Jean-Pierre Petit

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Jean-Pierre Petit (born 5 April 1937, Choisy-le-Roi) is a French scientist, senior researcher at National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) as an astrophysicist in Marseille Observatory, now retired. His main working fields are fluid mechanics, kinetic theory of gases, plasma physics applied in magnetohydrodynamics power generation and propulsion as well as topology and astrophysics applied in cosmology. He is a pioneer in magnetohydrodynamics and has worked out the principle and techniques of parietal MHD converter. In cosmology, he works on the Janus cosmological model, a bimetric theory of gravity published through peer review,[1][2][3][4][5] presented in international conferences,[6][7] and popularized through science comics,[8][9][10] as well as course videos.[11]

Jean-Pierre Petit is the founder of the "LAMBDA" laboratory[12] (Laboratory for Applications of MHD in Bitemperature Discharges to Aerodynamics) and he co-founded the "Ufo-Science" non-profit organization[13] dedicated to the study of the unidentified atmospheric phenomena or potential unidentified flying objects. He argues that a thorough scientific study of UFO phenomena (including cameras equipped with diffraction gratings) could potentially advance our scientific knowledge.

Jean-Pierre Petit also demonstrates a sustained interest in a wide variety of subjects not directly related to his work in cosmology, astrophysics and physics. In particular, on the UFO question, on the events of September 11, 2001, the UMMO case, the construction of pyramids, Aurora-type military technologies and French domestic policy issues.

Professional work[edit]

Jean-Pierre Petit obtains his Engineer's degree in 1961 at the French aeronautical engineering school ENSAE (Supaero). In the 1960s he works for several months in a French rocket engine test facility as a test engineer in the development of the first nuclear intercontinental missiles SLBM. Because he feels uncomfortable within the military R&D, he prefers to integrate civilian research. In 1965 he is hired by the Marseille Institute of Fluid Mechanics (IMFM), a French laboratory affiliated with CNRS and the French atomic agency CEA, as a research engineer where he makes his first studies in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In 1972 he fully incorporates the CNRS after his EngD thesis defense. In 1974 he officially stops experimental research in MHD and starts working at the Marseille Observatory where he reconverts himself in fundamental research as an astrophysicist. However, he personally carries on his experimental research on MHD propulsion until 1987. Convalescent after many months of hospitalization following an industrial injury, he becomes between 1977 and 1983 codirector of the Calculation Center at the French University of Provence where he develops with students some CAD software marketed in 1978. He retires from CNRS in April 2003 but keeps working. In 2007, he founds a non-profit organization called UFO-Science[14] to concretize some research ideas he could not experiment on while working due to lack of allocated funds at the time.

Professional work overview in MHD[edit]

His career in the field of MHD is well-known: first method of electrothermal instability control and first usable MHD generator with non-equilibrium ionized gas (1967);[15][16][17][18][19] kinetic theory of non-equilibrium plasmas (1972);[20][21] MHD aerodynes with ionization control (1975);[22][23] Shock wave cancellation by MHD force field around a cylindrical profile imbedded in a liquid flow (1983);[24] 2nd method of electrothermal instability control by magnetic pressure gradient in an MHD accelerator (1981);[25] Thesis director about shock wave annihilation around a flat wing in a hot supersonic gas flow: Resolution of Navier–Stokes equations within an MHD force field by the method of characteristics (1987).[26]

Plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)[edit]

Petit is a pioneer in magnetohydrodynamics involving fluid mechanics, plasma physics and electromagnetism, in both MHD types:

MHD Power generation[edit]

He starts working in this field with shock tubes, acting as pulsed power MHD generators delivering several megawatts through direct conversion of supersonic hot gases into electricity, a device invented by Bert Zauderer and Jack Kerrebrock. In 1967, he presents the first experimental results of electrical power generation in a pulsed non-equilibrium high-Hall parameter MHD generator, producing two megawatts of electric power within a magnetic field of 2 teslas in a volume the size of a beer bottle, constituting the first step to cool down the gas in order to protect materials from heat, by controlling the electrothermal instability within MHD converters.[19]

In 1972 he defends in front of Evry Schatzman his Doctor of Science thesis:[20]

  • The first part presents the basis for the first kinetic theory of non-equilibrium plasmas, starting from the ChapmanEnskog method for the transport phenomena and extending it to a biparametric expansion in series. This work is published through peer review.[21]
  • The second part is an application of the kinetic theory of gases to galactic dynamics. Through this he resumed the work of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, by compacting the calculations into a matrix form.

Coanda effect and air-breathing MHD accelerators[edit]

Petit studies at Supaero the first supersonic disc nozzle, which radially spits a very thin supersonic flat air jet from an annular convergent output along the surface of the device. Then the Coandă effect sucks the air flow along the bent wall, sucks down ambient air and creates a low pressure area on top of the device, inducing lift. This is how the Aerodina Lenticulara works,[27] a device patented by Henri Coandă, whom Petit met in these days. He illustrates Coandă's disc experiments in a popular science review.[28]

In 1975, he invents new MHD converters named MHD aerodynes and publishes the idea in a scientific journal.[22][23] An MHD aerodyne is an aircraft concept with no moving part, where surrounding air is ionized (for example with microwaves), transformed into a cold plasma, then accelerated by electromagnetic fields around its external hull. It is thus an external flow MHD accelerator with ionization control (opposed to classical MHD drives and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters where hot gases are electromagnetically accelerated internally, inside a rocket engine nozzle). In order to accommodate electromagnetic coils and the magnetic field lines they create in the air, the hull of MHD aerodynes must have symmetrical geometries (cylinder or sphere for example). A magnetic field as strong as possible is required to rise the acceleration efficiency. But high B-fields give a high Hall parameter β and it is well known in the engineering field of MHD power generation that high Hall effect MHD converters are preferably disk-shaped. It is the same thing with MHD accelerators, and high Hall effect MHD aerodynes must be disk-shaped, so the electric discharges in the plasma (streamers) can swirl freely around axis, for the Lorentz forces J×B to be centrifugal.[29][30]

Thereby the discoidal MHD aerodyne is very similar to Coandă's Aerodina Lenticulara. Both use the Coandă effect to induce lift. The main difference is that the MHD aerodyne uses Lorentz forces to suck and propel air around the device, instead of using a mechanical propeller: it is an "electromagnetic Coanda disk". Admittedly the idea of discoidal aircraft with silent MHD propulsion had been suggested before, but it had never been published in academic journals nor experimented hitherto. However Leik Myrabo later popularized this idea in the US with his microwave-powered Lightcraft project using an external flow-control MHD accelerator: Myrabo first talked about an "externally-excited-field MHD accelerator" in 1976,[31] but has not experimented his annular "MHD Slipstream Accelerator" prototype at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute before 1999.[32][33][34][35]

MHD flow control and supersonic flight without shock wave[edit]

Petit calculates that MHD forces in the case of an active flow control with high energy can create a partial vacuum area on front or on top of the device, powerful enough to evacuate incoming upstream molecules at supersonic speed before they accumulate at the stagnation point, therefore preventing the formation of shock waves and cancelling sound and heat barriers. MHD acceleration can indeed be very powerful, even more than chemical propulsion, because the acceleration efficiency grows like the magnetic field strength and is not limited by propellant's inertia as in chemical propulsion. For example, a pulsed small MHD accelerator can accelerate an ionized gas over 5,000 meters per second with only 10-centimeter electrodes and a moderate 2-tesla magnetic field, as shown at IMFM in 1970.[36]

Petit obtains from 1975 to 1983 several positive experimental results with his MHD flow control devices:

He publishes these results in specialized journals and conferences.[29][24][30][37][25]

In 1983 he summarizes his research about MHD propulsion and aerodynamic flow control in a scientific comic book titled The Silence Barrier where he popularizes these innovative concepts.[38]

In 1987, the student engineer Bertrand Lebrun from the French Engineering institute ENSAM defends his Doctor of Engineering thesis under the direction of Jean-Pierre Petit.[26] The subject is the mathematical calculation of shock wave cancellation around a flat wing in a supersonic gas flow, where they develop a method to solve the Navier–Stokes equations within an MHD force field by the method of characteristics. This work is presented at international MHD meetings,[39][40] and published in peer-reviewed journals.[41][42]

New research[edit]

In 2007 Petit creates UFO-Science, a non-profit organization devoted to scientific study of the UFO phenomenon. Electromagnetic plasma propulsion and supersonic flight without shock wave through flow control by MHD force field are studied in a new laboratory running with private funds, called LAMBDA λ (Laboratory for Applications of MHD in Bitemperature Discharges to Aerodynamics). He created this concept of "Citizen Research" because he claims the Establishment represented by official scientific public administration, such as the CNRS and the CNES, failed to concretize his ideas because of military strategic implications.

This laboratory publishes scientific result since 2008 with several publications in the scientific peer-reviewed journal Acta Physica Polonica and associated presentations in international MHD conferences: Vilnius in 2008,[43][44][45] Bremen in 2009,[46] Jeju, Korea in 2010,[47] Prague in 2012,[48] Warsaw and Princeton in 2013.[49]

Astrophysics and cosmology[edit]

Galactic dynamics and Newtonian cosmology[edit]

In 1942, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar first attempted to describe stellar dynamics as self-gravitating non-collisional systems.[50] In 1972, Petit extends this approach using more compact techniques inspired by the work done by Sydney Chapman and Thomas Cowling in the kinetic theory of gases.[51][20][21] In this theory of galactic spiral structure, the Friedmann equations emerge from an elliptic solution of the Vlasov equation coupled with Poisson's equation.[52][53][54][55][56]

He then publishes a rewriting of the Newtonian cosmology, resuming a work from 1934 by Arthur Milne and William McCrea,[57] but from the point of view of his kinetic theory of non-equilibrium plasmas, which allows one to find the rotating universe model of Otto Heckmann and Engelbert Schücking.[58][59][60][61]

Variable constants cosmology[edit]

Joint variation of all the constants of physics during the radiation-dominated era of the universe.

In 1988, Petit introduces the idea of a variable speed of light in cosmology,[62][63][64][65] along with the joint variations of all physical constants combined to space and time scale factors changes, so that all equations and measurements of these constants remain unchanged through the evolution of the universe. The Einstein field equations remain invariant through convenient joint variations of c and G in Einstein's constant. The invariances requirement of Schrödinger and Maxwell's equations fulfill the set of gauge joint variations laws of the constants. The fine-structure constant becomes an absolute constant. Late-model restricts the variation of constants to the high energy density and relativistic radiation-dominated era of the early universe, where spacetime is identified to space-entropy with a conformally flat metric. As the speed of light was greater in the past, the cosmological horizon is no more ct but is calculated using an integral: as c varies like , the horizon varies like R, insuring the great homogeneity of the primitive universe, hence challenging the cosmic inflation hypothesis.[10][6][66][2]

Janus cosmological model[edit]

From 1977, Petit starts to build an atypical bimetric theory of gravity called the Janus cosmological model in reference to the two-faced god who "looks simultaneously to the future and to the past".[67] Janus model was mentioned February 2019 in the highly popular science serie "PBS Space Time".[68]

Previously known as the twin universe theory, the Janus cosmological model would explain the true nature of the invisible components of the universe, notably dark matter as well as dark energy and its direct consequence, the accelerating expansion of the universe, as the gravitational interaction of matter with primordial negative mass antimatter, challenging the mainstream concordance model.[2] This kind of bimetric gravity enables the reintroduction of negative mass in cosmology without the runaway motion paradox that inevitably arises in the single metric of general relativity.[1] The Janus cosmological model has been shown to be in good agreement with latest observational data.[5]

Petit produces science comics and videos to popularize the various aspects of this cosmological model.[8][9][10][11]

Despite being peer reviewed, this non-standard cosmological model has not triggered much interest in the scientific community throughout the years, except with mathematicians and geometers who seem more interested than cosmologists in its topological subtleties.[69][70][71][66] However, in particle physics, the theory shares similarities with the mirror matter of hidden sectors addressing CP violation.[72][73][74] In general relativity, later independent work about bimetric gravity with positive and negative masses lead to the same conclusions regarding the laws of gravitation.[75][76][77][78]

2D didactic image of Sakharov's twin universe model.

The Janus model has the same foundation as a model previously published by Andrei Sakharov ten years before.[79] In 1967, Sakharov addressed the baryon asymmetry of the universe considering for the first time events in CPT symmetry occurring before the Big Bang:

Sakharov was the first scientist to introduce twin universes he called "sheets". He achieved a complete CPT symmetry since the second sheet is populated by invisible "shadow matter" which is antimatter (C-symmetry) because of an opposite CP-violation there, and the two sheets are mirror of each other both in space (P-symmetry) and time (T-symmetry) through the same initial gravitational singularity. He continued developing this idea for twenty years.[81][82][83][84][85][86][87]

2D didactic image of Janus model.

Ignoring the prior existence of this work translated in a book only fifteen years after its Russian publication,[80] Petit publishes his first paper about two enantiomorphic universes with opposite arrows of time in 1977.[88][89] Unlike Sakharov, he makes the two parallel universes interacting through gravity straightforward. In this first non-relativistic Newtonian dynamics model, galaxies are imbedded in repellent invisible negative mass, so they can be modeled as an exact solution of two Vlasov equations, coupled by Poisson's equation.

In 1994, the model is developed as a bimetric description of the universe.[90] However this bimetry is not similar to independent work done in the field of classical bimetric gravity where the second metric refers to gravitons with nonzero mass. In the janus model, the bigravity is an extension of general relativity describing the universe as a Riemannian manifold associated to two conjugated metrics generating their own geodesics, solutions of two coupled Einstein field equations:[1]

Petit's system of two coupled field equations reduces to Einstein's field equations in the case of a portion of spacetime where positive mass matter dominates and no negative mass is present, like in the Solar System. Similarly to this Einsteinian approximation, the Newtonian approximation allows to recover Newton's law of universal gravitation and formula for gravitational potentials from the field equations in the limit of weak fields and low velocities with respect to the speed of light.

The two coupled field equations of the Janus model, first described by Petit in 2001,[6][91] are very similar to Hossenfelder's 2008 system,[76] minus her "indice pull-overs", in the sense that both describe two distinct metrics for positive and negative masses, and make the same predictions with respect to Newtonian approximation. Such coupled equations have also later been independently derived from the differential form of the Einstein field equations using Cartan's equivalence method and the Hodge star operator.[78]

In yellow, the "preposterous" runaway motion of a positive and negative masses described by Bondi and Bonnor.
In green, gravitational movements in the Janus model which differ from those elaborated by Bondi and Bonnor, solving the runaway paradox.

The theory describes two parallel universes in CPT symmetry interacting through gravity, both originating from the same initial singularity. In the model, four types of matter coexist:

  • positive mass matter (baryonic matter)
  • positive mass antimatter (C-symmetry, the antimatter according to Dirac)
  • negative mass matter (CPT symmetry)
  • negative mass antimatter (C × CPT symmetry = PT-symmetry, the antimatter according to Feynman)[92]

As positive mass matter emits positive energy photons travelling along null geodesics of the metric , and negative mass matter emits negative energy photons travelling along null geodesics of the metric , the exotic matter cannot be detected with optical instruments, besides its gravitational interaction with normal matter.

The Newtonian approximation of the system of two coupled field equations provides the following Newtonian interactions:

  • Like masses attract (i.e. positive mass attracts positive mass and negative mass attracts negative mass)
  • Unlike masses repel (positive mass and negative mass repel each other)

Those laws are different to the laws spelled out by Hermann Bondi and William Bonnor when considering the single metric of general relativity,[93][94] and solve the runaway paradox,[1] that usually makes scientists think negative mass cannot physically exist:

Due to topological considerations, matter populating each fold appears to the other as having an opposite mass and an opposite arrow of time, although the proper time remains positive for both species.[8]

In 1995, Petit combines his bimetric model with his VSL theory into the first paper summarizing the twin universes cosmology.[95]

The main hypotheses stating that negative energy particles exist and result from time reversal, that two particles of opposite mass repel each other, and that physical constants can vary, are in opposition with the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. In quantum field theory, the T operator acting on Hilbert spaces is complex, and can be either linear and unitary, or antilinear and antiunitary; but is arbitrarily chosen antilinear and antiunitary in order to prevent inversion of energy, as the vacuum state of the Zero-point energy must have the lowest possible ground state and can not have negative values.[96] But when this axiom was formulated, the accelerating expansion of the universe, which implies a negative pressure, was not known yet. As a pressure is a volumetric energy density, Petit thinks this problem should be reconsidered.

However, in dynamical systems theory, the T operator is real and reverses the energy dynamics of relativistic elementary particles as described by the Poincaré group. Currently physics uses the restricted Poincaré group, with only forward in time ("orthochronous") motions. As demonstrated by Jean-Marie Souriau using the full Poincaré group, including backward in time ("antichronous") motions, time reversal equals energy inversion (as well as mass inversion, as ).[97]

In the 2000s, Petit integrates Souriau's mathematical physics and fully geometrize his model with group theory.[6][98][70][99]

In 2014 and 2015 he publishes a set of four papers detailing the most recent developments of the Janus model. The first paper produces an exact solution to the coupled field equations referring to the matter-dominated era which resolves the runaway paradox of negative mass and challenges dark energy to account for the accelerating expansion of the universe.[1] In a second paper this is extended to two metrics with their own speed of light,[2] followed by the Lagrangian derivation of the model.[3] A fourth paper is devoted to the cancellation of the central singularity in the Schwarzschild solution, questioning the classical black hole model.[4]

A comparison of the Janus model in agreement with latest observational data has been published in 2018.[5] The same year, a paper discussed the arbitrary decision of preventing negative energy states in quantum field theory, as such negative energy is compatible with the Dirac equation when considering a unitary time-reversal operator, provided that one considers that negative energy goes with negative mass according to , so the Klein–Gordon probability density in relativistic quantum mechanics remains positive.[100]

The model finally considers the possibility of apparent faster-than-light interstellar travel with limited energy. The mechanism would involve an artificial version of the black hole natural inversion mass process.[4] The transferred vehicle would cruise along geodesics of the metric where the speed of light is greater, and the distances shorter. The inverted particles of the ship and its passengers would have to appear at a relativistic speed in the new frame of reference through Lorentz contraction, in order for the energy to be conserved, with no acceleration. After mass inversion, a craft would go so fast that it could not slow down, but arriving at its destination, a new mass inversion would give back its former kinetic parameters, with no deceleration.[2][101][102]

Early 2019, Petit slightly refines the model so that its coupled field equations satisfy the Bianchi identities. The Janus model is now derived from an action with an improved Lagrangian.[91]


In topology, Petit worked with Bernard Morin on the torus and sphere eversion.[103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110] In the 1980s, he teaches sculpture at the art school of Aix-en-Provence, where he designs a 5-foot diameter model of Boy's surface which had been exposed in the π room of the Palais de la Découverte for 25 years.[111] He publishes its first parametric representation, where meridians are described with ellipses. François Apéry used this representation to build the implicit equation of Boy's surface.[112]


Coauthor of the article[113] which sets out to demonstrate that the inscribed subdivisions which divide these ‘ceremonial’ cubits into submultiples of a finger, have the property of allowing this kind of instrument to serve as a graduated ruler. It is a multi-vernier technique. As Vernier invented this technique in 1631 and as such objects has been found since 2400 yrs BC it questions the level of mathematics level of the Ancient Empire.

Petit also expressed personal interest in the Egyptian pyramid construction techniques, proposing a solution based on a stone helicoid ramp using a recursion algorithm, and a technique mixing levers and ropes as a linear ratchet able to move heavy stone blocks.[114] As recursion is a concept appearing in mathematics in the nineteenth century, it then again questions the science level of the ancient Egyptians. Petit presentes his theory at an exposition about pyramid construction techniques at the Palais de la Découverte, Paris in 2007.[115][116]

Popular science[edit]

The general public have known of Petit from 1979, with his series of "science comic books" published in French as Les Aventures d'Anselme Lanturlu and in English as The Adventures of Archibald Higgins, depicting a young character who explains hard scientific concepts with easy popular meaning and simple analogies. Petit invented this teaching of a new kind : the science comic book. Petit created in 2005 a non-profit organization named Savoir Sans Frontières (tr. Knowledge Without Borders) remunerating people all over the world for translation of these books into any available languages. These multilingual educational books are since then freely available to download as PDF files from the organization's web site and from Université de Lyon web site[117]: 40 different books available in up to 40 languages to date.

More specifically about his cosmological model, Petit published in 1998 a book in French,[118] republished in 2001 in paperback.[119] This short book is mainly a face to face between two hypotheses (a universe containing positive mass dark matter VS a universe with negative mass shadow matter). Petit wrote in 1999 a sequel in English containing the information of the first book, never published but available for free.[120] As the model continues to evolve, Petit wrote in 2008 two science comics popularizing the various concepts of the model in astrophysics, cosmology and topology,[8][10] and started as 2017 a video course series on YouTube, subtitled in English.[11]

Claims and public matter of controversies[edit]

Petit is known to the general public through his popular science publications (books and comics) and by his appearances in French media, mostly about the UFO phenomenon. He is indeed favorable to the extraterrestrial hypothesis explaining some UFO cases, and the conspiracy theory about a cover-up from the armed forces to take a decisive technological, thus strategic advantage over other nations. He loudly denounces the tight relationship between the army and scientists since the Manhattan Project, which has created according to him a powerful military R&D leading to futuristic weapons of mass destruction and unmoral crowd and riot control technologies, to the exclusive use of the military-industrial complex. He also gives credit to 9/11 conspiracy theories through his web site. He thinks that global warming and geopolitics evolution caused by the unconsciousness of world political leaders will create fatal irrevocable disorders in the near future. According to him, becoming aware that we are not alone in the universe and that we are visited by people having a better technology than ours is the last chance for mankind. Such unconventional opinions has raised various enmities against him.

Ummo case and ufology[edit]

In the 1990s he publishes several books about ufology and the Ummo case,[121][122][123] from which he would have studied documents since 1974. He claims to have found there useful inspiration for some of his work about MHD propulsion and cosmology. Thereafter those unidentified correspondents even sent mail to him for a while, where he would have again, according to him, found other starting points for additional research developments. His hierarchy did not welcome these books and after the publication of the third one,[123] Petit found huge barriers to publish any paper in peer-review journals during the rest of his career at CNRS and after he retired, but he succeeded nevertheless.

American secret weapons[edit]

After an international conference on advanced propulsion,[124] Petit writes a book, where he proclaims a leading edge science would have secretly emerged inside the US black projects sanctuaries, involving intensive study of aerial plasma propulsion with electromagnetic flow control.[125] He suggests such an acceleration of these technological programs would have been undertaken after military forces of the United States would have the proof of existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life forms visiting Earth in the 1940s, in particular with the so-called Roswell UFO crash which he thinks was real.

Using his knowledge about plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics, Petit describes a model of hypersonic airplane working with an MHD bypass system, claiming it would correspond to the mythic Aurora secret spyplane US Air Force would have brought into service in the 1990s. He gave several lectures on this subject, especially at the French aeronautical engineering school ENSAE where his object lesson was not criticized. Conversely, detractors of this idea never provided any technical argument in support of their denials.

Petit also envisages that the U.S. Army would have accidentally discovered how to generate antimatter through superdense states of matter by the use of magnetically focused underground thermonuclear explosions of several megatons. He also reprinted in an annex of his january 2003 book an anonymous document posted few months before on usenet arguing that some antimatter bombs would have been created, but too powerful to be tested on Earth. They would have been sent into space, camouflaged into what was known as the comet Shoemaker–Levy 9, then detonated on Jupiter. Most of his colleagues judge this story as overly fanciful. In december 2003, he published a synthesis of his own showing SL-9 was most probably an asteroid.[126]

Aneutronic fusion energy vs pure fusion bombs[edit]

After the breakthrough made by Sandia National Laboratories at the end of 2005 where researchers generated more than 3 billion degrees within the MHD compressor Z machine,[127][128] he tries to draw the attention of scientists, politicians, ecologists and the public to what he presents as a possible future clean nuclear civilian energy, thanks to aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions with none or very few radioactive waste byproducts. But again this technology is potentially proliferating and Petit claims it could also lead to new pure fusion weapons, where the central fission A-bomb used classically for ignition of the H-bomb would be useless, replaced by a fast electric pulsed power detonator (a compact z-pinch fed with some explosively pumped flux compression generator).

See also[edit]


Books mentioning the works of Jean-Pierre Petit[edit]

Michel Meurger wrote the article "Science-fiction et croyance : l'affaire Ummo - à propos de l'ouvrage de Jean-Pierre Petit, Enquête sur des extra-terrestres qui sont déjà parmi nous : le mystères des Ummites" published in Études lovecraftiennes, ed.Joseph Altairac, issue 11, 1992, pp.111-116.

Jacques Costagliola, Épistémologie du phénomène ovnien ou Cinquante ans de déni scientifique, foreword by Jean-Pierre Petit, L'Harmattan, 1998

In his paper at the third Euro-BRICS seminar (Cannes, Sept. 27-28, 2012)[129] organized by LEAP and MGIMO University in Moscow, Bruno Paul argued in favour of the interest in building new scientific networks between Europe and Russia by developing the case of the Janus model's main author work in cosmology.[130]

In his philosophical essay Notre existence a-t-elle un sens ? Une enquête scientifique et philosophique[131] published in 2007, Jean Staune (fr), general manager at Université interdisciplinaire de Paris (fr), mentioned 3 times the works of Jean-Pierre Petit.

In his philosophical essay Qu'est-ce que le temps ? published in 2015, Michele Angelo Murgia presents a kind of inventory of knowledge about the fragile and evasive concept of time, drawing on recent contributions from physicists such as Stephen Hawking, Leonard Susskind, Julian Barbour, Carlo Rovelli, Étienne Klein, Lee Smolin and Jean-Pierre Petit.[132]

In his essay Penser la psychanalyse avec Lacan : Marcher droit sur un cheveu[133] published in 2016, Michel Bousseyroux mentioned the works in topology of Jean-Pierre Petit and his collaboration with Lacan.

In his essay on traditional metaphysics and 4-valued formal logic La signature du quaternaire, published in 2018, Bruno Paul mentioned the Janus cosmological model (p. 100).[134]

Books by Jean-Pierre Petit[edit]

  • L'Informatique : premier contact, CÉDIC, 1983
  • Le Logotron informatique - initiation au BASIC : traitement de chaînes de caractères, Éditions du P.S.I., 1984
  • Pangraphe : dessins en trois dimensions, programmes en Basic pour Apple I, Éd. du P.S.I., 1984
  • Pangraphe : dessins en trois dimensions programmes en basic pour apple II, ed. du P.S.I., 1986
  • Amstrad3D, ed. du P.S.I., 1986
  • Enquête sur les OVNI - Voyage aux frontières de la science, foreword by Jacques Benveniste, Éditions Albin Michel, Collection "Aux marches de la science", 1990, ISBN 978-2-226-04120-3 ; other edition by Le Grand Livre du Mois (1990)
  • Enquête sur des extra-terrestres qui sont déjà parmi nous - Le mystère des Ummites, Éditions Albin Michel, Collection "Aux marches de la science", 1991, ISBN 2-226-05515-0 ; other editions by Le Grand Livre du Mois (1990), J'ai Lu (1993)
  • Le mystère des Ummites - Une science venue d'une autre planète?, Éditions Albin Michel, 1995, ISBN 2-226-07845-2
  • Les enfants du diable - La guerre que nous préparent les scientifiques, Éditions Albin Michel, 1995, ISBN 2-226-07632-8
  • On a perdu la moitié de l'univers, Éditions Albin Michel, Collection "Aux marches de la science", 1997, ISBN 978-2-226-09393-6
  • (fr) Le versant obscur de l'univers, (en) The dark side of the universe, 1998–1999 (freely downloadable e-books)
  • OVNIS et armes secrètes américaines - L'extraordinaire témoignage d'un scientifique, Éditions Albin Michel, 2003, ISBN 2-226-13616-9 ; other edition 2005
  • L'année du contact, Éditions Albin Michel, 2004, ISBN 2-226-15136-2
  • OVNIS et science : les aventuriers de la recherche, published by UFO-SCIENCE, 2008 ISBN 978-2-9532696-0-4 ; the italian version is freely available in ufo-science archived web site.
  • OVNI - Le message, published by UFO-Science, 2009, ISBN 978-2-918564-00-3
  • OVNI et science : ce qu'ont découvert les scientifiques, published by UFO-SCIENCE, 2010 ISBN 978-2-918564-02-7.
  • La Bible en bande dessinée, Éditions Tatamis, 2011.
  • Le Livre de la jungle sous-marine : en hommage à Rudyard Kipling, edition by the author, 2013, ISBN 978-2-918564-04-1 (chap. 1)
  • J-C Bourret, J-P Petit, OVNI - L'extraordinaire découverte, Guy Trédaniel Ed., Feb. 2017.
  • J-C Bourret, J-P Petit, Contacts Cosmiques - Jusqu'où peut-on penser trop loin ?, Guy Trédaniel Ed., Oct.3, 2018.

External links[edit]

  • Jean-Pierre Petit's vast personal web site (mostly in French and some parts in English) ; short autobiography in english, long autobiography in french.
  • (en) UFO-Science : Scientific research projects in physics around the UFO phenomenon, founded by Petit, with articles published in well-known peer-reviewed scientific journals
  • (en) Savoir-sans-Frontières : this non-profit association Knowledge without borders, founded by Petit, proposes freely downloadable famous science comic books in 40 languages. Most of them are available in English
  • (fr) Science et Culture pour Tous : another association created by Petit to sell paperback editions of some of his science comic books.
  • (fr) Rencontre avec Jean-Pierre Petit, talk given during XIII Festival Science frontières, Cavaillon, 1996 (source BNF)
  • (fr) Faut-il être hérétique pour innover en science?, talk given during XVII Festival Science frontières, Cavaillon, 2000 (source BNF)
  • (fr) Ces armes venues d'ailleurs, lecture given during XVIII Festival Science frontières, Cavaillon, 2002 (source BNF)
  • (en subtitles) ITER Myths and Realities : YouTube serie on ITER plasma physics and tokamacs
  • (en) YouTube serie on Putin's New Russian MHD weapons
  • (fr) Summary of 20 years of research on MHD

About Janus[edit]

Interviews on radio and TV shows[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e Petit, J.-P.; d'Agostini, G. (December 2014). "Negative mass hypothesis in cosmology and the nature of dark energy" (PDF). Astrophysics and Space Science. 354 (2): 611. Bibcode:2014Ap&SS.354..611P. doi:10.1007/s10509-014-2106-5.
  2. ^ a b c d e Petit, J.-P.; d'Agostini, G. (10 November 2014). "Cosmological bimetric model with interacting positive and negative masses and two different speeds of light, in agreement with the observed acceleration of the Universe" (PDF). Modern Physics Letters A. 29 (34): 1450182. Bibcode:2014MPLA...2950182P. doi:10.1142/S021773231450182X.
  3. ^ a b Petit, J.-P.; d'Agostini, G. (May 2015). "Lagrangian derivation of the two coupled field equations in the Janus cosmological model" (PDF). Astrophysics and Space Science. 357 (67): 67. Bibcode:2015Ap&SS.357...67P. doi:10.1007/s10509-015-2250-6.
  4. ^ a b c Petit, J.-P.; d'Agostini, G. (21 March 2015). "Cancellation of the central singularity of the Schwarzschild solution with natural mass inversion process" (PDF). Modern Physics Letters A. 30 (9): 1550051. Bibcode:2015MPLA...3050051P. doi:10.1142/S0217732315500510.
  5. ^ a b c D'Agostini, G.; Petit, J.-P. (June 2018). "Constraints on Janus Cosmological model from recent observations of supernovae type Ia" (PDF). Astrophysics and Space Science. 363 (7): 139. Bibcode:2018Ap&SS.363..139D. doi:10.1007/s10509-018-3365-3.
  6. ^ a b c d Petit, J.-P.; Midy, P.; Landsheat, F. (June 2001). Twin matter against dark matter (PDF). Where's the Matter? Tracing Dark and Bright Matter with the New Generation of Large Scale Surveys. Marseille, France.
  7. ^ Proofs of the admission of Jean-Pierre Petit to the American Physical Society Meeting, Washington D.C. (28–31 January 2017); the 3rd Karl Schwarzschild Meeting, Frankfurt, Germany (24–28 July 2017); the COSMO-17 international conference, Paris, France (28 August–1 September 2017).
  8. ^ a b c d Petit, J.-P. (2008). The Twin Universe (PDF). Savoir Sans Frontières.
  9. ^ a b Petit, J.-P. (2008). The Twin Universe: Scientific Appendix (PDF). Savoir Sans Frontières.
  10. ^ a b c d Petit, J.-P. (2008). Faster Than Light (PDF). Savoir Sans Frontières.
  11. ^ a b c Petit, J.-P. (2017). The Janus Cosmological Model (English subtitles). YouTube.
  12. ^ "Website of the "LAMBDA" laboratory founded by Jean-Pierre Petit". Archived from the original on 2013-05-18. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
  13. ^ Website of the "Ufo-Science" non-profit organization co-founded by Jean-Pierre Petit and dedicated to the study of unidentified atmospheric phenomena.
  14. ^ UFO-Science web site
  15. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Caressa, J.-P.; Valensi, J. (24–30 July 1968). Etude théorique et expérimentale, en tube à choc, des phénomènes accompagnant la mise hors d'équilibre dans un générateur MHD en cycle fermé [Theoretical and experimental study, using a shock tube, of the phenomena accompanying equilibrium breakdown in a closed-cycle MHD generator] (PDF). Electricity from MHD: Proceedings of a Symposium on magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generation (in French). Vol. II. Warsaw, Poland: International Atomic Energy Agency. pp. 745–750.
  16. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Valensi, J.; Dufresne, D.; Caressa, J.-P. (27 January 1969). "Caractéristiques électriques d'un générateur linéaire de Faraday utilisant un mélange binaire de gaz rares, avec ionisation hors d'équilibre" [Electrical characteristics of a linear Faraday generator using a binary mix of rare gases, with non-equilibrium ionization] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série A (in French) (268): 245–247.
  17. ^ Petit, J.-P. (14 April 1969). "Performances théoriques d'un générateur du type de Faraday avec ionisation hors d'équilibre dans le gaz de conversion" [Theoretical performances of a Faraday-type generator with non-equilibrium ionization in the conversion gas] (PDF). Série A (in French). 268: 835–838.
  18. ^ Petit, J.-P. (21 April 1969). "Instabilité de régime dans un générateur de Hall, avec ionisation hors d'équilibre" [Rate instability in a Hall generator with non-equilibrium ionization] (PDF). Série A (in French). 268: 906–909.
  19. ^ a b Petit, J.-P.; Valensi, J. (1 September 1969). "Taux de croissance de l'instabilité électrothermique et paramètre de Hall critique dans les générateurs linéaires à cycle fermé lorsque la mobilité électronique est variable" [Growth rate of electrothermal instability and critical Hall parameter in closed-cycle MHD generators when the electron mobility is variable] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série A (in French) (269): 365–367.
  20. ^ a b c Petit, Jean-Pierre (10 March 1972). Applications de la théorie cinétique des gaz à la physique des plasmas et à la dynamique des galaxies [Applications of the kinetic theory of gases to plasma physics and galactic dynamics] (PDF) (Doctor of Science thesis) (in French). University of Provence. CNRS#6717.
  21. ^ a b c Petit, J.-P.; Larini, M. (May 1974). "Transport phenomena in a nonequilibrium, partially ionized gas in a magnetic field" (PDF). Journal of Engineering Physics. 26 (5): 641–652. Bibcode:1974JEP....26..641P. doi:10.1007/BF00826010.
  22. ^ a b Petit, J.-P. (15 September 1975). "Convertisseurs magnétohydrodynamiques d'un genre nouveau" [Magnetohydrodynamic converters of a new type] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série B (in French). 281 (11): 157–160. Bibcode:1975CRASB.281..157P.
  23. ^ a b Petit, J.-P.; Viton, M. (28 February 1977). "New magnetohydrodynamic converters: induction machines" (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. 284: 167–179.
  24. ^ a b Petit, J.-P. (September 1983). "Is supersonic flight without shock wave possible?" (PDF). Proceedings. 8th International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation. 2. Moscow, Russia. pp. 1359–1367.
  25. ^ a b Petit, J.-P.; Billiotte, M. (4 May 1981). "Méthode pour supprimer l'instabilité de Velikhov" [Method to cancel the ionization instability] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série II (in French). 292: 1115–1118.
  26. ^ a b Lebrun, Bertrand (1989). Approche théorique de la suppression des ondes de choc se formant autour d'un obstacle effilé placé dans un écoulement supersonique d'argon ionisé à l'aide de forces de Laplace : cas d'un écoulement quasi-unidimensionnel stationnaire pour un gaz réel et un gaz parfait, cas d'un écoulement en régime bidimensionnel stationnaire : méthode des caractéristiques [Theoretical approach of shock wave cancellation around a flat body within supersonic ionized argon flow by the action of Lorentz force. Quasi one-dimensional steady state approach. Bidimensional steady state approach: characteristic method] (PDF) (Aerodynamics Ph.D. thesis) (in French). University of Poitiers.
  27. ^ ‹See Tfd›US patent 2108652, "Propelling device", published 15 January 1936, issued 15 February 1938 
  28. ^ Jean-Pierre Petit (August 1974). "Flying saucers R&D: The Coanda effect (English version)" (PDF). Science & Vie (683): 68–73.
  29. ^ a b Petit, J.-P.; Billiotte, M.; Viton, M. (6 October 1980). "Magnétohydrodynamique : accélérateurs à courants spiraux" [Magnetohydrodynamics: Spiral-current accelerators] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série B (in French). 291 (5): 129–131.
  30. ^ a b Petit, J.-P. (September 1983). "Cancellation of the Velikhov instability by magnetic confinment" (PDF). Proceedings. 8th International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation. 4. Moscow, Russia. pp. 207–209.
  31. ^ Myrabo, L.N. (1976). "MHD propulsion by absorption of laser radiation" (PDF). Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 13 (8): 466–472. Bibcode:1976JSpRo..13..466M. doi:10.2514/3.27919.
  32. ^ Myrabo, L. N.; Kerl, J.M.; et al. (June 1999). "MHD slipstream accelerator investigation in the RPI hypersonic shock tunnel" (PDF). AIAA-1999-2842. 35th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. Los Angeles, CA. doi:10.2514/6.1999-2842.
  33. ^ Myrabo, L. N.; et al. (January 2000). "Experimental investigation of a 2-D MHD slipstream generator and accelerator with freestream Mach = 7.6 and T(0) = 4100 K" (PDF). AIAA-00-0446. 38th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit. Reno, NV. doi:10.2514/6.2000-446.
  34. ^ Myrabo, L. N.; et al. (July 2000). "Experimental Investigation of a 2-D MHD Slipstream Accelerator and Generator" (PDF). AIAA-00-3486. 36th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. Huntsville, AL. doi:10.2514/6.2000-3486.
  35. ^ Myrabo, L. N.; et al. (July 2001). "Experimental Investigation of a 2-D MHD Slipstream Accelerator: Progress Report" (PDF). AIAA-01-3799. 35th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. Salt Lake City, UT. doi:10.2514/6.2001-3799.
  36. ^ Forestier, B.; Fontaine, B.; Bournot, P. & Parraud, P. (20 July 1970). "Etude théorique de la variation des paramètres aérodynamiques d'un écoulement supersonique d'argon ionisé soumis à des forces de Laplace accélératrices" [Study of the variations in the aerodynamic flow parameters of ionized argon subjected to Laplacian accelerating forces] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série B (in French). 271: 198–201. Retrieved 2001-06-03.
  37. ^ Petit, J.-P. (1979). Prospect on magnetohydrodynamics (Technical report). CNRS on behalf of CNES.
  38. ^ Jean-Pierre Petit (1983). The Silence Barrier. Les Aventures d'Anselme Lanturlu, tr. The Adventures of Archibald Higgins. Belin (now freely downloadable). ISBN 978-2-7011-0467-6.
  39. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Lebrun, B. (November 1986). "Shock wave cancellation by Lorentz forces action around a model embedded in a supersonic flow" (PDF). Proceedings. 9th International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation. III. Tsukuba, Japan. pp. 1359–1367.
  40. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Lebrun, B. (October 1992). "Theoretical analysis of shock wave annihilation with MHD force field" (PDF). Proceedings. 11th International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation. III. Beijing, China. pp. 748–753.
  41. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Lebrun, B. (1989). "Shock wave annihilation by MHD action in supersonic flow. Quasi one dimensional steady analysis and thermal blockage" (PDF). European Journal of Mechanics B. B/Fluids. 8 (2): 163–178.
  42. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Lebrun, B. (1989). "Shock wave annihilation by MHD action in supersonic flows. Two-dimensional steady non-isentropic analysis. Anti-shock criterion, and shock tube simulations for isentropic flows" (PDF). European Journal of Mechanics B. B/Fluids. 8 (4): 307–326.
  43. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Geffray, J. (June 2009). "MHD flow-control for hypersonic flight". Acta Physica Polonica A. 115 (6): 1149–1513. doi:10.12693/aphyspola.115.1149.
  44. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Geffray, J. (June 2009). "Non-Equilibrium Plasma Instabilities". Acta Physica Polonica A. 115 (6): 1170–1172. doi:10.12693/aphyspola.115.1170.
  45. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Geffray, J. (June 2009). "Wall Containment Technique by Gradient Magnetic Inversion. Combining Induction Accelerators and Pulsed Ionization Effect. Applications" (PDF). Acta Physica Polonica A. 115 (6): 1170–1172. doi:10.12693/APhysPolA.115.1170.
  46. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Geffray, J.; David, F. (October 2009). MHD Hypersonic Flow Control for Aerospace Applications. 16th AIAA/DLR/DGLR International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference (HyTASP). Bremen, Germany: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi:10.2514/6.2009-7348.
  47. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Doré, J.C. (March 2012). "Wall Confinement Technique by Magnetic Gradient Inversion". Acta Physica Polonica A. 121 (3): 611–613. doi:10.12693/aphyspola.121.611.
  48. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Doré, J.C. (2013). "Velikhov electrothermal instability cancellation by a modification of electrical conductivity value in a streamer by magnetic confinement". Acta Polytechnica. 53 (2): 219–222.
  49. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Doré, J.C. (September 2013). MHD aerodynes, with wall confined plasma, electrothermal instability annihilated and stable spiral current pattern (PDF). PLASMA-2013 International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas. Warsaw, Poland.
  50. ^ Chandrasekhar, S. (1942). Principles of Stellar Dynamics (PDF). Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0486442730.
  51. ^ Chapman, S.; Cowling, T. G. (1991). The mathematical theory of non-uniform gases (3rd ed.). Cambridge Mathematical Library. ISBN 978-0521408448.
  52. ^ Petit, J.-P. (14 June 1971). "Théorie de la structure spirale de la Galaxie" [Theory of galactic spiral structure] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série B (in French). 272: 1389–1392. Bibcode:1971CRASB.272.1389P.
  53. ^ Petit, J.-P. (31 January 1972). "Modèle tridimensionnel et instationnaire de système stellaire auto-gravitant. Applications aux amas globulaires et aux galaxies" [Three-dimensional non-stationary model of self-gravitating stellar system. Applications to globular clusters and galaxies] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série B (in French). 274: 373–376.
  54. ^ Petit, J.-P. (14 February 1972). "Instabilité gravitationnelle, analyse linéaire" [Gravitational instability, linear analysis] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série B (in French). 274: 510–512.
  55. ^ Petit, J.-P. (21 February 1972). "Instabilité gravitationnelle, analyse non linéaire" [Gravitational instability, nonlinear analysis] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série B (in French). 274: 574–576.
  56. ^ Petit, J.-P. (13 November 1972). "Une méthode de résolution de l'équation de Vlasov. Application à une théorie globale, non-linéaire, de rotation galactique et de la structure spirale galactique" [Method for solving the Vlasov equation. Application to a global non-linear theory of galactic rotation and galactic spiral structure.] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série B (in French). 275: 755–758. Bibcode:1972CRASB.275..755P.
  57. ^ McCrea, W. H.; Milne, E. A. (January 1934). "Newtonian universes and the curvature of space" (PDF). Quarterly Journal of Mathematics. 5 (1): 73–80. Bibcode:1934QJMat...5...73M. CiteSeerX doi:10.1093/qmath/os-5.1.73.
  58. ^ Schücking, E.; Heckmann, O. (June 1958). World models. Proceedings, 11th conference in the Physics Council of the International Solvay Institute of Physics: The structure and evolution of the universe: reports and discussions. Brussels. pp. 149–162.
  59. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Monnet, G. (12 May 1975). "Entropie maximale et cosmologie de Friedman" [Maximum entropy and Friedman cosmology] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série A (in French). 280 (18): 1245–1248. Bibcode:1975CRASM.280.1245P.
  60. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Monnet, G. (16 June 1975). "Entropie maximale et univers tournant" [Maximum entropy and rotating universes] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série B (in French). 280 (23): 733–735.
  61. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Monnet, G. (8 December 1976). "Esquisse d'une théorie newtonienne des champs unifiés" [Outline of a Newtonian unified field theory] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série A (in French). 283: 1057–1059. Bibcode:1976CRASB.283.1057P.
  62. ^ Petit, J.-P. (16 November 1988). "An interpretation of cosmological model with variable light velocity" (PDF). Modern Physics Letters A. 3 (16): 1527–1532. Bibcode:1988MPLA....3.1527P. CiteSeerX doi:10.1142/S0217732388001823.
  63. ^ Petit, J.-P. (18 December 1988). "Cosmological model with variable light velocity: the interpretation of red shifts" (PDF). Modern Physics Letters A. 3 (18): 1733–1744. Bibcode:1988MPLA....3.1733P. CiteSeerX doi:10.1142/S0217732388002099.
  64. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Viton, M. (10 November 1989). "Gauge cosmological model with variable light velocity: Comparizon with QSO observational data" (PDF). Modern Physics Letters A. 4 (23): 2201–2210. Bibcode:1989MPLA....4.2201P. doi:10.1142/S0217732389002471.
  65. ^ Midy, P.; Petit, J.-P. (June 1999). "Scale invariant cosmology". International Journal of Modern Physics D. 8 (3): 271–280. arXiv:gr-qc/9909086. Bibcode:1999IJMPD...8..271M. doi:10.1142/S0218271899000213.
  66. ^ a b Petit, J.-P.; d'Agostini, G. (August 2007). Bigravity: a bimetric model of the Universe with variable constants, including VSL (variable speed of light). International Meeting on Variational Techniques. Le Mont-Dore (France). arXiv:0803.1362. Bibcode:2008arXiv0803.1362P.
  67. ^ Petit, J.-P. (12 November 2016). "Presentation for the public at large of the Janus Cosmological Model" (PDF). Savoir Sans Frontières.
  68. ^ O'Dowd, Matt (7 February 2019). "Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time". PBS Space Time. PBS. 16 minutes in. Retrieved 8 February 2019. An alternate model that how negative mass might behave: in so-called 'bimetric gravity' you can have positive and negative masses, but each is described by its own set of Einstein field equations. That's kinda like having 'parallel spacetimes', one with positive and one with negative masses, which can still interact gravitationally. In these models, like masses attract and opposite masses repel… and you don't get the crazy 'runaway motion' that occurs if you put both positive and negative masses in the same spacetime. So no perpetual motion machines… It can also be used to explain dark energy and dark matter. An example is the Janus model of Jean-Pierre Petit. This is a much more sophisticated model than the one by Jamie Farnes. It is however just as speculative.
  69. ^ In 2007, Petit enlisted a restricted group of French speaking mathematicians and geometers working in the field of mathematical physics through functional analysis and focusing on the falsifiability of theories with respect to observations. The members share their work at the International meetings on variational theory, a workshop originally created by Jean-Marie Souriau in 1950. See the CITV web page on his official website.
  70. ^ a b Petit, J.-P.; d'Agostini, G. (August 2007). Bigravity as an interpretation of the cosmic acceleration. International Meeting on Variational Techniques. Le Mont-Dore (France). arXiv:0712.0067. Bibcode:2007arXiv0712.0067P.
  71. ^ Petit, J.-P.; d'Agostini, G. (August 2007). Bigravity : A bimetric model of the Universe. Positive and negative gravitational lensings. International Meeting on Variational Techniques. Le Mont-Dore (France). arXiv:0801.1477. Bibcode:2008arXiv0801.1477P.
  72. ^ Foot, R.; Volkas, R. R. (1 December 1995). "Neutrino physics and the mirror world: How exact parity symmetry explains the solar neutrino deficit, the atmospheric neutrino anomaly, and the LSND experiment" (PDF). Physical Review D. 52 (11): 6595–6606. arXiv:hep-ph/9505359. Bibcode:1995PhRvD..52.6595F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.52.6595.
  73. ^ Berezhiani, Zurab G.; Mohapatra, Rabindra N. (1 December 1995). "Reconciling present neutrino puzzles: Sterile neutrinos as mirror neutrinos". Physical Review D. 52 (11): 6607–6611. arXiv:hep-ph/9505385. Bibcode:2001PhLB..503..355F. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(01)00228-3.
  74. ^ Okun, Lev B. (2007). "Mirror particles and mirror matter: 50 years of speculation and search". Physics-Uspekhi. 50 (4): 380–389. arXiv:hep-ph/0606202. Bibcode:2007PhyU...50..380O. doi:10.1070/PU2007v050n04ABEH006227.
  75. ^ Henry-Couannier, F. (30 April 2005). "Discrete symmetries and general relativity, the dark side of gravity". International Journal of Modern Physics A. 20 (11): 2341–2345. arXiv:gr-qc/0410055. Bibcode:2005IJMPA..20.2341H. doi:10.1142/S0217751X05024602.
  76. ^ a b Hossenfelder, S. (15 August 2008). "A Bi-Metric Theory with Exchange Symmetry". Physical Review D. 78 (4): 044015. arXiv:0807.2838. Bibcode:2008PhRvD..78d4015H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.78.044015.
  77. ^ Hossenfelder, Sabine (June 2009). Antigravitation. 17th International Conference on Supersymmetry and the Unification of Fundamental Interactions. Boston: American Institute of Physics. arXiv:0909.3456. doi:10.1063/1.3327545.
  78. ^ a b Marquet, Patrick (July 2019). "Twin Universes: a New Approach" (PDF). Progress in Physics. 15 (2). Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  79. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (January 1967). "Нарушение СР–инвариантности, С–асимметрия и барионная асимметрия Вселенной". Pi'sma ZhÉTF (in Russian). 5 (1): 32–35. Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (January 1967). "Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe" (PDF). JETP Letters. 5 (1): 24–26. Republished as Sakharov, A. D. (May 1991). "Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe" (PDF). Soviet Physics Uspekhi. 34 (5): 392–393. Bibcode:1991SvPhU..34..392S. doi:10.1070/PU1991v034n05ABEH002497.
  80. ^ a b Sakharov, A. D. (7 December 1982). Collected Scientific Works. Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0824717148.
  81. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (January 1967). "Кварк–мюонные токи и нарушение СР–инвариантности". Pi'sma ZhÉTF (in Russian). 5 (1): 36–39. Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (January 1967). "Quark-Muonic Currents and Violation of CP Invariance" (PDF). JETP Letters. 5 (1): 27–30.
  82. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (1969). "Антикварки во Вселенной" [Antiquarks in the Universe]. Problems in Theoretical Physics (in Russian): 35–44. Dedicated to the 30th anniversary of N. N. Bogolyubov.
  83. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (1972). "Топологическая структура элементарных зарядов и СРТ–симметрия" [The topological structure of elementary charges and CPT symmetry]. Problems in Theoretical Physics (in Russian): 243–247. Dedicated to the memory of I. E. Tamm.
  84. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (April 1979). "Барионная асимметрия Вселенной". Pi'sma ZhÉTF (in Russian). 76 (4): 1172–1181.Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (April 1979). "The baryonic asymmetry of the Universe" (PDF). JETP Letters. 49 (4): 594–599.
  85. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (September 1980). "Космологические модели Вселенной с поворотом стрелы времени". Pi'sma ZhÉTF (in Russian). 79 (3): 689–693.Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (September 1980). "Cosmological models of the Universe with reversal of time's arrow" (PDF). JETP Letters. 52 (3): 349–351.
  86. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (October 1982). "Многолистные модели Вселенной". Pi'sma ZhÉTF (in Russian). 82 (3): 1233–1240.Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (October 1982). "Many-sheeted models of the Universe" (PDF). JETP. 56 (4): 705–709.
  87. ^ Sakharov, A. D. (September 1986). "Испарение черных мини–дыр и физика высоких энергий". Pi'sma ZhÉTF (in Russian). 44 (6): 295–298.Translated as: Sakharov, A. D. (September 1986). "Evaporation of black mini-holes and high-energy physics" (PDF). JETP Letters. 44 (6): 379–383.
  88. ^ Petit, J.-P. (23 May 1977). "Univers jumeaux, énantiomorphes, à temps propre opposées" [Enantiomorphic twin universes with opposite proper times] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (in French). 263: 1315–1318.
  89. ^ Petit, J.-P. (6 June 1977). "Univers en interaction avec leurs images dans le miroir du temps" [Universes interacting with their opposite time-arrow fold] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (in French). 284: 1413–1416.
  90. ^ in Petit, J.-P. (July 1994). "The missing-mass problem" (PDF). Il Nuovo Cimento B. 109 (7): 697–709. Bibcode:1994NCimB.109..697P. doi:10.1007/BF02722527.
  91. ^ a b Petit, J.-P.; D'Agostini, G.; Debergh, N. (January 2019). "Physical and mathematical consistency of the Janus Cosmological Model (JCM)" (PDF). Progress in Physics. 15 (1).
  92. ^ Richard Feynman suggested that an electron, cruising backwards in time and observed through a mirror (P-symmetry) would behave like a positron.
  93. ^ Bondi, H. (July 1957). "Negative Mass in General Relativity" (PDF). Reviews of Modern Physics. 29 (3): 423–428. Bibcode:1957RvMP...29..423B. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.29.423.
  94. ^ a b Bonnor, W. B. (November 1989). "Negative mass in general relativity" (PDF). General Relativity and Gravitation. 21 (11): 1143–1157. Bibcode:1989GReGr..21.1143B. doi:10.1007/BF00763458.
  95. ^ Petit, J.-P. (April 1995). "Twin universes cosmology" (PDF). Astrophysics and Space Science. 227 (2): 273–307. Bibcode:1995Ap&SS.226..273P. CiteSeerX doi:10.1007/BF00627375.
  96. ^ Weinberg, Steven (2005). "Relativistic Quantum Mechanics: Space Inversion and Time-Reversal" (PDF). The Quantum Theory of Field. 1: Foundations. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521670531.
  97. ^ Souriau, J.-M. (1997). "14. A mechanistic description of elementary particles: Inversions of space and time" (PDF). Structure of Dynamical Systems. Progress in Mathematics. Boston: Birkhäuser. pp. 189–193. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-0281-3_14. ISBN 978-1-4612-6692-1.
  98. ^ Henry-Couannier, F.; d'Agostini, G.; Petit, J.-P. (2005). "I- Matter, antimatter and geometry. II- The twin universe model: a solution to the problem of negative energy particles. III- The twin universe model plus electric charges and matter-antimatter symmetry". arXiv:math-ph/0502042.
  99. ^ Petit, J.-P. (January 2018). "A Symplectic Cosmological Model" (PDF). Progress in Physics. 14 (1): 38–40.
  100. ^ Debergh, N.; Petit, J.-P.; D'Agostini, G. (November 2018). "On evidence for negative energies and masses in the Dirac equation through a unitary time-reversal operator". Journal of Physics Communications. 2 (11): 115012. arXiv:1809.05046. Bibcode:2018JPhCo...2k5012D. doi:10.1088/2399-6528/aaedcc.
  101. ^ Petit, J.-P. (14 September 2018). FTL interstellar travel in the Janus Cosmological Model (Advanced Propulsion Workshop presentation). Estes Park, CO: Space Studies Institute. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  102. ^ Petit, J.-P.; Debergh, N.; d'Agostini, G. (September 2018). Negative energy states and interstellar travel (PDF). Advanced Propulsion Workshop. Estes Park, CO: Space Studies Institute.
  103. ^ Morin, B.; Petit, J.-P. (January 1979). "Le retournement de la sphère" [The eversion of the sphere] (PDF). Pour la Science (in French) (15): 34–49.
  104. ^ Francis, G. K. (1980). "Drawing surfaces and their deformations: The tobacco pouch eversions of the sphere" (PDF). Mathematical Modelling. 5 (4): 273–281. doi:10.1016/0270-0255(80)90039-1.
  105. ^ Morin, B.; Petit, J.-P. (23 October 1978). "Problématique du retournement de la sphère" [Problem of the eversion of the two-sphere] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série A (in French). 287: 767–770.
  106. ^ Morin, B.; Petit, J.-P. (30 October 1978). "Le retournement de la sphère" [Eversion of the two-sphere] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série A (in French). 287: 791–794.
  107. ^ Morin, B. (13 November 1978). "Équations du retournement de la sphère" [Équations of the eversion of the two-sphere] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série A (in French). 287: 879–882.
  108. ^ Petit, J.-P (20 November 1978). "Le retournement non trivial du tore" [The non-trivial eversion of the torus] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série A (in French). 287 (14): 927–930.
  109. ^ Petit, J.-P (15 October 1979). "Le modèle central fermé de Bernard Morin" [Bernard Morin's closed central model] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série A (in French). 289: 471–473.
  110. ^ "Беседы с Жаком Лаканом. Интервью Жан-Пьера Пети. Часть 2". Retrieved 2019-03-26.
  111. ^ Petit, J.-P (1985). Topo the World (PDF). Savoir Sans Frontières.
  112. ^ Petit, J.-P; Souriau, J. (5 October 1981). "Une représentation analytique de la surface de Boy" [An analytic representation of Boy's surface] (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série I (in French). 293: 269.
  113. ^ Fr. Monnier; J.-P. Petit; Chr. Tardy (2016). "The use of the 'ceremonial' cubit rod as a measuring tool. An explanation". The Journal of Ancient Egyptian Architecture. 1.
  114. ^ "Egyptian pyramid construction technique" on YouTube
  115. ^ Petit, Jean-Pierre (December 2006). "Pyramides, vers la fin du mystère ?" [Pyramids, towards the end of the mystery?] (PDF). Découverte (in French). No. 343. Paris: Palais de la Découverte.
  116. ^ Petit, J.-P. (2014). Pyramids: The Secret of Imothep (PDF). Savoir Sans Frontières.
  117. ^
  118. ^ Pecker, Jean-Claude (1998). Preface. On a perdu la moitié de l'univers [We lost half of the universe]. By Petit, Jean-Pierre (in French). Albin Michel. ISBN 978-2226093936.
  119. ^ Pecker, Jean-Claude (2001). Preface. On a perdu la moitié de l'univers [We lost half of the universe]. By Petit, Jean-Pierre. Pluriel paperback (in French). Hachette. ISBN 978-2012789357.
  120. ^ Petit, Jean-Pierre (1999). The Dark Side of the Universe (PDF). Savoir Sans Frontières.
  121. ^ J.-P. Petit (31 May 1990). Enquête sur les OVNI [Research on UFOs] (in French). Albin Michel. ISBN 978-2-226-04120-3.
  122. ^ J.-P. Petit (5 September 1991). Enquête sur des extra-terrestres qui sont déjà parmi nous [Investigation on aliens among us] (in French). Albin Michel. ISBN 978-2-226-05515-6.
  123. ^ a b J.-P. Petit (7 September 1995). Le Mystère des Ummites [The Ummo Mystery] (in French). Albin Michel. ISBN 978-2-226-07845-2.
  124. ^ International Workshop in Field Propulsion, 1st, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, January 2001.
  125. ^ J.-P. Petit (January 9, 2003). OVNIS et armes secrètes américaines [UFOs and American secret weapons] (in French). Albin Michel. ISBN 978-2-226-13616-9.
  126. ^
  127. ^ Haines, M. G.; et al. (February 2006). "Ion Viscous Heating in a Magnetohydrodynamically Unstable Z Pinch at Over 2×109 Kelvin" (PDF). Physical Review Letters. 96 (7): 075003. Bibcode:2006PhRvL..96g5003H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.075003. PMID 16606100.
  128. ^ Petit, J.-P. (June 25, 2006). "The Z machine: Over two billion Kelvin! - Analysis of Malcolm Haines' paper" (PDF).
  129. ^ Page archivée :
  130. ^ Paul, Bruno (2012-12-22). "(fr) Les réseaux Euro-BRICS comme réponse à la crise scientifique". Conscience Sociale.
  131. ^ Foreword by Trinh Xuan Thuan and Dominique Laplane ; Presses de la Renaissance ; book presented by Bernard d'Espagnat at the Académie des sciences morales et politiques. ISBN 978-2856169698
  132. ^ Michele Angelo Murgia (21 September 2015). Qu'est-ce que le temps ?, p.8, 125, 155, 325, 348, 458, 481, 485, 531, 583, 606 (in French). Atramenta. p. 676. ISBN 978-9522737014.
  133. ^ Publisher : Erès (6 may 2016) Collection : Point hors ligne ISBN 978-2749250823
  134. ^ Bruno Paul (2018-05-25). La Signature Du Quaternaire - Logique, sémantique et Tradition.