Jastrowie was one of the southernmost centres of the Pomeranians. In the beginning of the 14th century it belonged to the Ujściecastellany. On May 5, 1602, the town received the city rights granted by Piotr Potulicki and confirmed by King Sigismund III Vasa. In the 17th century the town developed quickly. New inhabitants arrived, including Pomeranians, settlers from Scotland, and Jews.
After the Partitions of Poland the town was incorporated into Prussia. In 19th century Jastrowie (then called Jastrow in German) became one of the most important centres of horse trade. During World War II, Jastrowie was an important point of Pommerstellung (Wał Pomorski), one of the most important German lines of fortification in the East.
Currently Jastrowie is the site of several wood and bicycle factories. It was part of the Piła Voivodship from 1975 until 1998, when the administrative region was superseded by the Greater Poland Voivodship. Jastrowie's most important cultural event is its International Folk Festival, "Bukowińskie Spotkania".