Jat states in Rajasthan
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Jat people established themselves in the Indian desert of the present-day state of Rajasthan, India, many centuries ago, although exactly when is unknown. Foreign invaders of India encountered them there. By the 4th century they had spread up to Punjab.
The region of Jangladesh in northern Rajasthan included the present-day districts of Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, and Hanumangarh. According to the Suraj Mal Memorial Education Society, Jats failed to find a desirable place in south Rajasthan and north Gujarat because the regions were already inhabited by tribes such as the Rajputs, Gujjars, Bhils, Yadavs, Guhils and Mers. During this period Abhiras pushed them in Rajasthan.
Jangladesh in ancient times was inhabited by Jat clans ruled by their own chiefs and largely governed by their own customary law. Whole of the region was possessed by six or seven cantons namely Punia, Godara, Saran, Sihag, Beniwal, Johiya and Kaswan. Besides these cantons there were several clan of Jat people, simultaneously wrested from Rajput proprietors for instance Bagor, Kharipatta, Mohila or Mehila, Bhukar, Bhadu, Chahar.
|Name of janapada||Name of King||No. of villages||Capital||Names of districts|
|Sihag||Chokha Singh||150||Suin||Rawatsar, Baramsar, Purabsar Dandusar, Gandaisi|
|Beniwal||Raisal Singh||150||Rasalana||Bhukarka, Sanduri, Manoharpur, Kooi, Bae|
|Johiya||Sher Singh||600||Bhurupal||Jaitpur, Kumanu, Mahajan, Peepasar, Udasar|
|Punia||Kanha Singh||300||Luddi||Bhadra, Ajitpura, Sidhmukh, Rajgarh, Dadrewa, Sankhoo|
|Saharan||Pula Singh||300||Bhadang||Khejra, Phoglo, Buchawas, Sui, Badnu, Sirsila|
|Godara||Pandu Singh||700||Shekhsar||Shekhsar, Pundrasar, Gusainsar (Bada), Gharsisar, Garibdesar, Rungaysar, Kalu|
|Kaswan||Kanwarpal Singh||100||Sidhmukh||[ Makrana( jusari )] Suja kaswan|
Other republics in Jangladesh
- Latiyal -Latiyal jat were live in nagaur
- Bhadu - Bhadus were rulers in Jangladesh where they established an important city Bhadra. Samantraj was a popular ruler of Bhadus. Bhadus had a war with 'Bhagore' people and after capturing it they moved to Marwar area. Bhadus also occupied many villages in Ajmer-Merwara.
- Bhati - Jat Bhatis ruled Bhatner, presently Hanumangarh, and Bhatinda. Bhatner was historically important because it was situated on route of invaders from Central Asia to India.
- Bhukar - Bhukars were initially settled at Sambhar in Rajasthan. They were the rulers in this area and their ruling method was that of 'Bhomia-chor'. Gothra Bhukaran was their capital.
- Jakhar - The king of the Jakhar clan, Jakhbhadra, settled in Jangladesh and made his capital at Reni (modern-day Taranagar). At a later date, the Jakhars established a kingdom, the ruins of which are found at Madhauli, which was in the princely state of Jaipur.
- Sangwan - The Sangwan jats ruled at Sarsu in Jangladesh region of Rajasthan in 8th to 10th century.
- Sahu - They have been the rulers of a small republic in Jangladesh. Their capital was at village Dhansia, situated at a distance of 65 km in northwest of Churu town. There were 84 villages in their territory.,
Jat republics in Marwar
Jat republics in Matsya region
- Vijayrania - Mentioned as Varetatae people of Greek language by Megasthenes were rulers in Khandelawati. Vijayranias founded a village called 'Vijarna' in 1078 and constructed a fort at 'Ladhana' in 1178. One chieftain Jagsingh of this clan founded his rule in Palsana of Shekhawati region in year 1255.
Jat republics in southern Rajasthan
- Jatrana - This is an ancient gotra. According to Kautilya they fought against Alexander the Great. According to Alberuni this hilly place called Chittor ( Jattaur) was the capital of the Jatrana clan. They call themselves descendants of Tur.
- Gora - In ancient times ruled in Ajmer-Merwara, Mewar, and Bundi-Sirohi areas in Rajasthan. They are descendants of Pingala Nagavanshi.
- Nagil-This is a ruling clan of nagavanshi jat.Ranthambore was founded by chaudhary Ranpal singh nagil around 830AD.Nagill jat ruled this area for more than 150years and their capital was Ranthambore Jatvas.Nagill constructed a first small fort on a hill as narrated by his clan members.Their kingdom was spread over 150 villages adjoining Ranthambore Jatvas.Raja sajraj veer singh nagil was the most famous and skilful ruler of this clan without any illadvised ambition.
- Ranthambore - It was founded by Ran Mal Jat, by putting a stambh (pillar) at the location of present Ranthambore. He challenged the neighbouring rulers for battle. The area around Ranthambore was ruled by Gora and Nagil jats till two centuries prior to the rule of Prithvi Raj Chauhan.
- Chandlai - A small republic founded by Jat chieftain 'Chandla'. He got constructed a pucca pond near the village in the name of her daughter ‘Bhala’ and put an inscription on it on baisakh sudi 15 samvat 1027 (970 AD). Chandla was ruler of Tonk at that time.,
- The Jats: their role & contribution to the socio-economic life and polity of north & north-west India, Volume 3-page-16
- Dashrath Sharma, Rajasthan through the ages, Jodhpur, 1966, Vol.I, p. 287-288
- Dr.Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar (1998). Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats). Agra: Jaypal Agencies. p. 282.
- Jibraeil: "Position of Jats in Churu Region", The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 222
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, Page 237
- Rajasthan Sandesh, Year 1, Vol 2