Java Development Kit

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Java Development Kit
Developer(s)Oracle Corporation
Stable release
22 / 19 March 2024; 2 months ago (2024-03-19)[1]
Written inJava, C++, C, Assembly[2]
Operating systemWindows, macOS, Linux
Platformaarch64, x86-64
LicenseOracle No-Fee Terms and Conditions (NFTC)[3] with third party components[4]

The Java Development Kit (JDK) is a distribution of Java technology by Oracle Corporation. It implements the Java Language Specification (JLS) and the Java Virtual Machine Specification (JVMS) and provides the Standard Edition (SE) of the Java Application Programming Interface (API). It is derivative of the community driven OpenJDK which Oracle stewards.[5] It provides software for working with Java applications. Examples of included software are the Java virtual machine, a compiler, performance monitoring tools, a debugger, and other utilities that Oracle considers useful for Java programmers.

Oracle releases the current version of the software under the Oracle No-Fee Terms and Conditions (NFTC) license. Oracle releases binaries for the x86-64 architecture for Windows, macOS, and Linux based operating systems, and for the aarch64 architecture for macOS and Linux. Previous versions supported the Oracle Solaris operating system and SPARC architecture.

Oracle's primary implementation of the JVMS is known as the HotSpot (virtual machine).

JDK contents[edit]

The JDK has as its primary components a collection of programming tools, including:

  • appletviewer – this tool can be used to run and debug Java applets without a web browser
  • apt – the annotation-processing tool[6]
  • extcheck – a utility that detects JAR file conflicts
  • idlj – the IDL-to-Java compiler. This utility generates Java bindings from a given Java IDL file.
  • jabswitch – the Java Access Bridge. Exposes assistive technologies on Microsoft Windows systems.
  • java – the loader for Java applications. This tool is an interpreter and can interpret the class files generated by the javac compiler. Now a single launcher is used for both development and deployment. The old deployment launcher, jre, no longer comes with Sun JDK, and instead it has been replaced by this new java loader.
  • javac – the Java compiler, which converts source code into Java bytecode
  • javadoc – the documentation generator, which automatically generates documentation from source code comments
  • jar – the archiver, which packages related class libraries into a single JAR file. This tool also helps manage JAR files.
  • javafxpackager – tool to package and sign JavaFX applications
  • jarsigner – the jar signing and verification tool
  • javah – the C header and stub generator, used to write native methods
  • javap – the class file disassembler
  • javaws – the Java Web Start launcher for JNLP applications
  • JConsole – Java Monitoring and Management Console
  • jdb – the debugger
  • jhat – Java Heap Analysis Tool (experimental)
  • jinfo – This utility gets configuration information from a running Java process or crash dump. (experimental)
  • jmap Oracle jmap – Memory Map– This utility outputs the memory map for Java and can print shared object memory maps or heap memory details of a given process or core dump. (experimental)
  • jmc – Java Mission Control
  • jpackage – a tool for generating self-contained application bundles. (experimental)
  • jps – Java Virtual Machine Process Status Tool lists the instrumented HotSpot Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) on the target system. (experimental)
  • jrunscript – Java command-line script shell.
  • jshell – a read–eval–print loop, introduced in Java 9.
  • jstack – utility that prints Java stack traces of Java threads (experimental)
  • jstat – Java Virtual Machine statistics monitoring tool (experimental)
  • jstatd – jstat daemon (experimental)
  • keytool – tool for manipulating the keystore
  • pack200 – JAR compression tool
  • policytool – the policy creation and management tool, which can determine policy for a Java runtime, specifying which permissions are available for code from various sources.
  • VisualVM – visual tool integrating several command-line JDK tools and lightweight[clarification needed] performance and memory profiling capabilities (no longer included in JDK 9+)
  • wsimport – generates portable JAX-WS artifacts for invoking a web service.
  • xjc – Part of the Java API for XML Binding (JAXB) API. It accepts an XML schema and generates Java classes.

Experimental tools may not be available in future versions of the JDK.

The JDK also comes with a complete Java Runtime Environment (JRE), usually called a private runtime, due to the fact that it is separated from the "regular" JRE and has extra contents. It consists of a Java virtual machine and all of the class libraries present in the production environment, as well as additional libraries only useful to developers, such as the internationalization libraries and the IDL libraries.

Copies of the JDK also include a wide selection of example programs demonstrating the use of almost all portions of the Java API.

Other JDKs[edit]

In addition to the most widely used JDK discussed in this article, there are other JDKs commonly available for a variety of platforms, some of which started from the Sun JDK source and some that did not. All adhere to the basic Java specifications, but often differ in explicitly unspecified areas, such as garbage collection, compilation strategies, and optimization techniques. They include:

In development or in maintenance mode:

Not being maintained or discontinued:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Release notes". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  2. ^ "Based on the OpenJDK sources". OpenJDK. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  3. ^ "Oracle No-Fee Terms and Conditions License". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  4. ^ "Licensing Information User Manual" (PDF). Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  5. ^ "OpenJDK FAQ". OpenJDK. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  6. ^ "JDK 5.0 Java Annotation Processing Tool (APT)-related APIs & Developer Guides -- from Sun Microsystems". Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  7. ^ "Azul Zing product page".
  8. ^ "Azul Zulu download page".
  9. ^ "developerWorks : IBM developer kits : Downloads". Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  10. ^ "Support at Apple". Archived from the original on 13 December 2007.
  11. ^ "Java Linux Contact Information". Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  12. ^ "Java-Linux Latest Information". Archived from the original on 19 October 1996. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  13. ^ "JRockit Family Download page". Retrieved 5 August 2012.

External links[edit]