Javelin throw

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Bregje Crolla during Europacup 2007
World Athletics Championships 2007 in Osaka - German javelin thrower Stephan Steding

The javelin throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) in length, is thrown. The javelin thrower gains momentum by running within a predetermined area. Javelin throwing is an event of both the men's decathlon and the women's heptathlon.

History[edit]

The javelin was part of the pentathlon of the Ancient Olympic Games beginning in 708 BC, in two disciplines, distance and target throw. The javelin was thrown with the aid of a thong, called ankyle wound around the middle of the shaft. Athletes would hold the javelin by the thong and when the javelin was released this thong unwound giving the javelin a spiraled flight.

Throwing javelin-like poles into targets was revived in Germany and Sweden in the early 1870s. In Sweden, these poles developed into the modern javelin, and throwing them for distance became a common event there and in Finland in the 1880s. The rules continued to evolve over the next decades; originally, javelins were thrown with no run-up, and holding them by the grip at the center of gravity was not mandatory. Limited run-ups were introduced in the late 1890s, and soon developed into the modern unlimited run-up.[1]

As an Olympic discipline, the javelin throw was introduced in the 1906 Intercalated Games for men, and in the 1932 Summer Olympics for women. It has been included in the decathlon since its introduction in 1912; the all-around, an earlier form of the decathlon held at the 1904 Summer Olympics, did not include the javelin throw.[2]

Of the 69 Olympic medals that have been awarded in the men's javelin, 32 have gone to competitors from Norway, Sweden or Finland. Finland is the only nation to have ever swept the medals at a currently recognized official Olympics, and has done so twice, in 1920 and 1932. (However, Sweden swept the first four places at the 1906 Intercalated Games. Finland's 1920 sweep also featured an additional fourth-place finish. Sweeping the first four places is no longer possible, as only three entrants per country are allowed.) In 1912 Finland also swept the medals in the only appearance in the Olympics of two-handed javelin, an event in which the implement was separately thrown with both the right hand and the left hand and the marks were added together. Quite popular in Finland and Sweden at the time, this event soon faded into obscurity, together with similar variations of the shot and the discus; Sweden's Yngve Häckner, with his total of 114.28 m from 1917, was the last official world record holder.[3]

The first official world record in the men's javelin throw was recognised by the International Association of Athletics Federations in 1912.[4] Over time, distances thrown progressed significantly, and the 100 m mark was passed by Uwe Hohn in 1984. As a response to the increasingly frequent flat or ambiguously flat landings, experiments with modified javelins started in the early 1980s; the resulting new designs, which made flat landings much less common and reduced the distances thrown, became official for men starting in April 1986 and for women in April 1999, and the world records were reset.[5] The current (as of 2015) men's world record is held by Jan Železný at 98.48 m (1996).

Rules and competitions[edit]

The size, shape, minimum weight, and center of gravity of the javelin are all defined by IAAF rules. In international competition, men throw a javelin between 2.6 and 2.7 m (8 ft 6 in and 8 ft 10 in) in length and 800 g (28 oz) in weight, and women throw a javelin between 2.2 and 2.3 m (7 ft 3 in and 7 ft 7 in) in length and 600 g (21 oz) in weight. The javelin has a grip, about 150 mm (5.9 in) wide, made of cord and located at the javelin's center of gravity (0.9 to 1.06 m (2 ft 11 in to 3 ft 6 in) from the javelin tip for the men's javelin and 0.8 to 0.92 m (2 ft 7 in to 3 ft 0 in) from the javelin tip for the women's javelin).

Matti Järvinen throwing the javelin at the 1932 Olympics

Unlike the other throwing events (shotput, discus, and hammer), the technique used to throw the javelin is dictated by IAAF rules and "non-orthodox" techniques are not permitted. The javelin must be held at its grip and thrown overhand, over the athlete's shoulder or upper arm. Further, the athlete is prohibited from turning completely around such that his back faces the direction of throw. In practice, this prevents athletes from attempting to spin and hurl the javelin sidearm in the style of a discus throw. Instead of being confined to a circle, javelin throwers have a runway 4 m (13 ft) wide and at least 30 m (98 ft) in length, ending in a curved arc from which their throw will be measured; athletes typically use this distance to gain momentum in a "run-up" to their throw. Like the other throwing events, the competitor may not leave the throwing area (the runway) until after the implement lands. The need to come to a stop behind the throwing arc limits both how close the athlete can come to the line before the release as well as the maximum speed achieved at the time of release.

The javelin is thrown towards a "sector" covering an angle of 28.96 degrees extending outwards from the arc at the end of the runway. A throw is legal only if the tip of the javelin lands within this sector, and the tip strikes the ground before any other part of the javelin. The distance of the throw is measured from the throwing arc to the point where the tip of the javelin landed, rounded down to the nearest centimeter.

Competition rules are similar to other throwing events: a round consists of one attempt by each competitor in turn, and competitions typically consist of three to six rounds. The competitor with the longest single legal throw (over all rounds) is the winner; in the case of a tie the competitors' second-longest throws are also considered. Competitions involving large numbers of athletes sometimes use a "cut": all competitors compete in the first three rounds, but only athletes who are currently among the top eight or have achieved some minimum distances are permitted to attempt to improve on their distance in additional rounds (typically three).

Javelin redesigns[edit]

A Bulgarian javelin thrower, 1934

On 1 April 1986, the men's javelin (800 grams (1.76 lb)) was redesigned by the governing body (the IAAF Technical Committee). They decided to change the rules for javelin construction because of the increasingly frequent flat landings and the resulting discussions and protests when these attempts were declared valid or invalid by competition judges. The world record had also crept up to a potentially dangerous level, 104.80 m (343.8 ft) by Uwe Hohn. With throws exceeding 100 meters, it was becoming difficult to safely stage the competition within the confines of a stadium infield. The javelin was redesigned so that the centre of gravity was moved 4 cm (1.6 in) forward, while the surface areas in front of and behind the centre of gravity were reduced and increased, respectively. This had the effect of reducing lift and increasing the downward pitching moment. This brings the nose down earlier, reducing the flight distance by around 10% but also causing the javelin to stick in the ground more consistently. In 1999, the women's javelin (600 grams (1.32 lb)) was similarly redesigned.[6]

Modifications that manufacturers made to recover some of the lost distance, by increasing tail drag (using holes, rough paint or dimples), were forbidden at the end of 1991 and marks made using implements with such modifications removed from the record books. Seppo Räty had achieved a world record of 96.96 m (318.1 ft) in 1991 with such a design, but this record was nullified.

Technique and training[edit]

Unlike other throwing events, javelin allows the competitor to build speed over a considerable distance. In addition to the core and upper body strength necessary to deliver the implement, javelin throwers benefit from the agility and athleticism typically associated with running and jumping events. Thus, the athletes share more physical characteristics with sprinters than with others, although they still need the skill of heavier throwing athletes.

Traditional free-weight training is often used by javelin throwers. Metal-rod exercises and resistance band exercises can be used to train a similar action to the javelin throw to increase power and intensity. Without proper strength and flexibility, throwers can become extremely injury prone, especially in the shoulder and elbow. Core stability can help in the transference of physical power and force from the ground through the body to the javelin. Stretching and sprint training are used to enhance the speed of the athlete at the point of release, and subsequently, the speed of the javelin. At release, a javelin can reach speeds approaching 113 km/h (70 mph).

US High School[edit]

Due to the fear of liability, the javelin throw is not an event in NFHS high school competition in 36 states, though USATF youth competitions for the same aged athletes do hold javelin competitions.[7] At various points in time, high schools have attempted to create substitute events, including the softball throw, football throw[8] and the grenade throw,[9] throwing different objects under rules similar to javelin throw rules.

Culture[edit]

Javelin throwers have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €5 Finnish 10th IAAF World Championships in Athletics commemorative coin, minted in 2005 to commemorate the 2005 World Championships in Athletics. On the obverse of the coin, a javelin thrower is depicted. On the reverse, legs of hurdle runners with the Helsinki Olympic Stadium tower in the background can be seen.

A women's and a men's javelin

All-time top ten (current models)[edit]

Men[edit]

  • (Updated June 2015)
Rank Mark Athlete Place Date Ref
1 98.48  Jan Železný (CZE) Jena 25 May 1996
2 93.09  Aki Parviainen (FIN) Kuortane 1999-06-26
3 92.61  Sergey Makarov (RUS) Sheffield 2002-06-30
4 92.60  Raymond Hecht (GER) Oslo 1995-07-21
5 91.69  Konstadinós Gatsioúdis (GRE) Kuortane 2000-06-24
6 91.59  Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR) Oslo 2006-06-02
7 91.53  Tero Pitkämäki (FIN) Kuortane 2005-06-26
8 91.46  Steve Backley (GBR) Auckland 1992-01-25
9 91.39  Julius Yego (KEN) Birmingham 7 June 2015 [10]
10 91.29  Breaux Greer (USA) Indianapolis 21 June 2007

Women[edit]

  • (Updated September 2014)
Rank Mark Athlete Place Date
1 72.28  Barbora Špotáková (CZE) Stuttgart 2008-09-13
2 71.99  Mariya Abakumova (RUS) Daegu 2011-09-02
3 71.70  Osleidys Menéndez (CUB) Helsinki 2005-08-14
4 70.20  Christina Obergföll (GER) Munich 2007-06-23
5 69.48  Trine Hattestad (NOR) Oslo 2000-07-28
6 69.35  Sunette Viljoen (RSA) New York 2012-06-09
7 68.34  Steffi Nerius (GER) Elstal 2008-08-31
8 67.67  Sonia Bisset (CUB) Salamanca 2005-07-06
9 67.51  Miréla Manjani (GRE) Sydney 2000-09-30
10 67.32  Linda Stahl (GER) New York 2014-06-14

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1908 London
details
 Eric Lemming (SWE)  Arne Halse (NOR)  Otto Nilsson (SWE)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Eric Lemming (SWE)  Julius Saaristo (FIN)  Mór Kóczán (HUN)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Jonni Myyrä (FIN)  Urho Peltonen (FIN)  Pekka Johansson (FIN)
1924 Paris
details
 Jonni Myyrä (FIN)  Gunnar Lindström (SWE)  Eugene Oberst (USA)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Erik Lundqvist (SWE)  Béla Szepes (HUN)  Olav Sunde (NOR)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Matti Järvinen (FIN)  Matti Sippala (FIN)  Eino Penttilä (FIN)
1936 Berlin
details
 Gerhard Stöck (GER)  Yrjö Nikkanen (FIN)  Kalervo Toivonen (FIN)
1948 London
details
 Tapio Rautavaara (FIN)  Steve Seymour (USA)  József Várszegi (HUN)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Cy Young (USA)  Bill Miller (USA)  Toivo Hyytiäinen (FIN)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Egil Danielsen (NOR)  Janusz Sidło (POL)  Viktor Tsybulenko (URS)
1960 Rome
details
 Viktor Tsybulenko (URS)  Walter Krüger (EUA)  Gergely Kulcsár (HUN)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Pauli Nevala (FIN)  Gergely Kulcsár (HUN)  Jānis Lūsis (URS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Jānis Lūsis (URS)  Jorma Kinnunen (FIN)  Gergely Kulcsár (HUN)
1972 Munich
details
 Klaus Wolfermann (FRG)  Jānis Lūsis (URS)  Bill Schmidt (USA)
1976 Montreal
details
 Miklós Németh (HUN)  Hannu Siitonen (FIN)  Gheorghe Megelea (ROU)
1980 Moscow
details
 Dainis Kūla (URS)  Aleksandr Makarov (URS)  Wolfgang Hanisch (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Arto Härkönen (FIN)  David Ottley (GBR)  Kenth Eldebrink (SWE)
1988 Seoul
details
 Tapio Korjus (FIN)  Jan Železný (TCH)  Seppo Räty (FIN)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Jan Železný (TCH)  Seppo Räty (FIN)  Steve Backley (GBR)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Jan Železný (CZE)  Steve Backley (GBR)  Seppo Räty (FIN)
2000 Sydney
details
 Jan Železný (CZE)  Steve Backley (GBR)  Sergey Makarov (RUS)
2004 Athens
details
 Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR)  Vadims Vasiļevskis (LAT)  Sergey Makarov (RUS)
2008 Beijing
details
 Andreas Thorkildsen (NOR)  Ainārs Kovals (LAT)  Tero Pitkämäki (FIN)
2012 London
details
 Keshorn Walcott (TRI)  Oleksandr Pyatnytsya (UKR)  Antti Ruuskanen (FIN)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Babe Didrikson (USA)  Ellen Braumüller (GER)  Tilly Fleischer (GER)
1936 Berlin
details
 Tilly Fleischer (GER)  Luise Krüger (GER)  Maria Kwaśniewska (POL)
1948 London
details
 Herma Bauma (AUT)  Kaisa Parviainen (FIN)  Lily Carlstedt (DEN)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Dana Zátopková (TCH)  Aleksandra Chudina (URS)  Yelena Gorchakova (URS)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Inese Jaunzeme (URS)  Marlene Ahrens (CHI)  Nadezhda Konyayeva (URS)
1960 Rome
details
 Elvīra Ozoliņa (URS)  Dana Zátopková (TCH)  Birutė Kalėdienė (URS)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Mihaela Peneş (ROU)  Márta Rudas (HUN)  Yelena Gorchakova (URS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Angéla Németh (HUN)  Mihaela Peneş (ROU)  Eva Janko (AUT)
1972 Munich
details
 Ruth Fuchs (GDR)  Jacqueline Todten (GDR)  Kate Schmidt (USA)
1976 Montreal
details
 Ruth Fuchs (GDR)  Marion Becker (FRG)  Kate Schmidt (USA)
1980 Moscow
details
 María Caridad Colón (CUB)  Saida Gunba (URS)  Ute Hommola (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Tessa Sanderson (GBR)  Tiina Lillak (FIN)  Fatima Whitbread (GBR)
1988 Seoul
details
 Petra Felke (GDR)  Fatima Whitbread (GBR)  Beate Koch (GDR)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Silke Renk (GER)  Natalya Shikolenko (EUN)  Karen Forkel (GER)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Heli Rantanen (FIN)  Louise McPaul (AUS)  Trine Hattestad (NOR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Trine Hattestad (NOR)  Mirela Maniani-Tzelili (GRE)  Osleidys Menéndez (CUB)
2004 Athens
details
 Osleidys Menéndez (CUB)  Steffi Nerius (GER)  Mirela Maniani (GRE)
2008 Beijing
details
 Barbora Špotáková (CZE)  Mariya Abakumova (RUS)  Christina Obergföll (GER)
2012 London
details
 Barbora Špotáková (CZE)  Christina Obergföll (GER)  Linda Stahl (GER)

Season's bests[edit]

As of 7 June 2015

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jukola, Martti (1935). Huippu-urheilun historia (in Finnish). Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. 
  2. ^ IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events, p. 7.
  3. ^ Vélez Blasco, Miguel. "Part III: Llançaments - Tema 12 Javelina" (PDF) (in Catalan). Institut Nacional d'Educació Física de Catalunya / Federació Catalana d'Atletisme. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  4. ^ "12th IAAF World Championships In Athletics: IAAF Statistics Handbook. Berlin 2009." (PDF). Monte Carlo: IAAF Media & Public Relations Department. 2009. pp. Pages 546, 559. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 23, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2009. 
  5. ^ Bremicher, Erick. "Why did the senior javelin specification have to be changed?". Retrieved May 22, 2015. 
  6. ^ http://www.worldofjavelin.com/posts/physics-javelin-designs-whats-the-significance/
  7. ^ http://www.usatf.org/groups/officials/files/resources/field-events/officiating-the-throws-usatf-monograph.pdf
  8. ^ http://www.cifss.org/admin/images/history_corner/32footballthrowintrack.pdf
  9. ^ http://www.cifss.org/admin/images/history_corner/46grenadethrow.pdf
  10. ^ "Javelin Throw Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 7 June 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015. 

External links[edit]