He was born in Quebec City, the son of Jean Cazeau and Françoise Ruel. In 1806, he married Rachel Campbell. Cazeau was a commissioner for the trial of minor causes and also served as a commissioner for the construction of a road between Saint-Jean and Sainte-Famille on Île d'Orléans. He generally supported the Parti patriote and voted in support of the Ninety-Two Resolutions. He died at Saint-Jean at the age of 90.