Jathedar of Akal Takht

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Jathedar of Akal Takht
ਜੱਥੇਦਾਰ ਅਕਾਲ ਤਖ਼ਤ ਸਾਹਿਬ
Nishan Sahib.svg
Incumbent
Jagtar Singh Hawara (Sarbat Khalsa)
Dhian Singh Mand (Acting)
since 10 November 2015
Harpreet Singh (SGPC)
since 22 October 2018
Acting
StyleBhai Sahib
Honorable Jathedar (Formal)
Singh Sahib (Formal)
Member ofKhalsa
Reports toSikhs
SeatAkal Takht
AppointerSarbat Khalsa
SGPC
Formation17th Century
First holderBhai Gurdas
as Custodian of Akal Takht

The Jathedar of the Akal Takht (Punjabi: ਜੱਥੇਦਾਰ ਅਕਾਲ ਤਖ਼ਤ ਸਾਹਿਬ), is the appointed head of the Akal Takht and the Sikhs of the world. Sikh clergy consists of five Jathedars, one each from five Takhts.

Originally known as Akal Bunga,[1] the building directly opposite the Darbar Sahib was built by Guru Hargobind as a place of justice and consideration of temporal issues; the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa and the place of the Jathedar, the highest spokesman of the Sikhs.

Selection process[edit]

During the 18th and 19th century, Jathedars of Akal Takht were appointed by the Sarbat Khalsa, a biannual deliberative assembly of the Sikhs held at Amritsar, Punjab.

From 1921, Jathedars of Takhts have been appointed by Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC), an elected body of the Sikhs controlled by Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD), a political party in the state of Punjab and an ally of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

A Sarbat Khalsa convened by Sikh organisations in 2015 appointed Jagtar Singh Hawara as the Jathedar of Akal Takht. Ex-SGPC president Avtar Singh Makkar however condemned the convening as against the principles of Sikhism and it's decisions null and void. He added that the removal of Jathedars came under Sikh Gurdwaras Act, 1925 and no one could challenge the SGPC's authority.[2]

List[edit]

Colour key

  Sarbat Khalsa   SGPC

No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Assigned by Term of office Ref
Custodians of Akal Takht
1 Bhai Gurdas
(1551–1636)
Guru Hargobind 1618 1636
2 Mani Singh
(1644–1737)
Execution of Bhai Mani Singh.jpg Guru Gobind Singh 1721 24 June
1734
[3]
[4]
[5]
Jathedars of Akal Takht
3 Darbara Singh
(1644–1734)
Darbara Singh.jpg Sarbat Khalsa 1722 1734 [6]
4 Kapur Singh Virk
(1697–1753)
Sarbat Khalsa 1737 1753 [7]
[6]
[8]
5 Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
(1718–1783)
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.jpg Sarbat Khalsa 1753 1783 [9]
[10]
6 Phula Singh
(1761–1823)
Sardar Phula Singh.jpg Sarbat Khalsa 1800 1823 [6]
7 Hanuman Singh
(1755–1846)
Akali Hanuman Singh.jpg Sarbat Khalsa 1823 1846 [6]
8 Prahlad Singh
Prahlad Singh.jpg Sarbat Khalsa 1846 Unknown [11]
Sarbrah of Akal Takht
9 Arur Singh Naushera
1865-1926
Arur Singh.jpg British East India Company 1907 August
1920
[12]
Jathedars of Akal Takht
10 Teja Singh Bhuchar
Sarbat Khalsa 12 October
1920
1921 [13] [14] [4]
(11) Teja Singh Akarpuri
1892-1975
Jathedar Teja Singh Akarpuri.jpg SGPC 29 April
1921
13 October
1923
[15]
(12) Udham Singh Nagoke
(1894-1966)
Udham Singh Nagoke.jpg SGPC 1923 1924 [13]
(13) Acchar Singh
(1893-1976)
Jathedar Achhar Singh.jpg SGPC 09 February
1924
10 January
1926
[16]
(12) Udham Singh Nagoke
(1894-1966)
Udham Singh Nagoke.jpg SGPC 10 January
1926
short period [16]
(11) Teja Singh Akarpuri
1892-1975
Jathedar Teja Singh Akarpuri.jpg SGPC 27 November
1926
21 January
1930
[15]
14 Didar Singh
SGPC 1925 short period [13]
[14]
15 Jawaher Singh Mattu Bhaike
SGPC 1926 short period [13] [14]
16 Gurmukh Singh Musafir
SGPC 1931 1934 [13] [14]
17 Wasakha Singh Dadehar
(1877-1957)
Visakha Singh.jpg SGPC October
1934
December
1934
18 Mohan Singh Nagoke
(1896-1969)
SGPC 1935 1952 [14]
19 Partap Singh
(1904-1984)
Jathedar Partap Singh.jpg SGPC 1952 1954 [17]
(13) Acchar Singh
(1893-1976)
Jathedar Achhar Singh.jpg SGPC 23 May
1955
08 November
1962
[16]
20 Mohan Singh Tur
(1916-1979)
SGPC [18]
21 Sadhu Singh Bhaura
(1905-1984)
SGPC 1964 1980
22 Gurdial Singh Ajnoha
(1927-1982)
SGPC 2 March
1980
1983
23 Kirpal Singh
(1918-1993)
SGPC 1983 26 July
1986
[19]
24 Jasbir Singh Rode
Sarbat Khalsa[citation needed] 9 March
1988
1989
25 Darshan Singh
(born 1940)
SGPC 1989 1990
26 Manjit Singh
SGPC 1994 1997
27 Ranjit Singh
SGPC 1997 1999
28 Puran Singh
SGPC 1999 2000
29 Joginder Singh Vadanti
SGPC 2000 2008
30 Gurbachan Singh
(born 1948)
SGPC 06 August
2008
18 October
2018
[20] [21]
31 Jagtar Singh Hawara
(born 1973)
Sarbat Khalsa 10 November
2015
Incumbent [22]
Acting Jathedars of Akal Takht
1 Partap Singh
(1904-1984)
Jathedar Partap Singh.jpg SGPC 1938 1948 [17]
2 Kirpal Singh
(1918-1993)
SGPC 1963 1965 [19]
3 Gurdev Singh Kaunke
(1949-1993)
Sarbat Khalsa 26 January
1986
1993 [23]
4 Gurbachan Singh Manochahal
(1954-1993)
Sarbat Khalsa 27 April
1986
26 January
1987
[23] [24]
5 Darshan Singh
(born 1940)
SGPC 31 December
1986
9 March
1988
[24] [23] [25]
6 Dhian Singh Mand
Sarbat Khalsa 10 November
2015
Incumbent [22][26]
7 Harpreet Singh
SGPC 22 October
2018
Incumbent [21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Akal Bunga". The Sikh Encyclopedia. Gateway to Sikhism Foundation. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  2. ^ At Sarbat Khalsa, hardliners appoint Hawara Akal Takht Jathedar
  3. ^ Dilgeer, Dr. Harjinder Singh. Akal Takht Sahib. Guru Nanak Institute of Sikh Studies. p. 107. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  4. ^ a b Dilgeer, Harjinder Singh (January 1995). Akal Takht Sahib: Concept and Role (2 ed.). Singh Brothers. ISBN 2-930247-38-X.
  5. ^ Singh, Sukhdayal (1991). Siri Akal Takhat Sahib Sarbat Khalsa Ate Gurmatta. Punjab University, Patiala. p. 3. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d "Jathedars (7th till 1st)". Shiromani Panth Akali Budha Dal (Panjwan Takhat). Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  7. ^ "Nawab Kapur Singh Virk (1697-1753)". Sikhism History. Sikhism History. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  8. ^ Nabha, Kahan Singh (13 April 1930). Gur Shabad Ratanakar Mahankosh (1 ed.). Languages Department of Punjab, Patiala. p. ਕਪੂਰ ਸਿੰਘ. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  9. ^ Nabha, Kahan Singh (13 April 1930). Gur Shabad Ratanakar Mahankosh (1 ed.). Languages Department of Punjab, Patiala. p. ਜੱਸਾ ਸਿੰਘ. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  10. ^ Bedi, Daljit Singh. "ਸੁਲਤਾਨ-ਉਲ-ਕੌਮ ਜੱਸਾ ਸਿੰਘ ਆਹਲੂਵਾਲੀਆ ਨੂੰ ਯਾਦ ਕਰਦਿਆਂ..." Ajit Jalandhar. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  11. ^ "Jathedars (14th till 8th)". Shiromani Panth Akali Budha Dal (Panjwan Takhat). Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  12. ^ Mittal, Satish Chandra (1997). Freedom Movement in Punjab (1905-29) (1 ed.). Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p. 149. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  13. ^ a b c d e Singh, Balkar (April 1995). Akal Takht Sahib Jot Te Jugat. Chandigarh: Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee. p. Appendices. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  14. ^ a b c d e Dilgeer, Harjinder Singh (1980). The Akal Takht. Jalandhar: Punjabi Book Company Jullundur. p. 98. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  15. ^ a b Mikhayhu, Alain (2011). Teja Singh Akarpuri. Tempor. ISBN 9786138779568.
  16. ^ a b c Bharti, Mahinder Singh (3 August 1997). Sankep Jeevani Singh Sahib Jathedar Aachar Singh Ji. Bhai Chatar Singh Jiwan Singh. p. 6.
  17. ^ a b Nirankari, Dr Maan Singh (1900s). Giani Partap Singh Ji. Darbar Printing Press. p. 17.
  18. ^ Anttal, Gurpreet Singh. "ਬਰਸੀ 'ਤੇ ਵਿਸ਼ੇਸ਼-ਜਥੇਦਾਰ ਮੋਹਨ ਸਿੰਘ ਤੁੜ". Ajit Jalandhar. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  19. ^ a b "Kirpal Singh, Singh Sahib Giani". The Sikh Encyclopedia. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  20. ^ Why a road-safety rule has upset some Sikhs
  21. ^ a b "Giani Harpreet Singh is acting jathedar of Akal Takht". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  22. ^ a b Deep, Ajay. "Jagtar Singh Hawara is the new Akal Takht Jathedar via Sarbat Khalsa". Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  23. ^ a b c Singh, Harjinder (2011). Game of Love (2 ed.). Walsall: Akaal Publishers. pp. 96–97. ISBN 9780955458712.
  24. ^ a b Walia, Varinder. "'Misdeeds' of stalwarts during militancy Amritsar ex-DC reveals it all". The Tribune. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  25. ^ Chima, Jusdep Singh (2010). The Sikh Separatist Insurgency in India. New Delhi: SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd. p. 141. ISBN 9788132103028.
  26. ^ https://www.hindustantimes.com/punjab/parallel-jathedar-mand-s-bid-to-give-sandesh-at-golden-temple-foiled/story-QsRycm7u4MYyV8B2vyQPlJ.html