Jayatirtha

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For Hare Krishna religious figure, see Jayatirtha Dasa.
Jayatīrtha
(ಜಯತೀರ್ಥ)
Religion Hinduism
Order Vedanta
Philosophy Dvaita,
Vaishnavism
Personal
Born Dhondupant Raghunatha
Mangalwedha, near Pandharpur,[1]
Maharashtra or Manyakheta,Karnataka
Guru Akshobhya Tirtha
Honors Ṭīkacārya

Sri Jayatirtha or Jayateertharu (also known as Teekācharya) (c. 1365 – c. 1388 [2]) was a Hindu philosopher, dialectician, polemicist and the sixth pontiff of Madhvacharya Peetha. He is considered to be one of the most important seers in the history of Dvaita school of thought on account of his sound elucidations of the works of Madhvacharya. He is credited with structuring the philosophical aspects of Dvaita and through his polemical works, elevating it to an equal footing with the contemporary schools of thought.[3] Along with Madhva and Vyasatirtha, he is venerated as one of the three great spiritual sages, or munitraya of Dvaita.

Born into an aristocratic Brahmin family,[4] he later adopted the cause of Dvaita after an encounter with the Madhva saint, Akshobhya Tirtha (d. 1365 [5]). He composed 22 works, consisting of commentaries on the works of Madhva and several independent treatises criticizing the tenets of contemporary schools, especially Advaita, while simultaneously elaborating upon the Dvaita thought. His dialectical skill and logical acumen earned him the distinction of Ṭīkacārya or commentator par excellence. [6]

Biography[edit]

Historical sources on Jayatirtha's life is scant. [1] Most of the information about his life is derived from two hagiographies: Aṇu Jayatīrtha Vijaya and Bṛhad Jayatīrtha Vijaya from his disciple, Vyāsatirtha (not to be confused with Vyasatirtha) and a compilation by Chalāri Saṁkarṣaṇacārya (c. 1700). [7] He was born Dhoṇḍu (or Dhoṇḍo) Pant Raghunath to a Brahmin Deshpande family. The place of his birth is assigned to either Mangalwedha or Manyakheta. [7] According to the hagiographies, his father was a nobleman of military rank and importance. Dhoṇḍo Pant grew up in affluence, with a certain predilection towards sports, especially horse riding.[4] At the age of twenty, after a chance encounter with the ascetic Akshobhya Tīrtha on the banks of river Kagini, he underwent a transformation which led him to renounce his former life, but not without resistance from his family. After much deliberation, his family relented and he was subsequently initiated into the Dvaita fold by Akshobhya Tīrtha, who named him Jayatīrtha. [8] Jayatirtha succeeded Akshobhya as the pontiff in 1365. He composed several commentaries and treatises in the brief span of 23 years between his initiation and death in 1388. The location of his tomb (Brindavana) is a matter of controversy.

Legacy[edit]

Nyayasudha is known as Sri Jayateertha’s magnum opus and is the exhaustive and detailed commentary (Teeka is Sanskrit for commentary, hence he also known as Teekacharya) of Sri Madhvacharya’s Anuvyakhyana which in turn itself is a commentary on Brahma Sutras by Veda Vyasa. Sri Jayateertha has brilliantly and, more importantly, sincerely captured the pithy statements of his master in a lucid and simple language. It is universally admitted in the Dvaita tradition that the depth and breadth of the philosophical ocean of Tatvavada can only be appreciated with the help of the Nyaya Sudha. In a very attractive and lucid style, Sri Jayatirtha not only presents and strongly defends almost all the important philosophical and epistemological issues from the Dvaita point of view, but also severely criticizes other major philosophical systems of India such as the Bauddha, Jaina, Nyaya-Vaisesika, Bhatta-Prabhakara Mimamsa, Advaita and Visishtadvaita. Thus, in the Dvaita tradition, the work is held in very high esteem and it is believed that scholarship in Dvaita Vedanta is incomplete without a thorough study of this monumental work.

Brindavana[edit]

Sri Jayateertha's Brindavanam is the much debated topic. There are two locations that are being ascribed to be the original place of his Brindavanam (1) Brindavana is at Malakhed near Gulbarga on the banks of river Kagini and (2) Navabrindavana Gadde near Anegundi in the middle of the Tungabhadra river course.. For the last many decades Madhva scholars and historians are debating on the actual place of Sri Jayateertha's Mula Brindavanam. A research book [1] has been published in the year 2014 by Sri Suayami Raghavendra Samshodhana Kendra, Nanjangud & Bangalore. The editors for this book are Vidwan K.L. Pushkaracharya and Vidwan G.V. Navalagunda. The book is titled as "Sri Jayatirthara Mulabrundavana sthala Gajagahvara". Sri Narahari Sumadhwa from www.sumadhwaseva.com has critically analysed the contents of the book. Sri Vyasanakere Prabhanjanacharya, a learned scholar and researcher of Madhva community, has published a rejoinder titled "Sri Jayatirthara Mulabrundavana sthala Malkheda" in October, 2014.

Works[edit]

There have been 22 works accredited to Jayatirtha, 18 of which are commentaries on the works of Madhvacharya.[9] Some of his well known works are

  • Nyaya sudha (Nectar of logic) - a commentary on Sri Madhvacarya's Anuvyakhyana
  • Tattva prakashika (The light of truth) - a commentary on Sri Madhvacarya's Brahma Sutra Bhashya
  • Prameya deepika (The light of object of knowledge) - a commentary on Sri Madhvacarya's Geeta Bhashya
  • Nyaya deepika (The light of logic) - a commentary on Sri Madhvacarya's Geeta Tatparya

He is also credited with commentaries on Sri Madhva's Dasaprakaranas and two out of ten Upanishad Bhashyas.

His independent works are Vadavali, Pramana Paddati and Padyamala.

Notes[edit]

  1. Vijayadasara Keerthana "Teekacharayara Paadada sokida kone dhooli taguva manujanige..."
  2. Jagannatha Dasara Keerthana.
  3. Sri Vadiraja's Teerthaprabandha.
  4. Poorvaprabandha (17) Sloka from Theertha prabhanda.
  5. http://www.sumadhwaseva.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Anegondi-Malakheda.pdf
  6. Mattikakrutpadara Moola Vrundavana (Kannada) Publisher: Vishwa Madhwa Maha Parishat Author: Shrikanthacharya Mukkundi

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sharma 2000, p. 246.
  2. ^ Sheridan 1995, p. 236.
  3. ^ Dasgupta 1991, p. viii.
  4. ^ a b Sharma 2000, p. 247.
  5. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 208.
  6. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 236.
  7. ^ a b Dalal 2010, p. 178.
  8. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 248.
  9. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 249.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000). A History of the Dvaita School of Vedānta and Its Literature, 3rd Edition. Motilal Banarsidass (2008 Reprint). ISBN 978-8120815759. 
  • Sheridan, Daniel P (1995). Great Thinkers of the Eastern World. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0062700858. 
  • Dasgupta, Surendranath (1991). A History of Indian Philosophy, Vol 4. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-8120804159. 
  • Dalal, Roshen (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0143414216. 

External links[edit]