Jawahar Singh

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Jawahar Singh
Maharaja of Bharatpur State
Reign 1763–68
Predecessor Maharaja Suraj Mal
Successor Maharaja Ratan Singh
House Sinsiniwar Jat Dynasty
Father Maharaja Suraj Mal
Mother Rabri Devi
Religion Hinduism

Maharaja Jawahar Singh (r. 1763–1768) (Hindi: महाराजा जवाहर सिंह) was a ruling Maharaja of the Bharatpur State. He succeeded to the throne when his father Maharaja Suraj Mal died in 1763. At the time of Raja Suraj Mal's death in 1763 Jawahar Singh was in Farrukhnagar.

Jawahar Singh ascended the throne[edit]

Maharaja Suraj Mal's nobles placed Nahar Singh on the throne. On hearing this news Jawahar Singh lost his temper and sent a letter to Bharatpur expressing how painful it was that while the dead body of his father Suraj Mal was restless for his head, his sons were quarrelling among themselves for the throne. Jawahar Singh announced that he would soon return to Bharatpur and would contend for the throne only after taking revenge for his father’s head.

By the time he reached Bharatpur, the news had spread that Jawahar Singh took shelter with the Raja of Karauli. Bal Ram brother-in-law of Maharaja Suraj Mal the commander of Bharatpur forces closed the gates of Bharatpur fort and prepared for war against Jawahar Singh. Ultimately, however, he accepted Jawahar Singh's claim to the throne. Maharaja Sawai Jawahar Singh ascended the throne of Bharatpur with the title of Bharat Indra.

Jawahar Singh’s revenge[edit]

Maharaja Jawahar Singh punished all those courtiers who had opposed his succession to the throne. Nahar Singh fought a war against him with the help of Karauli and the Marathas, but was defeated. Jawahar Singh helped the Raja of Dholpur to be independent of the Marathas. He also made alliances with the East India Company against the Maratha Leader, Raghunath Rao. He had his maternal uncle Balram murdered. Raja Suraj Mal had been maintaining superficially friendly relations with Raja Madho Singh of Jaipur, in spite of his having a born foe of the Bharatpur 'Raj'. Jawahar Singh did not approve of it. After the death of Nahar Singh, Jawahar Singh called his wife and his children back from Jaipur to Bharatpur, but Madho Singh refused to send them. In reply, Jawahar Singh gave shelter to Pratap Singh, a rebel Sardar of Jaipur, and demanded Pargana Kama of Jaipur, which was adjacent to Bharatpur. He further annoyed Madho Singh by adopting the title of Sawai, which was the title adopted by Madho Singh's father, Raja Jai Singh.

Jawahar Singh’s march against Delhi[edit]

In October 1764, Jawahar Singh had marched against Delhi with 100 cannons,60,000 Cavalry of his own, 25,000 Maratha soldiers of Holkar and 15,000 Sikh soldiers.

After a siege of several months Najibuddin appealed for peace. But Jawahar Singh was determined to take revenge for his father, by severing his head. After several days, some Rohilla leaders came to the camp of Jawahar Singh with Zubita Khan who sought the intervention of Maharaja Holkar.

Holkar tried to persuade Jawahar Singh to make peace on the condition that Najibuddaulah would pay the whole expenditure for the war. Jawahar Singh did not accepted this offer and continued attacking mughals.Suraj Mal's old captains were in collusion with the Najib and wanted this campaign to be a failure.Jawahar Singh realized that he has no hope of winning as his own servants were colluding with the enemy.Negotiations for peace were set on foot on 4th february and brought to a speedy conclusion.At last Jawahar ,on 16th february marched away from the city without achieving anything at all<3> [Page 468 of Fall of the Mughal Empire Vol 2 Jadunath Sarkar ]

Jawahar Singh renovated and built the Sheetla Mata Mandir Gurgaon whose blessings he had sought in the war. She is Kripi (wife of Guru Dronacharya) who was the teacher of the Pandavas and Kauravas according to Indian epic Mahabharata and Gurgaon is named after him.[1]

The Pushkar bath by Maharani Kishori[edit]

Maharani Kishori, wife of Maharaja Suraj Mal, who had adopted Jawahar Singh, was adept at political intrigues. She was pained to see that Jawahar Singh was not adopting a favourable policy towards the members of the family and the nobles. She knew that only keeping him engaged in warfare could control him. She also knew that the Rajputs could never tolerate this abrupt rise of Jat rule and would always resist the latter's efforts to gain power. The solution for both the problems lay in war.

Maharani Kishori expressed her desire to her proud son that she wanted to go for a sacred bath at Pushkar. Jawahar Singh pointed out that Pushkar was situated in the territory of his eternal and deadly foe, Raja Madho Singh, who would not tolerate her arrival at Pushkar with a large retinue, and advised her that if at all she were keen to go for Pushkar bath, she would go with only a few followers and Rupa Ram the Purohit.

The Rani retorted by saying that she was the mother of Jawahar Singh, and the Rani of Maharaja Suraj Mal and taking a bath like Marwari women would hurt her pride, and that she would like to take her bath along with the Rajput Ranis there.

Jawahar Singh marched to Pushkar with 600,000 Cavalry, 50 lakh Infantry and 100,000 Cannons. With fluttering banners and beating drums they entered Jaipur territory and set up an impressive camp in the Sandy plains of Pushkar.

Maharani Kishori was weighed in gold, which was given in charity.

War with Madho Singh[edit]

Jawahar had won the kalpi region in 1767.The Marathas attack on him had been warded off.His domestic rivals were in grave.His disloyal Gosain troops had been crushed.These successes turned the head of Jawahar Singh [4] <page 474 of Fall of the Mughal Empire Vol 2 by Jadunath Sarkar>.Soon afterwards Jawahar Singh sought his doom by arrogantly provoking a war with Raja of Jaipur Madho Singh,once the overlord of his house.Jawahar Singh demanded from Madho Singh the surrender of Nahar Singh'(Suraj Mal's favourite son) widow and children.The lady refused,justly fearing Jawahar's notorious character.Then Jat Rajah marched with his army with a full supply of artillery[5][Pge 478 Fall of The Mughal Empire Vol 2 by Jadunath Sarkar].Jawahar Singh invited Bijay Singh of Marwar at Pushkar to meet and form an alliance.On 6 November 1767, the Rathore and Jat Raja's met together on the banks of the sacred lake, exchanged turbans and sat down side by side on the same carpet like full brothers, and sent an invitation to Madho Singh I to come and join them. The proud Kachwaha, long the foremost Rajput feudatory of the Delhi empire, was provoked beyond endurance by this insult. He sharply reprimanded Vijay Singh for having degraded his Rathore ancestry by admitting a peasants son and a mere servant of the Jaipur state as his brother and political equal. The letter roused Jawahar Singh to fury. He set out on his return wantonly looting the Jaipur villages on his way and molesting their inhabitants[6][History of Jaipur by Jadunath Sarkar pg. 255].The Jat Raja with his immense force and ponderous artillery and baggage train had almost reached his own country, when at Maonda, only 23 miles south-west of Narnaul. The Kachwaha army which had been following him, delivered the attack (14 December). Here a narrow defile lay before the Jats; They sent their baggage ahead, covering it with the troops in the rear. The first attack of the Rajput horse in the open was repulsed by the Jats making a counter march against them as the Kachwaha artillery and infantry were still lagging behind. The Kachwaha horsemen, after firmly standing a devastating fire from Jawahar Singh's guns for some time, threw themselves sword in hand on the enemy, the Jats fled at the first shock, crying out that all was lost and abandoning their artillery, baggage, and king himself[7][History of Jaipur by Jadunath Sarkar pg. 255].The Rajputs immediately dispersed for plunder, and an indescribable scene of confusion followed, during which the French sepoys of Samru and Madec kept their heads, and with equal coolness and daring maintained the battle, fighting with their backs to the rocky walls till nightfall. they saved Jawahar Singh and enabled him to make an unmolested retreat, though the rest of his army had dispersed in flight long before. But all his artillery- 70 pieces of different calibres, tents and baggage including his royal umbrella, had to be abandoned on the field. The total loss on the two sides together was about 5000 men. The Rajput lost 2000 men mostly because of artillery fire, before which they stood with astonishing firmness; But most of the principal chiefs fell on the field; There was hardly a noble family in jaipur that did not sacrifice a son or two on that day. Dalil singh the commander-in-chief of the Jaipur army, fell in the fight with three generations of his descendants, and none but the boys of ten remained to represent the baronical houses of Jaipur[8][History of Jaipur by Jadunath Sarkar pg. 256] Madho Singh invaded Bharatpur on 29 February 1768 and wounded Bharatpurs greatest general Dan Shah. Jawahar Singh later hired an army of 20,000 Sikhs at the price of seven lakhs which forced Madho singh to retreat back to Jaipur.[2]


  1. ^ Guru in gurugram
  2. ^ Jadunath Sarkars History of Jaipur pg.256
Jawahar Singh
Sinsiniwar Jat Dynasty
Born: ? ? Died: 1768
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Maharaja Suraj Mal
Maharaja of Bharatpur
1763–1768 AD
Succeeded by
Maharaja Ratan Singh

3. Page 468 of Fall of the Mughal Empire Vol 2 Jadunath Sarkar , 4. page 474 of Fall of the Mughal Empire Vol 2 by Jadunath Sarkar 5. Pg 478 Fall of The Mughal Empire Vol 2 by Jadunath Sarkar 6. History of Jaipur by Jadunath Sarkar pg. 255.