Javad Nekounam

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Javad Nekounam
Iran captain Javad Nekounam in press conference before Nigeria match, 2014 FIFA World Cup (cropped).jpg
Nekounam in 2014
Personal information
Full name Javad Nekounam[1]
Date of birth (1980-09-07) 7 September 1980 (age 42)
Place of birth Ray, Iran
Height 1.86 m (6 ft 1 in)
Position(s) Central midfielder
Club information
Current team
Foolad (manager)
Youth career
Naft Tehran
Pas
Senior career*
Years Team Apps (Gls)
1998–2005 Pas 179 (45)
2005–2006 Al-Wahda 11 (3)
2006 Al-Sharjah 11 (5)
2006–2012 Osasuna 149 (24)
2012–2014 Esteghlal 44 (8)
2014 Al-Kuwait 11 (1)
2014–2015 Osasuna 22 (5)
2015–2016 Saipa 15 (3)
2016 Al-Arabi 11 (1)
Total 453 (95)
National team
1998–2000 Iran U20
1999–2002 Iran U23 10 (2)
2000–2015 Iran[a] 151 (39)
Teams managed
2016 Iran (assistant)
2017–2018 Khooneh be Khooneh
2018–2019 Nassaji
2019–2021 Foolad
2021– Foolad
2022– Iran (assistant)
Honours
*Club domestic league appearances and goals

Javad Nekounam (Persian: جواد نکونام; born 7 September 1980) is an Iranian retired professional footballer who played as a central midfielder and is the current manager of Foolad FC.

He spent most of his professional career with Pas and Spain's Osasuna, appearing in 197 official games and scoring 31 goals over his two spells with the latter club and also being team captain. He also competed in the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and Qatar, in 18 seasons as a senior.

Nicknamed Neku,[3] and widely regarded as one of Asia's greatest footballers,[4][5] Nekounam represented the Iran national team a record of 148 times,[6] playing several major tournaments including two World Cups and four Asian Cups.

Club career[edit]

Early years[edit]

Nekounam was born in Ray, Iran. Having played for Pas Tehran F.C. for several years, appearing in the AFC Champions League with the team, he signed a five-month contract with Al-Wahda F.C. in the United Arab Emirates for US$1 million, in 2005.[7]

In January 2006, Nekounam joined Al Sharjah SC, although some European clubs such as 1. FC Kaiserslautern and Tottenham Hotspur had previously shown interest in him.[8]

Osasuna[edit]

Nekounam with Osasuna in front of Cristiano Ronaldo of Real Madrid at the Santiago Bernabéu on 2 May 2010.

After his performance at the 2006 World Cup Nekounam was linked to the likes of Hertha BSC of the Bundesliga and Ligue 1's Olympique Lyonnais, but he eventually joined CA Osasuna on a two-year contract,[9] with an option to a third year and a 5 million minimum release-fee clause – he thus became the first Iranian player to be signed by a Spanish club.[10] On 22 February 2007, he scored in the 120th minute of the match against FC Girondins de Bordeaux in the knockout stages of the UEFA Cup to help to a 1–0 home win and aggregate score,[11] and after a particularly successful first season began to attract interest from other European sides, notably Scotland's Rangers who had a £1 million pound offer rejected.[12]

On 14 August 2007, Nekounam suffered an anterior cruciate ligament rupture in his right knee[13][14] and, after undergoing a successful surgery in Augsburg, Germany, was sidelined for eight months. His number 24 was given to new signing Jaroslav Plašil, as he recovered from his injury.

Nekounam agreed to a three-year extension on 24 November 2007 as his contract that was set to end on 30 June 2008, with a €5 million buyout clause for the first two seasons and €2.5 million for the last.[15] In February of the following year he made his first training appearance since the injury – incidentally, a week later, Xavier Margairaz suffered a similar injury, missing an estimate period that could amount to one year – and on 27 April he made his return against Valencia CF, coming on as a substitute for Francisco Puñal in the 70th minute of a 3–0 away loss.[16]

On 31 August 2008, Nekounam scored Osasuna's first goal of the season, from the penalty spot in a 1–1 home draw against Villarreal CF.[17] In November/December he also netted, but the Navarrese failed to win at Málaga CF (4–2 loss)[18] and with Real Valladolid (3–3),[19] also opening the score in the 3–1 away defeat to Real Madrid on 18 January 2009.[20]

On 22 March 2009, Nekounam scored a last-minute goal for a 1–0 home victory over RCD Espanyol,[21] and finished the season as the team's second scorer behind Walter Pandiani, scoring eight times in the league (a career-best in Spain).[22] In summer 2009 he received offers from both Espanyol and Villarreal, with the latter in particular being ready to pay the release clause in his contract; however, the player repeatedly insisted to be "happy at the club", waiting until he "hears some better deals".[23]

Nekounam was again a regular starter for Osasuna in the 2010–11 campaign, but also spent one month at the 2011 AFC Asian Cup with his national team. On 20 February 2011, in the second game upon his return from Qatar, he scored twice in a 4–0 home defeat of Espanyol,[24] and eventually finished with six goals from 26 appearances in another escape from relegation.[25]

On 21 May 2011, Nekounam renewed his contract with Osasuna for another two seasons, with the option of an annual renewal of his link.[26] In July of the following year, amidst interest from Iranian club Esteghlal F.C. and unnamed Turkish and Qatari clubs, it was reported that he would only remain with at the El Sadar Stadium if he accepted a salary reduction – he was the highest-paid player.[27]

Esteghlal[edit]

Nekounam with Pas in 2005

On 21 July 2012, aged almost 32, Nekounam returned to his country and signed a two-year deal with Esteghlal for a record fee of US$1,500,000, which made him the most expensive player in the Iran Pro League history.[28][29] He scored his first goal for his new club in a 3–2 loss to Foolad F.C. on 28 November, through a penalty.[30]

On 5 May 2013, against the same opponent, he also found the net, helping his team secure their 28th league title[31] and winning his second national championship.

Al-Kuwait[edit]

On 14 January 2014, Nekounam agreed to a four-month contract at Kuwait SC.[32] He scored his first goal for the club on 2 February, netting the only in an AFC Champions League qualifier against Al Shorta SC.[33]

Nekounam scored three goals in the 2014 edition of the AFC Cup,[34] and also won the season's Kuwait Emir Cup.[35]

Return to Osasuna[edit]

On 4 August 2014, Nekounam returned to Osasuna by signing a two-year deal.[36] He scored in his first game upon his return, a 3–1 Segunda División loss against Deportivo Alavés on 6 September.[37] On 2 November he added another, helping to a 3–2 home victory over Real Betis.[38]

Saipa[edit]

Nekounam returned to Iran and its Persian Gulf Pro League on 6 July 2015, joining Saipa F.C. for one year.[39] He scored his first competitive goal for his new team on 6 August, the second in a 2–0 win at Rah Ahan Yazdan FC.

Al-Arabi[edit]

On 21 January 2016, Nekounam moved to Qatari club Al-Arabi SC on a four-month contract with an option to extend for a further year.[40] In his first match, at home against Qatar SC, he assisted countryman Ashkan Dejagah in an eventual 1–1 draw.

Nekounam left on 30 June 2016, and the 35-year-old announced his retirement two weeks later.[41]

International career[edit]

Nekounam with Iran manager Carlos Queiroz during a press conference at the 2014 World Cup
Nekounam playing for Iran against Lionel Messi and Argentina in 2014 World Cup

Nekounam received his first call-up to Iran in May 2000. He became a starter for the national side during the 2002 FIFA World Cup qualifiers and, already a key midfield element, played two of the national team's matches during the 2006 World Cup in Germany, being suspended for the final group game against Angola after his second yellow card against Portugal.[42]

Additionally, Nekounam helped Iran win the 2002 Asian Games and the 2004 West Asian Football Federation Championship, and also represented the country in the 2004, 2007 and 2011 AFC Asian Cups.[2] He was Team Melli's leading goalscorer in its successful 2014 World Cup qualifying campaign and, on 1 June 2014, he was selected by Carlos Queiroz for the finals in Brazil,[43] where he captained the nation in an eventual group-stage exit.

Nekounam also made the 2015 Asian Cup squad, on 30 December 2014.[44] In March 2015, he hinted that a friendly against Sweden on the 31st – five days earlier, against Chile, he had become his country's most capped player after surpassing Ali Daei[45]– might be his last international, but later went back on that statement[46] only to confirm it the following day and subsequently send an emotional open letter to fans;[47] he scored 39 goals for his country,[48] and shortly after retiring was named Queiroz's assistant.[49]

Managerial career[edit]

Nekounam (left) with Andrea Stramaccioni before a match between Esteghlal and Foolad

Midway through the 2017–18 season, Nekounam became the manager of F.C. Nassaji Mazandaran.[50] His team won 23 points from his nine games in charge, and were promoted to the Persian Gulf Pro League after a 24-year absence.[51]

Career statistics[edit]

Club[edit]

Appearances and goals by club, season and competition[52][53][54]
Club Season League Cup Continental Total
Division Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals
Pas 1998–99 Azadegan League 22 2 22 2
1999–00 24 5 24 5
2000–01 21 5 21 5
2001–02 Iran Pro League 25 4 25 4
2002–03 25 7 25 7
2003–04 25 10 25 10
2004–05 25 9 8 4 33 13
2005–06 12 3 12 3
Total 179 45 8 4 187 49
Al Wahda 2005–06 UAE Football League 11 3 0 0 11 3
Sharjah FC 2005–06 UAE Football League 11 5 3 3 14 8
Osasuna 2006–07 La Liga 24 2 3 0 12 1 39 3
2007–08 2 0 0 0 2 0
2008–09 35 8 2 0 37 8
2009–10 31 3 2 0 33 3
2010–11 26 6 2 0 28 6
2011–12 31 5 5 1 36 6
Total 149 24 14 1 12 1 175 26
Esteghlal 2012–13 Persian Gulf Cup 27 5 4 1 8 3 39 9
2013–14 17 3 1 0 3 0 21 3
Total 44 8 5 1 11 3 60 12
Kuwait SC 2013–14 Kuwaiti Premier League 11 1 2 1 6 3 19 5
Osasuna 2014–15 Segunda División 22 5 1 0 23 5
Saipa 2015–16 Persian Gulf Pro League 15 3 3 0 18 3
Al-Arabi 2015–16 Qatar Stars League 11 1 1 0 12 1
Career total 453 95 29 6 37 11 519 112

International[edit]

Nekounam before a friendly with Montenegro in 2014
Appearances and goals by national team and year[2][55]
National team Year Apps Goals
Iran 2000 7 0
2001 11 0
2002 9 0
2003 11 1
2004 18 7
2005 11 4
2006 11 2
2007 8 4
2008 8 4
2009 8 2
2010 6 1
2011 10 5
2012 9 1
2013 8 6
2014 9 0
2015 7 2
Total 151 39
Scores and results list Iran's goal tally first, score column indicates score after each Nekounam goal.
List of international goals scored by Javad Nekounam[2]
No. Date Venue Opponent Score Result Competition Ref.
1 1 February 2003 Hong Kong Stadium, Hong Kong, China  Denmark 1–0 1–0 2003 Carlsberg Cup [1]
2 17 June 2004 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Lebanon 3–0 4–0 2004 WAFF Championship [2]
3 23 June 2004 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Iraq 1–0 2–1 2004 WAFF Championship [3]
4 25 June 2004 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Syria 4–1 4–1 2004 WAFF Championship [4]
5 20 July 2004 Olympic Sports Center, Chongqing, China  Thailand 2–0 3–0 2004 AFC Asian Cup [5]
6 6 August 2004 Workers Stadium, Beijing, China  Bahrain 1–0 4–2 2004 AFC Asian Cup [6]
7 17 November 2004 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Laos 5–0 7–0 2006 World Cup qualification [7]
8 7–0
9 30 March 2005 Kim Il-sung, Pyongyang, North Korea  North Korea 2–0 2–0 2006 World Cup qualification [8]
10 29 May 2005 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Azerbaijan 2–0 2–1 Friendly [9]
11 24 August 2005 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Libya 2–0 4–0 Friendly [10]
12 4–0
13 16 August 2006 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Syria 1–0 1–1 2007 Asian Cup qualification [11]
14 6 September 2006 Abbasiyyin, Damascus, Syria  Syria 2–0 2–0 2007 Asian Cup qualification [12]
15 2 July 2007 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Jamaica 1–0 8–1 Friendly [13]
16 3–0
17 15 July 2007 National Stadium, Bukit Jalil, Malaysia  China 2–2 2–2 2007 AFC Asian Cup [14]
18 18 July 2007 National Stadium, Bukit Jalal, Malaysia  Malaysia 1–0 2–0 2007 AFC Asian Cup [15]
19 25 May 2008 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Zambia 1–0 3–2 Friendly [16]
20 22 June 2008 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Kuwait 1–0 2–0 2010 World Cup qualification [17]
21 6 September 2008 King Fahd International, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  Saudi Arabia 1–1 1–1 2010 World Cup qualification [18]
22 15 October 2008 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  North Korea 2–0 2–1 2010 World Cup qualification [19]
23 11 February 2009 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  South Korea 1–0 1–1 2010 World Cup qualification [20]
24 14 November 2009 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Jordan 1–0 1–0 2011 Asian Cup qualification [21]
25 3 March 2010 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Thailand 1–0 1–0 2011 Asian Cup qualification [22]
26 2 January 2011 Jassim Bin Hamad, Doha, Qatar  Angola 1–0 1–0 Friendly [23]
27 2 September 2011 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Indonesia 1–0 3–0 2014 World Cup qualification [24]
28 2–0
29 5 October 2011 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Palestine 3–0 7–0 Friendly [25]
30 15 November 2011 Gelora Bung Karno, Jakarta, Indonesia  Indonesia 4–1 4–1 2014 World Cup qualification [26]
31 16 October 2012 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  South Korea 1–0 1–0 2014 World Cup qualification [27]
32 6 February 2013 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Lebanon 2–0 5–0 2015 Asian Cup qualification [28]
33 3–0
34 5–0
35 11 June 2013 Azadi, Tehran, Iran  Lebanon 2–0 4–0 2014 World Cup qualification [29]
36 4–0
37 19 November 2013 Camille Chamoun, Beirut, Lebanon  Lebanon 3–0 4–1 2015 Asian Cup qualification [30]
38 26 March 2015 NV Arena, Sankt Pölten, Austria  Chile 1–0 2–0 Friendly [31]
39 31 March 2015 Friends Arena, Solna, Sweden  Sweden 1–2 1–3 Friendly [32]

Managerial statistics[edit]

As of 9 May 2022
Team From To Record
G W D L GF GA GD Win %
Khooneh be Khooneh 1 August 2017 10 January 2018 22 12 8 2 32 14 +18 054.55
Nassaji Mazandaran 1 March 2018 1 January 2019 29 12 11 6 47 23 +24 041.38
Foolad 1 June 2019 23 August 2021 73 29 28 16 72 47 +25 039.73
Foolad 7 November 2021 Present 31 15 12 4 31 15 +16 048.39
Total 155 68 59 28 182 99 +83 043.87

Honours[edit]

Nekounam celebrating Esteghlal's 2012–13 league title

Player[edit]

Pas

Esteghlal

Al-Kuwait

Iran

Individual

Manager[edit]

Nassaji Mazandaran

Foolad

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ He has two additional caps awarded by the Iranian FA. Those matches are not considered full internationals by FIFA, which only counts 149.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2006 FIFA World Cup Germany: List of Players: Iran" (PDF). FIFA. 21 March 2014. p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d Javad Nekounam – Century of International Appearances; at RSSSF
  3. ^ "World Cup 2014: Player profile – who is Javad Nekounam, the Iran midfielder?". The Independent. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  4. ^ "Iran will miss Javad Nekounam -- the talisman that allowed them to dream". ESPN FC. 12 April 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  5. ^ "نکونام:از حضورم در جمع ۱۰ بازیکن تاریخ آسیا خوشحالم" [Nekounam: Happy at my inclusion in the top 10 Asian players] (in Persian). 90TV. 27 September 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  6. ^ "آخرین بروزرسانی جدول بیشترین بازی های ملی در فیفا" [Latest update of the table of the most national capped players in FIFA]. varzesh3 (in Persian). Archived from the original on 16 June 2021. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  7. ^ Golriz, Babak (24 December 2005). "Nekounam states Euro ambition". Sky Sports. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  8. ^ "Buh, Bye". The Guardian. 10 July 2005. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
  9. ^ "Osasuna sign Javad Nekounam". Persian Football. 5 July 2006. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2006.
  10. ^ Javad Nekounam – Osasuna's new star; Iran Sports Press, 2006
  11. ^ "Osasuna 1–0 Bordeaux". UEFA. 22 February 2007. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  12. ^ "Gers miss out on Iranian ace". Sky Sports. 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  13. ^ Nekounam sidelined at Osasuna; UEFA, 16 August 2007
  14. ^ "Nekounam sufre una rotura de ligamento cruzado anterior" [Nekounam suffers anterior cruciate ligament rupture] (in Spanish). CA Osasuna. 16 August 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  15. ^ Javad Nekounam renueva su contrato hasta 2011 (Javad Nekounam renews his contract until 2011) Archived 18 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine; CA Osasuna, 24 November 2007 (in Spanish)
  16. ^ Siguero, Santiago (27 April 2008). "Ontanaya falla, Villa no" [Ontanaya fails, Villa does not]. Marca (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  17. ^ "Osasuna 1–1 Villarreal". ESPN Soccernet. 31 August 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  18. ^ "Málaga 4–2 Osasuna". ESPN Soccernet. 30 November 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  19. ^ "Osasuna 3–3 Valladolid". ESPN Soccernet. 7 December 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  20. ^ "Real Madrid 3–1 Osasuna". ESPN Soccernet. 18 January 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  21. ^ "Osasuna 1–0 Espanyol". ESPN Soccernet. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  22. ^ González, Damián (7 April 2009). ""Este Osasuna con Messi acabaría en la Champions"" [This Osasuna would end in Champions with Messi]. Diario AS (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  23. ^ Javad Nekounam not interested in leaving Osasuna; Goal, 21 June 2009
  24. ^ "Nekounam at the double". ESPN Soccernet. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
  25. ^ "Osasuna renueva a Masoud y a Nekouman [sic]" [Osasuna renew Masoud and Nekounam] (in Spanish). UEFA. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  26. ^ Iranian duo to stay at Osasuna Archived 17 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine; Persian Football, 31 May 2011
  27. ^ Javad Nekounam could stay at Osasuna if he accepts pay cut; Goal, 9 July 2012
  28. ^ "Javad Nekounam officially joins Esteghlal". Kabir News. 21 July 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  29. ^ گرانقیمت ترین بازیکن تاریخ فوتبال ایران با رقم قراداد 4.5 میلیارد تومان! [Javad Nekounam: The most expensive player in the history of football in Iran with 9 million dollars contract] (in Persian). Jam News. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  30. ^ "Esteghlal loses to Foolad [VIDEO]". Persian Football. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  31. ^ Esteghlal won the league; Goal, 5 May 2013 (in Persian)
  32. ^ الإيراني نيكونام كويتاي رسمياً Archived 16 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine; Kuwait Club, 14 January 2014 (in Persian)
  33. ^ "AFC Champions League Wrap: In-form duo win". FourFourTwo. 2 February 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  34. ^ "Top Scorers". Asian Football Confederation. Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  35. ^ One more trophy for Nekounam in his club career; Persian Football, 8 May 2014
  36. ^ "Javad Nekounam está en Pamplona" [Nekounam is in Pamplona] (in Spanish). CA Osasuna. 4 August 2014. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
  37. ^ "Nekounam scores in Osasuna comeback [VIDEO]". Persian Football. 6 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  38. ^ "Nekounam goal inspires Osasuna comeback". Persian Football. 3 November 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  39. ^ "Saipa signs Javad Nekounam from Osasusna". Tehran Times. 6 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  40. ^ "جواد نکونام به العربی قطر پیوست" [Javad Nekounam joins Qatar club Al-Arabi] (in Persian). 90TV. 21 January 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  41. ^ رسمی؛ خداحافظی جواد نکونام از فوتبال (Official; Nekounam retired from football); IRIB Varzesh, 15 July 2016 (in Persian)
  42. ^ "Portugal 2–0 Iran". BBC Sport. 17 June 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  43. ^ "Queiroz trims Iran squad to 24". FIFA. 1 June 2014. Archived from the original on 1 June 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  44. ^ "Queiroz names Team Melli squad". AFC Asian Cup. 30 December 2014. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  45. ^ "Javad Nekounam becomes Iran's most capped player". Persian Football. 27 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  46. ^ "Nekounam changes mind over Iran retirement". Persian Football. 31 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  47. ^ بیانیه احساسی جواد نکونام پس از خداحافظی/جلوی هیچکس سرم را خم نمی کنم جز هواداران [Nekounam: I only bow to the fans but nobody else] (in Persian). Khabar Online. 5 April 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  48. ^ "Javad Nekounam bids farewell to international career". Persian Football. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  49. ^ "Nekounam appointed Carlos Queiroz's assistant". Persian Football. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  50. ^ "Javad Nekounam candidate to lead Iran U23 football team". Persian Football. 21 April 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  51. ^ "IPL: Naft Masjed Soleyman, Nassaji Mazandaran win promotion". Persian Football. 29 April 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  52. ^ "J. Nekounam". Soccerway. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  53. ^ "Javad Nekounam" (in Persian). IRIB Varzesh. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  54. ^ "Javad Nekounam" (in Persian). IRIB Varzesh. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  55. ^ Players with a Century of Caps Archived 28 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine; at RSSSF
  56. ^ "El mejor jugador iraní" [Best Iranian player] (in Spanish). CA Osasuna. 13 August 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  57. ^ "Zheng Zhi, China's football shine at AFC award gala". China Daily. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  58. ^ "Foolad beat Esteghlal to win Iran's Hazfi Cup". Tehran Times. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  59. ^ "Foolad beat Persepolis to win Iran's Super Cup". Tehran Times. Retrieved 7 February 2022.

External links[edit]