East Java

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East Java
Jawa Timur
Jåwå Wétan
Province
East Java Wikivoyage banner.jpg
Savannah baluran.jpg Arjuno - Welirang - panoramio.jpg
The cauldron of Ijen Mountain, Indonesia.jpg Sarangan Lake, Indonesia - panoramio.jpg
Klayar Beach, Pacitan, East Java 01.jpg Jl. Dermaga Pelagabuhan Ketapang, Bulusan, Kalipuro, Kabupaten Banyuwangi, Jawa Timur, Indonesia - panoramio (1).jpg
Clockwise, from top left : Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, Mount Arjuno-Welirang, Lake Sarangan, Bali Strait, Klayar Beach in Pacitan, The sulfuric lake of Kawah Ijen Mountain's cauldron, Savanna in Baluran National Park
Flag of East Java
Flag
Official seal of East Java
Seal
Motto: Jer Basuki Mawa Béya (Javanese)
(meaning: Sacrifices are needed to gain a greatness)
Location of East Java in Indonesia
Location of East Java in Indonesia
Coordinates: 7°16′S 112°45′E / 7.267°S 112.750°E / -7.267; 112.750Coordinates: 7°16′S 112°45′E / 7.267°S 112.750°E / -7.267; 112.750
Country  Indonesia
Established February 25, 1950
Capital City of Surabaya Logo.svg Surabaya
Government
 • Body East Java Regional Government
 • Governor Soekarwo
 • Vice Governor Saifullah Yusuf
Area
 • Total 47,799.75 km2 (18,455.59 sq mi)
Area rank 14th
Highest elevation 3,676 m (12,060 ft)
Population (2014)[1]
 • Total 38,529,481
 • Rank 2nd
 • Density 810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups Javanese (80%), Madurese (18%), Indian (10%), Chinese (2%)[2]
 • Religion Islam (96.36%), Christianity (2.4%), Buddhism (0.6%), Hinduism (0.5%), Confucianism (0.1%), Kejawen also practised[3]
 • Languages Indonesian (official), Javanese languages (Arekan & Osing), Madurese (regional)
Time zone Indonesia Western Time (UTC+7)
Postcodes 60xxx, 61xxx, 62xxx
Area codes (62)3xx
ISO 3166 code ID-JI
Vehicle sign AE, AG, L, M, N, P, S, W
GRP per capita US$ 3,361
GRP rank 9th
HDI Increase 0.689 (Medium)
HDI rank 17th
Largest city by area Surabaya - 350.54 square kilometres (135.34 sq mi)
Largest city by population Surabaya - (2,765,487- 2010)
Largest regency by area Banyuwangi Regency - 5,782.40 square kilometres (2,232.60 sq mi)
Largest regency by population Malang Regency - (2,446,218 - 2010)
Website jatimprov.go.id

East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Javanese: Jåwå Wétan)[4] is a province of Indonesia. Located in eastern Java, it includes the islands of Madura, which is connected to Java by the longest bridge in Indonesia, Suramadu Bridge, as well as the Kangean and Masalembu archipelagos located further east and north, respectively. Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia and a major industrial center. Banyuwangi is the largest regency in East java and also in Java Island

It covers an area of 47,800 km2, According to the 2010 Census estimates, there were 37,476,757 people residing in the East Java, making it Indonesia's second-most-populous province; the latest official estimates (for January 2014) is 38,529,481.

It has a land border only with the province of Central Java to the west; Java Sea and Indian Ocean border its northern and southern coasts, respectively, while the narrow Bali Strait to the east separates Java from Bali.

History[edit]

The Dinoyo inscriptions found near the city of Malang is the oldest written sources in East Java, written in the year AD 760. This inscription tells many political and cultural events in the Kingdom of Dinoyo. Malang name itself is estimated to come from the name of a sacred building called Malangkuseswara. This name is contained in at least one inscription, namely, the Mantyasih inscriptions written in AD 907.

In 1222, Ken Arok founded the Kingdom of Singhasari. He ruled the kingdom until 1292. Before coming to power, Ken Arok seize power in Tumapel, Kediri from Tungul Ametung. Ken Arok dynasty's descendants became kings of Singhasari and Majapahit in the 13th century until the 15th century. In 1227, Anusapati kill Ken Arok. He later became king Singasari. Anusapati power only lasted 20 years. He was killed Tohjaya. Three years later, Tohjaya killed in the uprising led by Jaya Wisnuwardhana, son of Anusapati. In 1268, Wisnuwardhana died, his throne as the king of Singasari was replaced by Kertanegara (1268-1292). In 1292 knowledge, Kertanegara defeated by a rebel named Jayakatwang, it ended Kertanegara power, ending the history of Singhasari. In 1294, the Kingdom of Majapahit was founded. Its founder was Raden Wijaya. Majapahit reached its peak during the reign of Hayam Wuruk. He was accompanied by the mahapatih Gajah Mada. Together they managed to unite the vast territory under the name Dwipantara. In 1357, the Bubat event occurred, the war between the King of Sunda and the Majapahit Patih Gajah Mada. This event stems from the desire to take the king Hayam Wuruk Sundanese princess named Dyah Pitaloka as queen. However, because of a misunderstanding about the procedure of marriage, the plan led to a battle in Bubat. Majapahit troops, under the command of Gajah Mada conquered Pajajaran in the Bubat war. In 1389, Hayam Wuruk died. He was replaced by Wikramawardhana. This era is the beginning of the collapse of Majapahit. One of them due to their disappointment Hayam Wuruk other children, namely Wirabumi.

After that period, began the spread of Islam in Java. Other developments, the Europeans started coming to the archipelago and trying to build strength. In the end they implement colonialism. At the beginning of the 20th century, the royal government system was abolished, replaced by a system of residency. During the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, there is persistent resistance against the Japanese rule. In Blitar, an uprising by PETA (Defenders of the Homeland) occurred in early 1945. The uprising was led by Supriyadi, Moeradi, Halir Mangkudijoyo, and Soemarto. Although at the end the uprising was crushed by the Japanese, the uprising is able to rekindle the spirit of rebellion for independence to the entire people of East Java.

Two weeks after the proclamation of independence, Surabaya has established its own government in shape of a resident. The first resident is R. Sudirman. The formation of government in Surabaya is caused disputes between the Republican and Japan, even resulting in various skirmish across the city. The reason is that when the Japanese had surrendered, they weres obliged to remain in power until the allied forces arrived. The arrival of Allied forces in Surabaya create tensions with the newly established government of Indonesia. The peak occurred on November 10, 1945 where a major battle between the arek-arek Suroboyo led by Sutomo against the Allied force.

The battle forced the governor Suryo, on the advice of People's Security Army (TKR), move the seat of the government to Mojokerto area. A week later, the government moved again to the place that is more secure, that is, in Kediri. However, security conditions Kediri increasingly worse until finally, in February 1947, the East Java provincial government moved again to Malang. At the time, the government is in Malang, a change of governor, Suryo was replaced by R.P. Suroso who was then replaced again by Dr. Moerdjani. On July 21, 1947, although it is still bound by the Linggadjati Agreement and a ceasefire agreement in effect since October 14, 1946, the Dutch commenced Operation Product. The Dutch military action led to deteriorating security conditions in Malang. The East Java Provincial Government finally moved again to Blitar.

This military action ended after the Renville Agreement. However, these agreements have negative consequences for East Java, namely, reduced the territory of East Java provincial government. The Netherlands then make the areas it controls as a new state, such as the State of Madura and East Java. Amid the difficulties faced by the government of Indonesia, the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) launched rebellion in Madiun on 18 September 1948, which is known as the Madiun Affair. However, eventually this revolt can be crushed by the Indonesian Army. On December 19, 1948, the Dutch launched Operation Kraai. Blitar, who was still used as the seat East Java provincial government was attacked by the Dutch. Governor Dr. Moerdjani and his staff were forced to flee and joined the guerrillas on the slopes of Mount Willis. Operation Kraai ended after the Roem–van Roijen Agreement on May 7, 1949.

The Netherlands withdrew its troops from East Java, having held the Round Table Conference which produces a charter recognition of the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia (RIS). East Java changed its status from a province into a state. But the people of East Java did not support the change in status. People demanded the dissolution of the state of East Java. Finally, on February 25, 1950, East Java state was dissolved and became part of the territory of the Republic of Indonesia. The decision to rejoin Indonesia was also followed by the state of Madura.

Geography[edit]

East Java province borders the Java Sea in the north, the Strait of Bali in the east, the Indian Ocean in the south, as well as the Central Java province in the west. The length of the east-west stretch of about 400 km. The width of the stretch of the north-south in the west about 200 km, but in the eastern part of narrower by about 60 km. Madura is the largest island in East Java, separated from the mainland Java by the Strait of Madura. Bawean Island is located about 150 km north of Java. In the east of Madura there are a cluster of islands, the easternmost is Kangean Island and the northernmost is Masalembu Islands. In the southern part there are two small islands namely Nusa Barong and Sempu Island.

In physiographic, East Java Province can be grouped into three zones: the southern zone (plato), the middle zone (volcanic), and the northern zone (folds). Lowlands and highlands in the middle (of Ngawi, Blitar, Malang, to Bondowoso) has a fairly fertile soil. In the northern part ( Bojonegoro, Tuban, Gresik, to Madura Island) lies the Kapur Utara mountains and the Kendeng mountains which are relatively barren .

In the middle of the province stretch mountain ranges and volcanoes: On the border with Central Java is Mount Lawu (3,265 meters). Southeast from Madiun is Mount Wilis (2,169 meters), and Mount Liman (2,563 meters). In the middle of the corridor lies the Anjasmoro mountains with peaks Mount Arjuno (3,339 meters), Mount Welirang (3,156 meters), Mount Anjasmoro (2,277 meters), Mount Kawi (2,551 meters), and Mount Kelud (1,731 meters); The mountains are located in most Kediri, Blitar, Malang, Pasuruan, Mojokerto and Jombang. The group has the peak of Mount Bromo Tengger (2,329 meters), and Mount Semeru (3,676 meters). Mount Semeru, which is also called Mahameru is the highest mountain in the island of Java. In the eastenmost part if the province, there are two groups of mountains: the Iyang mountains with the peak Mount Argopuro (3,088 meters), the Ijen mountains with the peak Mount Raung (3344 meters) In the south there is a series of hills, that of the south coast of Pacitan, Trenggalek, Tulungagung, Blitar, Malang. the Kapur Selatan mountains is a continuation of a series of the Sewu mountains in Yogyakarta.

Two of the most important river in East Java is the Brantas River (290 km), and the Solo River (548 km). Brantas River has headwaters on the slopes Mount Arjuno near Batu, and flows through most areas in East Java, like Malang, Blitar, Tulungagung, Kediri, Jombang and Mojokerto. In Mojokerto, Brantas River split into two: Kali Mas, and Porong; both empties into the Madura Strait. Solo River has headwaters on the slopes of Mount Lawu which lies on the border of East Java and Central Java, and flows through a portion of the eastern part of Central Java and East Java, which eventually empties in Gresik. Brantas River and Bengawan Solo are managed by Perum Jasa Tirta I. On the slopes of Mount Lawu near the border with Central Java are Sarangan, a natural lake. The main dam in East Java, among others Ir. Sutami and Selorejo Dam, which is used for irrigation, fish farming and tourism.

East Java has a wet tropical climate. Compared with the western part of Java Island, East Java in general has less rainfall. Average rainfall is 1,900 mm per year, with a rainy season during the 100 days. The average temperature ranges between 21-34 °C. Temperatures in the lower mountain areas, and even in areas Ranu Pani (slopes of Mount Semeru), temperatures can reach minus 4 °C, causing a downfall of soft snow.

Administrative divisions[edit]

East Java is divided into 29 kabupaten (or regencies), and 9 kotamadya (or cities). This list of regions with their areas and populations at the 2000 and 2010[5] and at the latest (January 2014) census estimates:

Name Capital Area
(km²)
Population
2000 Census
Population
2010 Census
Population
2014 estimate
HDI[6]
2014 Estimates
Mojokerto City 16.47 108,938 120,196 123,572 0.750 (High)
Pasuruan City 35.29 168,323 186,262 191,494 0.732 (High)
Surabaya City 350.54 2,599,796 2,765,487 2,843,144 0.788 (High)
Gresik Regency
(includes Bawean Island)
Gresik 1,191.25 1,005,445 1,177,042 1,210,105 0.728 (High)
Lamongan Regency Lamongan 1,782.05 1,181,660 1,179,059 1,212,179 0.694 (Medium)
Mojokerto Regency Mojosari 717.83 908,004 1,025,443 1,054,248 0.702 (High)
Pasuruan Regency Bangil 1,474.02 1,366,605 1,512,468 1,554,956 0.643 (Medium)
Sidoarjo Regency Sidoarjo 634.38 1,563,015 1,941,497 1,996,034 0.767 (High)
Surabaya Sub-regional Totals 6,201.83 8,901,786 9,907,454 10,185,732
Madiun City 33.92 163,956 170,964 175,767 0.788 (High)
Bojonegoro Regency Bojonegoro 2,198.79 1,165,401 1,209,973 1,243,961 0.652 (Medium)
Jombang Regency Jombang 1,115.09 1,126,930 1,202,407 1,236,184 0.690 (Medium)
Madiun Regency Mejayan 1,037.58 639,825 662,278 680,881 0.686 (Medium)
Magetan Regency Magetan 688.84 615,254 620,442 637,872 0.702 (High)
Nganjuk Regency Nganjuk 1,224.25 973,472 1,017,030 1,045,598 0.695 (Medium)
Ngawi Regency Ngawi 1,295.98 813,228 817,765 840,736 0.677 (Medium)
Tuban Regency Tuban 1,834.15 1,051,999 1,118,464 1,149,882 0.645 (Medium)
Northwest Sub-regional Totals 9,428.60 6,550,065 6,819,323 7,010,881
Probolinggo City 56.67 191,522 217,062 223,159 0.704 (High)
Banyuwangi Regency Banyuwangi 5,782.40 1,488,791 1,556,078 1,599,788 0.673 (Medium)
Bondowoso Regency Bondowoso 1,525.97 688,651 736,772 757,468 0.634 (Medium)
Jember Regency Jember 3,092.34 2,187,657 2,332,726 2,398,252 0.626 (Medium)
Lumajang Regency Lumajang 1,790.90 965,192 1,006,458 1,034,730 0.623 (Medium)
Probolinggo Regency Kraksaan 1,696.21 1,004,967 1,096,244 1,127,041 0.630 (Medium)
Situbondo Regency Situbondo 1,669.87 603,705 647,619 665,818 0.639 (Medium)
Far Southeast Sub-regional Totals 15,614.36 7,130,485 7,592,959 7,806,256
Batu City 136.74 (included in
Malang Regency)
190,184 195,526 0.718 (High)
Blitar City 32.57 119,372 131,968 135,675 0.752 (High)
Kediri City 63.40 244,519 268,507 276,051 0.746 (High)
Malang City 145.28 756,982 820,243 843,284 0.789 (High)
Blitar Regency Kanigoro 1,336.48 1,064,643 1,116,639 1,148,005 0.668 (Medium)
Kediri Regency Ngasem 1,386.05 1,408,353 1,499,768 1,541,897 0.684 (Medium)
Malang Regency Kepanjen 3,530.65 2,412,570 2,446,218 2,514,932 0.655 (Medium)
Pacitan Regency Pacitan 1,389.92 525,758 540,881 556,074 0.638 (Medium)
Ponorogo Regency Ponorogo 1,305.70 841,449 855,281 879,306 0.674 (Medium)
Trenggalek Regency Trenggalek 1,147.22 649,883 674,411 693,355 0.661 (Medium)
Tulungagung Regency Tulungagung 1,055.65 929,833 990,158 1,017,972 0.694 (Medium)
Southern Sub-regional Totals 11,529.66 8,953,362 9,534,258 9,802,077
East Java
(excluding Madura) Totals
42,774.45 31,535,693 33,853,994 34,804,946
Bangkalan Regency Bangkalan 1,001.44 805,048 906,761 932,232 0.607 (Medium)
Pamekasan Regency Pamekasan 792.24 689,225 795,918 818,283 0.626 (Medium)
Sampang Regency Sampang 1,233.08 750,046 877,772 902,429 0.569 (Low)
Sumenep Regency Sumenep 1,998.54 985,981 1,042,312 1,071,591 0.614 (Medium)
Madura Totals 5,025.30 3,230,300 3,622,763 3,724,535
Total for Province 47,799.75 34,765,993 37,476,757 38,529,481 0.681 (Medium)

Demography[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1971 25,516,999 —    
1980 29,188,852 +14.4%
1990 32,503,991 +11.4%
1995 33,844,002 +4.1%
2000 34,783,640 +2.8%
2010 37,476,757 +7.7%
2014 38,529,481 +2.8%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010, 2014 Health Ministry[1]

According to the 2000 census, East Java had 34,765,993 people, which increased to 37,476,757 people at the 2010 Census,[7] making it the second most populous Indonesian province after West Java. Akin to Central Java, the region's birth rates are not necessarily any lower than the rest of Java, however due to net population outflows, especially in times of calamity, not limited to volcanic eruptions or droughts, the region has varying rates of population growth that are generally lower than national average. Ethnic Javanese dominate the Java mainland as well as the total population of the province overall, while ethnic Madurese inhabit Madura and the Kangean and Masalembu archipelagos, though centuries of migrations have led the Java mainland to have a larger proportion of Madurese people than Madura itself. Minorities include distinct Javanese ethnicities such as the Tengger people in Bromo, the Samin and the Osing people in Banyuwangi. East Java also hosts a significant population of foreign ethnic groups, such as Chinese, Indians, and Arabs.

Languages[edit]

Besides the formal language, Indonesian, East Java people use Javanese as daily language. Javanese as spoken in the western part of East Java (Kulonan) is a similar dialect to the one spoken in Central Java, with its hierarchy of high, medium, and low registers. In the eastern part, such as Surabaya, Malang, and others, a more egalitarian version of Javanese is spoken, with less regard of hierarchy and a richer vocabulary for vulgarity. The dialect is notable for its roughness compared to other dialects spoken elsewhere in Java (especially the Mataram dialect spoken around Surakarta and Yogyakarta, which is renowned for its smoothness) and contributes to the stereotype among Javanese people of East Javanese being "blunt" and "loud". Variants of Javanese are also used by Osing and Tengger minorities, the former utilizing a Balinese-influenced Javanese by virtue of its closeness with Bali island, and the latter speaking an archaic form of the language that retains many features now lost in other more-innovative Javanese dialects.

Other than Javanese, minority language includes Madurese, spoken by around 15 million ethnic Madurese people inhabiting Madura and the Kangean and Masalembu Islands. Though they live practically next door with the Javanese, the language is actually more closer genetically to Balinese, Malay, and Sundanese.

Religion[edit]

Religion in East java
religion percent
Islam
  
96.36%
Christianity
  
2.4%
Hinduism
  
0.5%
Buddhism
  
0.6%
Confucianism
  
0.1%

A long time ago, Hinduism and Buddhism dominated the island until Islam gradually supplanted Hinduism in the 14th and 15th century. The last nobles and people of the fallen Majapahit fled to Bali. Islam spread from northern cities in Java where many Muslim traders from Gujarat, India stopped by. The eastern part of East Java, from Surabaya to Pasuruan, and the cities along the coast, and back to Banyuwangi to Jember, are known as the eastern salient, or "Kawasan Tapal Kuda" (The Horseshoe region).

A remnant of Hindu tradition and syncretic abangan is exist because of Islamic and Hinduism acculturation in Java.

Art and culture[edit]

Art[edit]

East Java has a number of distinctive art. Ludruk is one of the East Javanese art is quite well known, namely the art of the stage that generally all the players are male. Unlike the Ketoprak which tells the life of the palace, ludruk tells the daily life of ordinary people, often spiced with humor and social criticism, and generally opened with Dance Remo, and parikan. Currently traditional ludruk groups can be found in the area of Surabaya, Mojokerto and Jombang; although its presence increasingly defeated by modernization.

Reog from Ponorogo is a typical art that has been patented since 2001, reog now also become the icon of East Javanese art. Staging reog accompanied by horse braid (kuda lumping) are accompanied by elements of the occult. Famous art of East Java, among others puppet purwa East Javanese style, mask mastermind in Madura, and made. In the area Mataraman Middle Javanese arts such as Ketoprak, and shadow puppets are quite popular. Famous legend of East Java, among others Damarwulan, Angling Darma, and Sarip Tambak-Oso.

Traditional dance in East Java can be generally grouped into Middle Javanese style, East Javanese style, Osing style and Madurese styles. Classical dance, among others are gambyong dance, dance srimpi, dance bondan, and wanderer. There is also a sort of lion dance culture in East Java. Art exists in two districts namely, Bondowoso, and Jember. Singo Wulung is a distinctive culture Bondowoso. While Jember have the tiger kadhuk. Both art that is rarely encountered.

Culture[edit]

Culture and customs of Javanese in the western part of East Java received a lot of influence from the Middle Javanese, so this area is known as Mataraman; indicate that the area was once the territory of the Sultanate of Mataram. The area includes the former residency of Madiun (Madiun, Ngawi, Magetan, Ponorogo, Pacitan), ex-residency Kediri (Kediri, Tulungagung, Blitar, Trenggalek, Nganjuk), and part of Bojonegoro. As is the case in Central Java, wayang kulit, and Ketoprak quite popular in this region.

East Java's west coast region is heavily influenced by the Islamic culture. This area covers an area of Tuban, Lamongan and Gresik. In the past the north coast of East Java is the entry area, and the center of the development of Islam. Five of the nine members of the walisongo are buried in this area.

In the area of ex-residency of Surabaya (including Sidoarjo, Mojokerto and Jombang), and ex-residency Malang, had little cultural influence Mataraman, considering this region is an area arek (the term for offspring Kenarok), especially in the area of Malang that make this area difficult to be affected by Mataraman culture.

Customs in horse hooves region heavily influenced by the culture of Madura, given the magnitude of Madura tribe population in the region. Osing social mores of the culture is a blend of Java, Madura and Bali. While the Tenggerese tribe is heavily influenced by Hindu culture.

Villagers in East Java, as well as in Central Java, has ties based on friendship, and territorial. Various ceremonies were held, among others: tingkepan (ceremony gestational age of seven months for the first child), babaran (ceremony before the birth of the baby), sepasaran (ceremony after the baby was five days), Pitonan (ceremony after the baby was seven months old), circumcision, fiance. East Java's population generally embraced monogamy. Prior to application, the men doing the show nako'ake (ask if the girl already had a husband), once that is done peningsetan (application). The wedding ceremony was preceded by a gathering or kepanggih. Communities on the west coast: Tuban, Lamongan, Gresik, even Bojonegoro has a habit of women's families applying common man (Ganjuran), different from the usual habits of other regions in Indonesia, where the men apply for women. And generally men will then be entered into the family of the woman. To pray for the deceased person, usually a family party did send donga on day 1, 3rd, 7th, 40th, 100th, 1 year and 3 years after death.

Education[edit]

East Java hosts famous universities in Indonesia, both owned by government and private. Three major cities for universities are Surabaya, Malang, and Jember; there is also a university at Bangkalan on Madura island. Among them, University of Airlangga and Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember are the most famous of the province's universities, and both are located in Surabaya.

Another important form of education that is available in most cities in East Java is the pesantren. This is a kind of socio-education organized by Islamic clerics, and associated with local or national Muslim organizations. Jombang is a famous region for its pesantren.

Media[edit]

East Java supports several regional media outlets. Local newspapers with provincial news reach their readers earlier than their competitors from Jakarta. In the spirit of "providing more news from around readers", most newspapers even issue municipal sections which are different among their distribution areas.

  • Jawa Pos Group, one of the major newspaper groups in Indonesia, based in Surabaya.
  • Surya, is a newspaper based in Surabaya. (owned by Kompas Group).

Tourism[edit]

Malang metropolitan region is a famous tourist destination in Indonesia with the City of Batu as its center.

East Java has a number of interesting sights. One of the tourist icon is Mount Bromo in East Java, which is inhabited by the Tengger tribe, where the ceremony is held every year Kasada. In the mountainous region of Tengger also there is a waterfall that is Madakaripura which is the last hermitage Mahapatih Gajah Mada before serving in the kingdom of Majapahit. Madakaripura Waterfall has a height of about 200 meters, which makes it the highest waterfall on the island of Java and the second highest in Indonesia. East Java also has some other mountainous tourist area of which is Malang Raya mountainous area known as the natural mountain tourist area that includes Malang and Batu. Tretes and Trawas mountainous areas, are also known to have characteristics such as Puncak area in West Java province. Other natural attractions in East Java is the National Park (4 of 12 National Parks in Java) and Taman Safari Indonesia II in Prigen.

East Java is also contained relics of history in the classical era. Trowulan sites in Mojokerto, once the center of the Majapahit Kingdom, there are dozens of temples and tombs of the kings of Majapahit. Other temples spread throughout much of East Java, including Penataran temple in Blitar. In Madura, Sumenep is the center of the kingdom of Madura, where there are Kraton Sumenep, museums, and the tombs of the kings of Madura (Asta Tinggi Sumenep).

East Java is known to have a very beautiful coastal scenery. On the south coast there is the Prigi Beach, Pelang Beach and Pasir Putih Beach in Trenggalek, Popoh Beach in Tulungagung, Ngliyep Beach, and tourism areas such as the Jatim Park, Batu Secret Zoo, Batu Night Spectacular, Eco Green Park in Batu, and the Watu Ulo Beach in Jember. East Java also has a beach that the waves is one of the best in the world, namely the Plengkung Beach located in Banyuwangi. In addition there Kenjeran Beach in Surabaya, and the White Sand Beach in Situbondo. Lake in East Java, among others Sarangan in Magetan, Ir. Sutami Dam in Malang, and Selorejo Dam in Blitar.

The coastal area of the north there are a number of tombs of the saints, who become religious pilgrims travel for Muslims. Five of the nine walisongo buried in East Java: Sunan Ampel in Surabaya, Sunan Giri, and Malik Ibrahim in Gresik, Sunan Drajat in Paciran (Lamongan), and Sunan Bonang, Tuban. In the northern coastal region there are also interesting caves are: Cave Maharani in Lamongan and Tuban Akbar Cave and Cave Gong located in Pacitan is known as the most beautiful caves in Southeast Asia. Pilgrimage attraction in East Java, among others, the tombs were also proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia's first president Soekarno contained in Kota Blitar, as well as the tomb of the fourth Indonesian president Abdurrahman Wahid / Gus Dur is located in Jombang.

Malang Metropolitan Region is a leading tourist destination in Indonesia with the City of Rock as its center. Malang has various tourist areas of natural beauty ranging from volcanoes to beaches, as well as man-made tour of the history of travel to an international-class theme park with the support of inter-provincial transportation via trains, buses, and airplanes are available in Malang. Surabaya is the center of government, and the business center of East Java, where there are Tugu Pahlawan, the Museum MPU Tantular, Surabaya Zoo, Submarine Monument, Ampel Region, and the Tunjungan area.

National parks[edit]

Deer in Baluran National Park
  • Meru Betiri National Park - Between Jember and Banyuwangi districts, this park covers 580 km2 (224 sq mi). Hard to get to, it contains fantastic coastal rainforest and scenery and is home to abundant wildlife.
  • Alas Purwo National Park - This 434 km2 (168 sq mi) park is formed by the Blambangan Peninsula (southeastern Java). Comprising mangrove, savanna, lowland monsoon forests and excellent beaches, the park's name means First Forest in Javanese. Javanese legend says that the earth first emerged from the ocean here.
  • Baluran National Park - This 250 km2 (97 sq mi) national park is located in northeastern Java, known as The Little Africa, formerly extensive savanna has been largely replaced by Acacia.
  • Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park - Located in East Java at the region of Probolinggo and Pasuruan, 70 km (43 mi) from Surabaya the capital city of East Java province. Mount Bromo is one of the great hiking and trekking destinations for overseas tourists. The scenic view of Bromo also attracts hundreds of photo enthusiasts to see the views there.

Cuisine[edit]

Rujak Cingur, traditional dish from East Java

East Javanese food is famous of which is Bakso Malang, Rawon, and Tahu Campur Lamongan. Surabaya is famous for Rojak Cingur, Semanggi, Lontong Balap, clams satay, mussels and rice cake. Malang has been popular for a variety of processed fruits, especially apples, crisps tempeh, Bakpao telo, Bakso Malang, rawon and Cwie noodles. Kediri is famous for tahu takwa, tahu pong, and getuk pisang. Madiun is known for pecel madiun, and as a producer of Brem. The subdistrict of Babat, Lamongan famous as a producer of wingko. Bondowoso is also well known as the producer of tape. Gresik famous is for nasi krawu, otak-otak bandeng, bonggolan. Sidoarjo is famous for shrimp crackers, shrimp paste, and petis. Ngawi is famous for Tempeh Chips, tahu tepo, and Nasi lethok. Blitar has the typical food that is pecel. Rambutan is also native to Blitar. Banyuwangi is famous for sego tempong, salad soup, and pecel rawon. Jember have special food made of tape that is Suwar-suwir and tape proll that is very sweet. Corn is known as one of the staple food of the Madurese, while cassava is processed into gaplek, a staple food used to be a part of the population in Pacitan and Trenggalek. Tulungagung are famous for its lodho, goat satay and pecel tulungagung

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014 Kementerian Kesehatan
  2. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. 
  3. ^ Keagamaan 2009
  4. ^ Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak, S.B. Pramono, hal 148, 2013
  5. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  6. ^ Indeks-Pembangunan-Manusia-2014
  7. ^ [1]

External links[edit]