Jean Albert Gaudry
Jean Albert Gaudry
|Born||September 16, 1827|
|Died||November 27, 1908(aged 81)|
|Awards||Wollaston Medal (1884)|
Jean Albert Gaudry (September 16, 1827 – November 27, 1908), French geologist and palaeontologist, was born at St Germain-en-Laye, and was educated at the Collège Stanislas de Paris. He was a notable proponent of theistic evolution.
At the age of twenty-five he made explorations in Cyprus and Greece, residing in the latter country from 1855 to 1860. He then investigated the rich deposit of fossil vertebrata at Pikermi and brought to light a remarkable mammalian fauna, Miocene in age, and intermediate in its forms between European, Asiatic and African types. He also published an account of the geology of the island of Cyprus (Mém. Soc. Géol. de France, 1862).
In 1853, while still in Cyprus, he was appointed assistant to A d'Orbigny, who was the first to hold the chair of palaeontology in the museum of natural history at Paris. In 1872 he succeeded to this important post; in 1882 he was elected member of the French Academy of Sciences.  In 1885 Philippe Thomas was assigned to the Tunisian Scientific Exploration Mission at Gaudry's recommendation. Later Gaudry helped Thomas write the Essai d'une description géologique de la Tunisie, which reported the results of the Tunisian research. In 1895 Gaurdy was elected a foreign member of the Royal Society of London.
He is distinguished for his researches on fossil mammalia, and for the support which his studies have rendered to the theory of evolution. He has also occasionally studied other topics. Among others, he described Early Permian Haptodus baylei, whose affinities he could not determine at the time, but which is now known to be a synapsid closely related to therapsids.
Professor Huxley, comparing our present knowledge of the mammals of the Tertiary era with that of 1859, states that the discoveries of Gaudry, Marsh, and Filhol, are "as if zoologists were to become acquainted with a country hitherto unknown, as rich in novel forms of life as Brazil or South America once were to Europeans."
Charles Darwin cited Gaudry's palaeontological research from his excavations at Pikermi in the second edition of On Origin of Species, 1872 and The Descent of Man, 1871. His research was also positively cited by Alfred Russel Wallace. Gaudry discovered and reconstructed several new mammal species that he considered were intermediates, he believed these were evidence for evolution but differed from Darwin in believing they were the result of a plan by God.
Because of his spiritual beliefs, he rejected the idea of natural selection and struggle for existence. Paleontologist Éric Buffetaut has written that "Gaudry's strong religious feelings made it difficult for him to accept Darwin's mechanistic vision of an evolution based on chance and natural selection. Evolution was acceptable to him because it revealed a unity in the organic world which was the mark of divine works."
- Animaux fossiles et géologie de l'Attique (2 vols., 1862-1867)
- Considérations Générales sur les Animaux Fossiles de Pikermi (1866)
- Cours de paléontologie (1873)
- Animaux fossiles du Mont Lebéron (1873)
- Les Enchaînements du monde animal dans les temps géologiques (Mammifères tertiaires, 1878 ; Fossiles primaires, 1883; Fossiles secondaires, 1890)
- Essai de paléontologie philosophique (1896)
Brief memoir with portrait in Geol. Mag. (1903), p. 49.
If we recognise that organised beings have little by little been transformed, we shall regard them as plastic substances which an artist has been pleased to knead during the immense course of ages, lengthening here, broadening or diminishing there, as the sculptor, with a piece of clay, produces a thousand forms, following the impulse of his genius. But we shall not doubt that the artist was the Creator himself, for each transformation has borne a reflection of his infinite beauty.
- Woodward, Horace Bolingbroke (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.).
- Glangeaud, Philippe (1910). Albert Gaudry and the Evolution of the Animal Kingdom, from the Smithsonian Report for 1909, pages 417–429. Washington Government Printing Office.
- Buffetaut, Éric. (1987). A Short History of Vertebrate Palaeontology. Croom Helm. p. 117
- Cohen, Claudine. (1994). The Fate of the Mammoth: Fossils, Myth, and History. University of Chicago Press. pp. 173-175. ISBN 0-226-11292-6
- Woodward 1908, pp. 163–164.
- Cilleuls 1969, p. 137.
- Burollet 1995, pp. 111–122.
- Albert Gaudry (1886). "Sur un nouveau genre de Reptile trouvé dans le Permien d'Autun". Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 3ème série. 14: 430–433.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Michel Laurin (1993). "Anatomy and relationships of Haptodus garnettensis, a Pennsylvanian synapsid from Kansas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 13 (2): 200–229. doi:10.1080/02724634.1993.10011501.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Hutchinson, Henry Neville (1893). Extinct Monsters. London: Chapman & Hall. p. xi.
- Cohen, Claudine. (1994). The Fate of the Mammoth: Fossils, Myth, and History. University of Chicago Press. p. 169. ISBN 0-226-11292-6 "The French paleontologist Albert Gaudry was one of the first to build genealogical trees to represent the phylogenetic history of fossil forms, taking their stratigraphic position into account. As early as 1866, he illustrated his Animaux fossiles et géologie de l'Attique (Fossil animals and geology of Attica) with pictures representing the phylogenies of several families of land vertebrates."
- Palacio-Pérez, Eduardo. (2013). Science and Belief in the Construction of the Concept of Paleolithic Religion. Complutum 24 (2): 51-61.
- Nicolaidis, Efthymios. (2011). Science and Eastern Orthodoxy: From the Greek Fathers to the Age of Globalization. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-4214-0298-7
- Wallace, Alfred Russel. (1870). Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection: A Series of Essays. New York: Macmillan and Co. pp. 299-300
- Burkhardt, Frederick. (2010). The Correspondence of Charles Darwin: Volume 18; Volume 1870. Cambridge University Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-521-76889-4
- Rudwick, M. J. S. (1976). The Meaning of Fossils: Episodes in the History of Palaeontology. University of Chicago Press. p. 246. ISBN 0-226-73103-0
- Tort, Patrick. The Interminable Decline of Lamarckism in France. In Eve-Marie Engels, Thomas F. Glick. (2008). The Reception of Charles Darwin in Europe. Continuum. p. 335. ISBN 978-0-8264-5833-9 "Albert Gaudry (1827-1908), a creator of evolutionary palaeontology, was both a transformist and an admirer of Darwin, but his spiritualist beliefs and his vision of a cosmic order led him to reject the theory of the struggle for existence, which he considered to be a mere hypothesis."
- Burollet, Pierre F. (21 June 1995), "L'exploration de la Tunisie avant la première guerre mondiale", Travaux du Comitée français d’Histoire de la Géologie (in French), Comité Français d'Histoire de la Géologie (COFRHIGEO) (séance du 21 juin 1995), 9 (3), retrieved 2017-07-29
- Cilleuls, Jean des (1969), A propos des phosphates de Tunisie et de leur découverte par Philippe THOMAS, vétérinaire militaire I1843-1910) (PDF) (in French), retrieved 2017-09-01
- Woodward, Arthur Smith (Dec 10, 1908), "Obit. Albert Gaudry", Nature, 79, doi:10.1038/079163a0
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Philippe Glangeaud. (1910). Albert Gaudry and the Evolution of the Animal Kingdom. Washington.
William Thomas Blanford
| Wollaston Medal