallace, Isabelle Loring. "The incredible story behind Flag by Jasper Johns". Phaidon. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- "Flag - Jasper Johns". The Broad. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- Jones, Jonathan (October 24, 2008). "The truth beneath Jasper Johns' stars and stripes". The Guardian. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- Riefe, Jordan (February 21, 2018). "Why People Still Get Worked Up About Jasper Johns's 'Flag' Painting". Observer. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- Seed, John (July 2, 2017). "What Does a Jasper Johns Flag Stand For?". HuffPost. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- "Jasper Johns. Target with Four Faces. 1955". The Museum of Modern Art. 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- Cotter, Holland (February 2, 2007). "Bull's-Eyes and Body Parts: It's Theater, From Jasper Johns". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- Macpherson, Amy (November 29, 2017). "Video: what is encaustic painting?". Royal Academy of Arts. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- Edgers, Geoff. "How did this teenager's drawing wind up in a Jasper Johns painting at the Whitney?". Washington Post. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
- Solomon, Deborah (September 13, 2021). "All the World in a 'Slice' of Art". The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
- "The Complicated Story Behind Jasper Johns's Dispute with a Cameroonian Teen over a Drawing of a Knee (It Has a Happy Ending)". October 2021.
- "Jasper Johns: Numbers, 0–9, and 5 Postcards". Matthew Marks Gallery. 2012. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012.
- "Jasper Johns, Flashlight (1960/1988)". Walker Art Center. Archived from the original on April 25, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
- "Jasper Johns: New Sculpture and Works on Paper". Matthew Marks Gallery. 2011. Archived from the original on June 18, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
- "Jasper Johns: Prints 1987 – 2001". Gagosian Gallery. 2003. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
- "Gemini G.E.L.: A Catalogue Raisonné, 1966–2005 Jasper Johns". National Gallery of Art. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
- "Jasper Johns: The Prints, February 2 – April 13, 2008". Madison Museum of Contemporary Art. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
- "Sun on Six by Jasper Johns on artnet Auctions". Artnet.com. May 12, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
- "Cup 2 Picasso, 1973". National Gallery of Art. n.d. Retrieved October 14, 2021.
Accession Number 2008.27.7
- Carol Vogel (April 17, 2014), Art as Magazine Insert New York Times.
- Alistair Macaulay (January 7, 2013), Cunningham and Johns: Rare Glimpses Into a Collaboration New York Times.
-  Patty Mucha on The Druds
- Blake Gopnik, Warhol: A Life as Art London: Allen Lane. March 5, 2020. ISBN 978-0-241-00338-1 p. 297
- "Jasper, 1997-98". nga.gov.uk. Retrieved October 23, 2021.
- Julie Belcove (April 29, 2011), Meaning in the making Financial Times.
- Frank DiGiacomo (January 18, 1999), Art in the Gilded Age: Lincoln Center Czars Hang Up Jasper Johns New York Observer.
- Carol Vogel (January 26, 1999), Lincoln Center Drops Plan to Sell Its Jasper Johns Painting New York Times.
- Tate. "Neo-dada – Art Term". Tate [Museum]. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- "Neo-Dada". The Guggenheim Museums and Foundation. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
The term Neo-Dada, first popularized in a group of articles by Barbara Rose in the early 1960s, has been applied to a wide variety of artistic works, including the pre-Pop Combines and assemblages of Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns ...
- Vogel, Carol (October 29, 1998). "Met Buys Its First Painting by Jasper Johns". New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2008.
- Zongker, Brett (March 6, 2007). "National Gallery to Get Jasper Johns Prints". Artinfo. The Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 2, 2009. Retrieved May 3, 2021.
- "Exhibition: Jasper Johns". gcma.org. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter J" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- "National Medal of Arts". The National Endowment for the Arts. April 24, 2013. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- "Jasper Johns to be awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom". artforum.com. February 14, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
- "MacDowell Medal winners 1960-2011". The Daily Telegraph. April 13, 2011. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved December 6, 2019.
- Kristine Stiles & Peter Selz, Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists' Writings (Second Edition, Revised and Expanded by Kristine Stiles) University of California Press 2012, p. 375
- "SkatePress.com". SkatePress.com. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
- RITA REIFPublished: November 11, 1988 (November 11, 1988). "Jasper Johns Painting Is Sold for $17 Million – New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
- Jori Finkel (May 14, 2009), Jasper Johns BLOUINARTINFO.
- "Rothko, Jasper Johns star at NYC art auction". businessweek.com. Archived from the original on November 14, 2014. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
- "Most expensive living artist at private sale". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on February 27, 2018. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
- "Jasper Johns:10 works to know". Royal Academy of Arts. Retrieved October 21, 2021.
- Works of Art: Modern Art Metropolitan Museum of Art, online June 15, 2007
- (March 15, 2019). Jasper Johns. Tango, (1955). artdesigncafe. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- Jasper Johns. Target with Four Faces, (1955), moma.org.. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- Kozloff, Max (November 1967). "Jasper Johns:The Colors, The Maps, The Devices". Artforum. 6 (3). Retrieved October 25, 2021.
- (March 15, 2019). Jasper Johns. Device circle, (1959). artdesigncafe. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- "Selected Works". Moma.org. Retrieved October 22, 2021.
- "Three Flags". Whitney Museum of American Art. Retrieved October 25, 2021.
- "Jasper Johns:Coat Hanger I, 1960". MOMA~accessdate=October 25, 2021.
- "The Critic Sees". MatthewMarks.con. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
- "Buyer of Johns Painting". The New York Times. May 9, 1988. ISSN 0362-4331.
... Jasper Johns's fiercely compelling Diver, from 1962, which brought $4.2 million last Tuesday at Christie's, ... was an auction record for a work by any living artist.
- "Jasper Johns:Voice, 1966-67". MOMA~accessdate=October 25, 2021.
- "Untitle (Skull), 1973". Whitney. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
- Cotter, Holland (March 21, 2014). "A Lens Catches; a Painter Converts". The New York Times.
- Solomon, Deborah (September 13, 2021). "All the World in a 'Slice' of Art". The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2021.
- ""The Simpsons" Mom and Pop Art (TV Episode 1999)" – via www.imdb.com.
- Further reading
- Basualdo, Carlos, and Scott Rothkopf. Jasper Johns: Mind/Mirror. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art; Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2021.
- Bernstein, Roberta. Jasper Johns' Paintings and Sculptures, 1954–1974: "The Changing Focus of the Eye." Studies in the Fine Arts: The Avant-Garde 46. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1985.
- Bernstein, Roberta. Jasper Johns: Catalogue Raisonné of Painting and Sculpture. 5 Volumes. New York: Wildenstein Plattner Institute, 2016.
- Bernstein, Roberta. Jasper Johns: Redo an Eye. New York: Wildenstein Plattner Institute, 2017.
- Bernstein, Roberta, Edith Devaney, et al. Jasper Johns. London: Royal Academy of Arts; Los Angeles, Broad, 2017.
- Busch, Julia M. A Decade of Sculpture: The New Media in the 1960s. Philadelphia: Art Alliance Press, 1974.
- Castleman, Riva. Jasper Johns: A Print Retrospective. New York: Museum of Modern Art 1986.
- Crichton, Michael. Jasper Johns. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994. Revised and expanded edition of the 1977 Whitney Museum exhibition catalogue.
- Dacherman, Susan, and Jennifer L. Roberts.Jasper Johns: Catalogue Raisonné of Monotypes. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2017.
- Field, Richard. The Prints of Jasper Johns: 1960–1993; A Catalogue Raisonné. West Islip, NY: Universal Limited Art Editions, 1994.
- Hess, Barbara. Jasper Johns. The Business of the Eye. Translated by John William Gabriel. Basic Art Series. Cologne: Taschen, 2007.
- Jasper Johns: Catalogue Raisonné of Drawing. 6 Volumes. Houston: Menil Collection, 2018.
- Kozloff, Max. Jasper Johns. Meridian Modern Artists Series. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1972. (out of print)
- Krauss, Rosalind E. '"Split Decisions: Jasper Johns in Retrospect; Whole in Two." Artforum, 35, no. 1 (September 1996): 78–85, 125. Findarticles.com
- Kuspit, Donald. "Jasper Johns: The Graying of Modernism." In Psychodrama: Modern Art as Group Therapy, 417–25. London: Ziggurat, 2010.
- Orton, Fred. Figuring Jasper Johns. Essays in Art and Culture. London: Reaktion Books, 1994.
- Rondeau, James, and Douglas Druick. Jasper Johns: Gray. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago; New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.
- Rosenberg, Harold. "Jasper Johns: 'Things the Mind Already Knows'". Vogue, February 1964, 174–77, 201, 203.
- Shapiro, David. Jasper Johns Drawings, 1954–1984. Edited by Christopher Sweet. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1984 (out of print).
- Steinberg, Leo. Jasper Johns. New York: George Wittenborn, 1963. Revised and expanded as "Jasper Johns: The First Seven Years of His Art." In Other Criteria: Confrontations with Twentieth-Century Art, 17–54. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
- Tomkins, Calvin. Off the Wall: Portrait of Robert Rauschenberg. New York: Picador, 2005.
- Varnedoe, Kirk, ed. Jasper Johns: Writings, Sketchbook Notes, Interviews. Compiled by Christel Hollevoet. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1996.
- Varnedoe, Kirk, Roberta Bernstein, and Lilian Tone. Jasper Johns: A Retrospective. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1996.
- Weiss, Jeffrey. Jasper Johns: An Allegory of Painting, 1955–1965. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art; New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.
- Yau, John. A Thing Among Things: The Art of Jasper Johns. New York: D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, 2008.ISBN 9781933045627
- Jasper Johns: An Allegory of Painting, 1955–1965, an exhibition at the US National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
- States and Variations: Prints by Jasper Johns, an exhibition at the US National Gallery of Art
- Jasper Johns (born 1930) Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
- Jasper Johns at the Museum of Modern Art
- Jasper Johns bio at artchive.com
- PBS Jasper Johns 2008
- Powers Art Center - A Showcase of Jasper Johns's Works on Paper
- Jasper Johns's Three Flags at Art Beyond Sight (Art Education for the Blind)
- Review of the Whitney and the Philadelphia museums' 2021 shows at Artnet News, October 12, 2021
- The Formulaic Juxtapositions of Jasper Johns's 'Mind/Mirror', at Frieze, November 12, 2021