Javier Pérez de Cuéllar
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|Javier Pérez de Cuéllar|
Pérez de Cuéllar in 1982.
|5th Secretary-General of the United Nations|
January 1, 1982 – December 31, 1991
|Preceded by||Kurt Waldheim|
|Succeeded by||Boutros Boutros-Ghali|
|135th Prime Minister of Peru|
November 22, 2000 – July 28, 2001
|Preceded by||Federico Salas|
|Succeeded by||Roberto Dañino Zapata|
|Born||Javier Felipe Ricardo Pérez de Cuéllar y de la Guerra
January 19, 1920
|Spouse(s)||Ivette Roberts (1922-2013)
Marcela Temple Seminario (1933-2013)
Javier Felipe Ricardo Pérez de Cuéllar y de la Guerra KCMG ([xaˈβjeɾ ˈperez ðe ˈkweʝaɾ]; born January 19, 1920) is a Peruvian diplomat who served as the fifth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1991. In 1995, he ran unsuccessfully against Alberto Fujimori for President of Peru. He was President of the Council of Ministers, as well as Minister of Foreign Affairs from November 2000 until July 2001, during the turbulent period following Fujimori's resignation over corruption charges. In September 2004, he stepped down from his position as Peru's Ambassador to France, where he formerly resided. With the death of Kurt Waldheim in June 2007, he became the oldest former Secretary General of the United Nations. He is also a member of the Club de Madrid, a group of more than 100 former Presidents and Prime Ministers of democratic countries, which works to strengthen democracy worldwide.
Pérez de Cuéllar joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1940 and the diplomatic service in 1944, serving subsequently as Secretary at Peru's embassy in France, where he met and married his first wife, the former Yvette Roberts (d.Lisbon, 2013). He also held posts in the United Kingdom, Bolivia, and Brazil, and later served as ambassador to Switzerland, the Soviet Union, (concurrently in Poland), and Venezuela. From his first marriage, Mr. Perez de Cuellar has a son, Francisco (b. Paris), and a daughter, Agueda Cristina (b. London).
He was a junior member of the Peruvian delegation to the first session of the General Assembly, which convened in London in 1946, and a member of the delegations to the 25th through 30th sessions of the Assembly. In 1971, he was appointed permanent representative of Peru to the United Nations, and he led his country's delegation to all sessions of the Assembly from then until 1975.
In 1973 and 1974, he represented his country in the Security Council, serving as its President at the time of the events in Cyprus in July 1974. On September 18, 1975, he was appointed Special Representative of the Secretary-General in Cyprus – a post he held until December 1977, when he rejoined the Peruvian Foreign Service. During his time in Cyprus, Mr. Perez de Cuellar married his second wife, the former Marcela Temple Seminario (d.Brussels, 2013), with whom he had no children.
On February 27, 1979, he was appointed as United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs. From April 1981, while still holding this post, he acted as the Secretary-General's Personal Representative on the situation relating to Afghanistan. In that capacity, he visited Pakistan and Afghanistan in April and August of that year in order to continue the negotiations initiated by the Secretary-General some months earlier.
United Nations Secretary-General
On December 31, 1981, Pérez de Cuéllar succeeded Kurt Waldheim as Secretary-General and was re-elected for a second term in October 1986. During his two terms, he led mediations between Britain and Argentina in the aftermath of the Falklands War and promoted the efforts of the Contadora Group to bring peace and stability to Central America. He also interceded in the negotiations for the independence of Namibia, the conflict in Western Sahara between Morocco and the Polisario Front, the war between Croatian forces seeking independence and the Yugoslav federal as well as local Serb forces, and the Cyprus issue. He also presided in 1986 an international arbitration committee that ruled  on the Rainbow Warrior incident between New Zealand and France.
Shortly before the end of his second term, he rejected an unofficial request by members of the Security Council to reconsider his earlier decision not to run for a third term, shortened to two years, as a search for his successor had not, as of then, yielded a consensus candidate. A candidate was found in late December 1991, and his second term as Secretary-General concluded, as scheduled, on December 31, 1991.
In popular culture
Honours and awards
- University of Lima
- National University of San Marcos
- Pontifical Catholic University of Peru
- 1992: Freedom medal
- In isolation, Pérez is pronounced [ˈperes].
- "Former Heads of State and Government | Club de Madrid". Clubmadrid.org. Retrieved 2015-05-11.
- Four Freedoms Award#Freedom Medal
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|United Nations Secretary-General
|Prime Minister of Peru
Roberto Dañino Zapata