Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission

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Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)
Overhead Water Tank Capacity 3 million litres, at Barat Nagar BHEL under Bhopal Municipal Corporation
Launched3 December 2005 (2005-12-03)
StatusSucceeded by AMRUT

Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) was a massive city-modernization scheme launched by the Government of India under the Ministry of Urban Development. It envisaged a total investment of over $20 billion over seven years. It is named after Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India. The aim is to encourage reforms and fast track planned development of identified cities. Focus is to be on efficiency in urban infrastructure and service delivery mechanisms, community participation, and accountability of ULBs/ Parastatal agencies towards citizens.[1]

Motto of the Mission

Motto of the JNNURM are to ensure that the following are achieved in the urban sector:

(a) Focused attention to integrated development of infrastructure services in cities covered under the Mission.

(b) Establishment of linkages between asset-creation and asset-management through a slew of reforms for long-term project sustainability.

c) Ensuring adequate funds to meet the deficiencies in urban infrastructural services.

(d) Planned development of identified cities including peri-urban areas, outgrowths and urban corridors leading to dispersed urbanization.

(e) Scale-up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access to the urban poor.[1]

The scheme was officially inaugurated by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 3 December 2005[2] as a programme meant to improve the quality of life and infrastructure in the cities. It was launched in 2005 for a seven-year period (up to March 2011) to encourage cities to initiate steps for bringing phased improvements in their civic service levels. The government had extended the tenure of the mission for another two years, i.e., from April 2012 to 31 March 2014.

JNNURM was a sizable mission that mostly dealt with urban conglomeration development with an emphasis on Indian cities. JNNURM aims at creating 'economically productive, efficient, equitable and responsive cities' by a strategy of upgrading the social and economic infrastructure in cities, provision of Basic Services to Urban Poor (BSUP)[3] and wide-ranging urban sector reforms to strengthen municipal governance in accordance with the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992.



JNNURM primarily incorporates two sub-missions into its program:

Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) under JNNRUM for slum improvement and rehabilitation

In addition to this, it has two further components:[5]

  • The Sub-Mission for Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small & Medium Towns (UIDSSMT) administered by the Ministry of Urban Development, with a focus on subsuming the schemes of Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT) and Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programe (AUWSP) which aim at planned urban infrastructural improvement in towns and cities under its purview.[6]
  • The Sub-Mission for Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) administered by Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MHUPA) was envisaged and brought into effect in 1993–94 in accordance with providing the entire population with safe and adequate water supply facilities. The program is mainly implemented in towns with populations less than 20,000 as per the 1991 census.[7]


  • Focused attention relating to infrastructural services in the context of integrated development is to be covered under the mission.
  • Make efficient and increase self-sustaining capabilities of cities as per the sector proving infrastructural services by securing the linkages between asset creation and asset management[1]
  • Ensure adequate investment of funds to fulfill deficiencies in the urban infrastructural services.
  • Planned development of identified cities including peri-urban areas, out growths, urban corridors, so that urbanization takes place in a dispersed manner.
  • Scale up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access to urban poor.
  • To take up urban renewal programme, i.e., re-development of inner (old) cities area to reduce congestion.[8]
  • Provision of basic services to the urban poor including security of tenure at affordable prices, improved housing, water supply and sanitation, and ensuring delivery of other existing universal services of the government for education, health and social security.


The duration of the mission is seven years beginning from December 2005. During this period, the mission sought to ensure sustainable development of participating cities. An evaluation of the experience of implementation of the mission would be undertaken before the end of the Eleventh Five Year Plan in 2012. The duration of the mission was extended by two more years: until 31 March 2014.[1]

funds are channeled through state-level agencies, where grants from the central and state governments are pooled and passed on as grants or soft loans to cities provided that they have prepared development strategies and that the investments identified fit within these strategies. The mission emphasises transparency and accountability. It supports public-private partnerships and cost recovery to make service providers financially self-sustaining.[4] The share of grant funding by the central government can vary from 35% in the largest cities to up to 90% in cities in the Northeast. Most cities receive grants covering 50% or 80% of costs depending on size.[9] Capacity building is also included in the mission to assist urban local bodies to prepare strategies and projects.

Currently, ten projects are covered by JNNURM funds pertaining to road network, storm water drains, bus rapid transit system, water supply, solid waste management, sewage treatment, river and lake improvement, slum improvement and rehabilitation, all fall under its scope.

Strategy of the Mission

(1) Preparing City Development Plan: Every city will be expected to formulate a City Development Plan (CDP) indicating policies, programmes and strategies, and financing plans.

(2) Preparing Projects: The CDP would facilitate identification of projects. The Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) / parastatal agencies will be required to prepare Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) for undertaking projects in the identified spheres.

(3) Release and Leveraging of Funds: It is expected that the JNNURM assistance would serve to catalyse the flow of investment into the urban infrastructure sector across the country. Funds from the Central and State Government will flow directly to the nodal agency designated by the State, as grants-in-aid.

(4) Incorporating Private Sector Efficiencies: In order to optimise the life-cycle costs over the planning horizon, private sector efficiencies can be inducted in development, management, implementation and financing of projects, through Public Private Partnership (PPP) arrangements.[1]

Expected Outcomes

(1) Modern and transparent budgeting, accounting, financial management systems, designed and adopted for all urban service and governance functions.

(2) City-wide framework for planning and governance will be established and become operational.

(3) All urban residents will be able to obtain access to a basic level of urban services.

(4) Financially self-sustaining agencies for urban governance and service delivery will be established, through reforms to major revenue instruments.

(5) Local services and governance will be conducted in a manner that is transparent and accountable to citizens.

(6) E-governance applications will be introduced in core functions of ULBs/Parastatal resulting in reduced cost and time of service delivery processes.[1]


As per the JNNURM guidelines, only select cities/Urban Agglomerations (UAs) as per 2001 Census have been chosen for the implementation of the programme as per norms/criteria mentioned below:[8]

A Cities/UAs with 4 million plus population as per 2001 census 07
B Cities/UAs with 1 million plus but less than 4 million population as per 2001 census 28
C Selected cities/UAs (state capitals and other cities/UAs of religious/historic and touristic importance) 28


JNNURM city bus in Vijayawada
Interior of Low Floor Buses
Low floor bus from JNNURM for Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram
Semi-Low Floor (SLF) bus from JNNURM for Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai cities & to Puducherry.
A commuter bus in Hyderabad that is procured as a part of JNNURM

State level reforms[edit]

As of 2012 Gujarat led the tally for the state level reforms, being the only state to have achieved all 10 reforms required by the mission. Five states have achieved 9 out of 10 reforms: Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.[10] Public disclosure and community participation laws have initially progressed slowly, with only five states managing to enact them as part of the reform agenda as of 2009.[11] However, as of 2012 community participation laws have been enacted by 22 out of 31 states, and public disclosure laws were enacted by 27 states. 20 states had decentralised the responsibility for water supply and sanitation from the state level to ULBs, and 19 had done so for city planning functions.[10]

A low-floor bus by JNNURM scheme used by West Bengal Transport Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited, in the capital city of Kolkata

City level reform of 2012[edit]

Visakhapatnam, Surat and Pune had the distinction of having accomplished all 8 city level reforms. Chennai, Greater Mumbai and Hyderabad had achieved 7 out of 8 reforms. Out of 67 cities, 30 had achieved the 90% target for property tax collection, 20 had achieved full operation and maintenance cost recovery for water supply and sanitation, but only 8 had achieved cost recovery for solid waste.[12]

Sanctioning of projects[edit]

As of 2009, 415 projects requiring an investment of 440 billion (US$5.5 billion), equivalent to half the total envisaged program amount, were approved. Among the states, Maharashtra has been sanctioned the maximum number of projects under the mission. Among cities, Bangalore has had the highest number of approved projects.[11]

Midterm appraisal[edit]

A midterm appraisal carried out in 2009 by the consulting firm Grant Thornton recommended to establish a single directorate for the ministries in charge of the mission; more involvement of city administrations in the preparation of city development plans that were prepared by consultants; broader stakeholder consultation during environmental and social impact assessments; the development of a national procurement manual; separation of the approval process for projects in two stages; financial support and capacity development for the implementation of reforms in addition to funding for infrastructure; the use of policies for public-private partnerships and pooled funding mechanisms at the state level, such as urban development funds that exist in Tamil Nadu and Orissa.[13]

Funding shares by city categories[edit]

Percentage of Funding[8]
Category of Cities/Towns/UAs Grant ULB or Para-Statal

Share/Loan from
Financial Institutions

Centre State
Cities/UAs with 4 million plus

population as per 2001 census

35% 15% 50%
Cities/UAs with million plus but less

than 4 million population as per 2001 census

50% 20% 30%
Cities/towns/UAs in North Eastern

States and Jammu & Kashmir

90% 10%
Cities/UAs other

than those mentioned above

80% 10% 10%
For setting up de-salination plants within 20 km.

From sea-shore and other urban areas predominantly
facing water scarcity due to brackish water and
non-availability of surface source.

80% 10% 10%

List of identified cities[edit]

The following table provides for a list of the cities/urban agglomerations (UAs) identified to receive the benefits of JNNURM. They include data pertaining to the state they belong to; the population in these cities given in lakhs as per the census of 2001.[14]

List of identified cities/urban agglomerations (UA) as per 2001 Census[8][15][16]
Mega Cities
No. City/UA Name of the State Population (in lakh)
1 Delhi Delhi 128.77
2 Greater Mumbai Maharashtra 164.34
3 Hyderabad Telangana 57.72
4 Bangalore Karnataka 57.01
5 Chennai Tamil Nadu 65.60
6 Kolkata West Bengal 132.06
7 Ahmedabad Gujarat 45.25
Million-plus Cities/UAs
No. City/UA Name of the State Population (in lakh)
1 Patna Bihar 16.98
2 Faridabad Haryana 10.56
3 Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 14.58
4 Ludhiana Punjab 13.98
5 Jaipur Rajasthan 23.27
6 Lucknow Uttar Pradesh 22.46
7 Madurai Tamil Nadu 12.03
8 Nashik Maharashtra 16.52
9 Pune Maharashtra 37.60
10 Kochi Kerala 13.55
11 Varanasi Uttar Pradesh 12.04
12 Agra Uttar Pradesh 13.31
13 Amritsar Punjab 10.03
14 Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 13.45
15 Vadodara Gujarat 14.91
16 Surat Gujarat 28.11
17 Kanpur Uttar Pradesh 27.15
18 Nagpur Maharashtra 21.29
19 Coimbatore Tamil Nadu 14.61
20 Meerut Uttar Pradesh 11.61
21 Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh 10.98
22 Jamshedpur Jharkhand 11.04
23 Asansol West Bengal 10.67
24 Allahabad Uttar Pradesh 10.42
25 Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh 10.39
26 Rajkot Gujarat 10.03
27 Dhanbad Jharkhand 10.65
28 Indore Madhya Pradesh 16.40
Identified cities/UAs with less than 1 million population
No. City/UA Name of the State Population (in lakh)
1 Guwahati Assam 8.19
2 Itanagar Arunachal Pradesh 0.35
3 Jammu Jammu & Kashmir 6.12
4 Raipur Chhattisgarh 7.00
5 Panaji Goa 0.99
6 Shimla Himachal Pradesh 1.45
7 Ranchi Jharkhand 8.63
8 Thiruvananthapuram Kerala 8.90
9 Imphal Manipur 2.50
10 Shillong Meghalaya 2.68
11 Aizawl Mizoram 2.28
12 Kohima Nagaland 0.77
13 Bhubaneshwar Odisha 6.58
14 Gangtok Sikkim 0.29
15 Agartala Tripura 1.90
16 Dehradun Uttaranchal 5.30
17 Bodh Gaya Bihar 3.94
18 Ujjain Madhya Pradesh 4.31
19 Puri Odisha 1.57
20 Pushkar Rajasthan 5.04
21 Nainital Uttaranchal 2.20
22 Mysore Karnataka 7.99
23 Mangalore Karnataka 6.23
24 Udupi Karnataka 1.65
25 Pondicherry Puducherry 5.05
26 Chandigarh Punjab, Haryana 8.08
27 Srinagar Jammu and Kashmir 9.88
28 Mathura Uttar Pradesh 3.23
29 Haridwar Uttaranchal 2.21
30 Kolhapur Maharashtra 5.50
31 Guntur Andhra Pradesh 7.43
32 Kollam Kerala 3.49
33 Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu 7.52
34 Cuttack Odisha 5.35

Note: National Steering Group may choose to add or delete cities/UAs/towns under Category-C (other than state capitals) based on the suggestions received from state governments. However, the number of cities under the mission shall remain around 60.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f NNVNS.ORG (8 November 2021). "Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission [All Details]". Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  2. ^ "Prime Minister's Office". Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  3. ^ a b Sub-missions:JnNURM Sub-Missions Archived 10 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b Government of India:Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Archived 16 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine, ca. 2005
  5. ^ "JNNURM Directorate" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2011. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ "UIDSSMT Guidelines". Archived from the original on 5 October 2011.
  7. ^ "Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme (AUWSP)". Archived from the original on 2 November 2011.
  8. ^ a b c d Guidelines:JNNURM Guidelines, February 2009
  9. ^ Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Limited (ILFS) India:IL&FS IDC Services offered for JNNURM and UIDSSMT Schemes Archived 3 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine, undated presentation
  10. ^ a b JnNURM. "UIG – State Level Reform Status, March 2012" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  11. ^ a b Indian Infrastructure:JNNURM Progress Report[permanent dead link], February 2009
  12. ^ JnNURM UIG. "ULB Level Reforms Status, March 2012" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  13. ^ JNNURM. "Annual Update 2010–2011" (PDF). pp. 4–5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  14. ^ Census of India, 2001:2001 Census of India
  15. ^ The Hindu, 2013:All districts to get low-floor buses
  16. ^ EAI, 2012:All districts to get low-floor buses

External links[edit]