Born in Combertault, France, he was consecrated as a priest of the Société des Missions Etrangères on 31 May 1828. On 3 June 1838 he was assigned as Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic of Siam and titular bishop of Mallus. He was consecrated the same day by Bishop Jean-Paul-Hilaire-Michel Courvezy, the vicar apostolic of Siam. On September 10, 1841 he succeeded Courvezy and became vicar apostolic of Eastern Siam.
Bishop Pallegoix was highly esteemed by King Mongkut, and they often discussed issues with each other. The king personally assisted at Pallegoix' funeral.
- Description du Royaume Thai (Thai: เรื่องเล่ากรุงสยาม), Paris 1854, 2 vols. (Vol. II online); reprint: Farnborough 1969; engl.: English: Description of the Siam kingdom; Bangkok 2000, ISBN 974-7534-05-3 ISBN 978-9747534054
The government of Siam is despotic in the full significance of the term. The King is feared and respected almost like a God. Nobody dares look him in the face. When the courtiers attend audiences they remain prostrated on their knees and elbows. When His Majesty passes somewhere, everybody throws himself to the ground and those who would not do this surely risk to have their eyes punctured by the archers who precede and who launch quite skillfully earthen balls with the bow they always hold ready flexed.— Jean-Baptiste Pallegoix, first paragraph of the chapter “On the Government of the Thai”
- Dictionarium linguae Thaĭ sive Sa̱mensis interpretatione Latina, Gallica et Anglica illustratum (Thai: สัพพะ พะจะนะ พาสา ไท); Paris 1854, Reprint: Farnborough 1972.
- Siamese French English Dictionary (Thai: ศริพจน์ภาษาไทย); Bangkok 1898
- Adrien Launay (1916). Mémorial de la Société des Missions-Étrangères. p. 159.
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