This article is a rough translation from French. It may have been generated by a computer or by a translator without dual proficiency.
Jean Elleinstein, born 6 August 1927 in Paris, died 16 January 2002, was French historian specializing in communism.
Son of a small industrialist who voted to the left by repeating "if I were not Jewish, I would be fascist ...", the young Jew Jean Elleinstein had to cross the demarcation line in 1941 and live illegally until 1944 when he joined the Milices Patriotiques (Patriotic Militia) in Megève. He joined the French Communist Party at the Liberation at the age of seventeen. He soon became a Party member, first as a journalist with the communist press agency, then at the PCF press office, before being assigned to the Mouvement Jeunes Communistes de France and the World Federation of Democratic Youth.
His activities against the Indochina war, caused him to spend a few weeks in prison in 1949, then sixteen months in hiding in 1952-53. He then resumed his studies, became a professor in 1954, passed the CAPES (diploma in teaching - secondary schools) in history in 1958, his diploma in teaching higher education in 1960 and was appointed lecturer. At the same time, he was responsible for the founding of the Union of Communist Students.
The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956 and, in 1960-1961, the "Servin-Casanova affair" - named after two high-ranking Communist leaders sanctioned for their Khrushchevian theses - shook his convictions. A little marginal in the party, but strongly supported by Roland Leroy, Jean Elleinstein used a freedom of tone that brought him closer to the Italian or Spanish communists. Appointed deputy director of the Center for Marxist Studies and Research, between 1972 and 1975 he published a History of the Soviet Union in which he diverted substantially from the orthodox version, expressed since 1945 by Jean Bruhat. In line with the policy of openness of the time of the Union of the Left and Eurocommunism, it was authorised by the PCF. Exploiting his freedom to speak even more, in 1975 Elleinstein published a History of the Stalinist phenomenon in which he analyzes Stalinism as the unfortunate product of historical circumstances.
He became the unofficial spokesman of a communist proclaimed democratic and renovated with the PC and Letter open to the French on the Republic of the Joint Program, in the context of the XXII Congress of the PCF, held in February 1976, marked by the attempt to break with the Soviet system, under the impetus of Jean Kanapa. Following the failure of the union of the left in 1977 and the rapprochement of Georges Marchais with Brezhnev, especially his regular collaboration with Figaro Magazine, it is considered in the second half of 1980 in the governing bodies of the PCF "he s' is excluded from the party "and therefore it is not necessary to take such a step.
Notes and references
- Philippe Robrieux, Inner History of the Communist Party, Volume 2, Fayard, 1981, p. 45.
- Stéphane Courtois, article "Jean Elleinstein" in Dictionary of French intellectuals. The people, the places, the moments, Jacques Julliard and Michel Winock (dir.), Paris, Editions du Seuil, 1996, p. 436-437.
- Robrieux, Volume 4, p. 198.
- The Revolution of Revolutions , Paris, Social Publishing, 1967.
- "History of the USSR", in 4 volumes: "The conquest of power, 1917-1921" (Paris, Social Publishing, Our time collection, 1972, 215 p.); Socialism in one country (Paris, Social Editions, 1973, 313 p.); "USSR at War, 1939-1946" (Paris, Social Editions, 1974, 236 p.); "The contemporary USSR" (Paris, Social Editions, 1975, 323 p.).
- "History of the Stalinist phenomenon", Paris, Grasset, 1975, 248 p.
- The PC , Paris, Grasset, 1976, 210 p.
- Letter open to the French on the Republic of the Common Program , Paris, Albin Michel, 1977, 215 p.
- A certain idea of communism , Paris, Julliard, 1979.
- Unexpected dialogue , with Thierry Maulnier, Flammarion, 1979.
- "History of Communism (1917-1945)", Paris, Janninck Edition, 1980, 158 p.
- They deceive you, Comrades , Paris, Pierre Belfond, 1981, 214 p. ISBN 2-7144-1376-5
- Marx, his life, his work , Paris, Fayard, 1981, 735 p.
- Jacques Grandjonc: "Jean Elleinstein: Marx, his life, his work, Fayard, Paris 1981" ("Cahiers d'Etudes Allemiques", University of Provence, Aix Center, 1982, 1 -15 ) German ( Wie eine Biographie von Marx nicht zu schreiben ist ) ( Beiträge zur Marx-Engels-Forschung 15 , Berlin 1984, p. 104-114)
- 'Stalin' ', Paris, Fayard, 1984, 575 p.
- "World History of Socialism", Armand Colin, 1984.
- Goliath against Goliath 1941-1949; the childhood of the Great , Paris, Fayard, 1986.
- The cold peace; history of US-USSR relations since 1950 , Paris, London, 1988.
- From one Russia to another, life and death of the USSR , Éditions Sociales, 1992, 763 p.