Jean Amédée Hoerni (September 26, 1924 – January 12, 1997) was a silicon transistor pioneer and a member of the traitorous eight. He developed the ground breaking planar process for reliably manufacturing semiconductor devices such as transistors.
Hoerni was born on September 26, 1924 in Geneva, Switzerland. He received his B.S. in Mathematics from the University of Geneva and two Ph.D.s in Physics; one from the University of Geneva and the other from the University of Cambridge.
In 1952, he moved to the United States to work at the California Institute of Technology, where he became acquainted with William Shockley, a physicist at Bell Labs who was intimately involved with the creation of the transistor.
A few years later, Shockley recruited Hoerni to work with him at the newly founded Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory division of Beckman Instruments in Mountain View, California. But Shockley's strange behavior compelled the so-called "traitorous eight": Hoerni, Julius Blank, Victor Grinich, Eugene Kleiner, Jay Last, Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce and Sheldon Roberts, to leave his laboratory and create the Fairchild Semiconductor corporation. At Fairchild, Hoerni invented the planar process, which was critical in the invention of Silicon Integrated circuit by Robert Noyce. With Noyce, Jack Kilby from Texas Instruments is usually credited with the invention of the integrated circuit, but Kilby's IC was based on Germanium. As it turns out, Silicon ICs have numerous advantages over germanium. The name "Silicon Valley" refers to this silicon.
Along with the "traitorous eight" alumni Jay Last and Sheldon Roberts, Hoerni founded Amelco (known now as Teledyne) in 1961.
He was married to Anne Marie Hoerni and had three children: Annie Blackwell, Susan Killham, and Michael Hoerni. He had one brother, Marc Hoerni. His second marriage to Ruth Carmona also ended in divorce.
An avid mountain climber, Hoerni often visited the Karakoram Mountains in Pakistan and was moved by the poverty of the Balti mountain people who lived there. He contributed the lion's share, $30,000, to Greg Mortenson's project to build a school in the remote village of Korphe, and later founded the Central Asia Institute with an endowment of $1 million to continue providing services for them after his death. Hoerni named Greg Mortenson as the first Executive Director of the organization, which continues to build schools in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
In December 2007, an article was published by Michael Riordan on Hoerni and his planar process in IEEE Spectrum. The author claimed that Jay Last pointed out that Hoerni had incredible stamina and could hike for hours on little food or water.
- Jean A. Hoerni - 1972 W. Wallace McDowell Award Recipient
- Brock, David, C. (2006). Understanding Moore's Law: Four Decades of Innovation. Pittsford, New York: Castle Rock. p. 15. ISBN 0941901416.
- US 3025589 Hoerni, J. A.: "Method of Manufacturing Semiconductor Devices” filed May 1, 1959
- US 3064167 Hoerni, J. A.: "Semiconductor device" filed May 15, 1960
- caltech.edu/570/2/Moore.pdf "The Accidental Entrepreneur"[permanent dead link], Gordon E. Moore, Engineering & Science, Summer 1994
- "Jean Hoerni (American engineer)", Encyclopædia Britannicaonline
- "Franklin Laureate Database - Edward Longstreth Medal 1969 Laureates". Franklin Institute. Archived from the original on December 12, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
- Michael, Riordan (December 2007). "The Silicon Dioxide Solution: How physicist Jean Hoerni built the bridge from the transistor to the integrated circuit". IEEE Spectrum. IEEE. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "Jean A. Hoerni". SFGate.com. February 5, 1997. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- Internet, OSD, inc./ Bitterroot. "Montana News-The Bitterroot Star - The Bitterroot Valley's Weekly Newspaper". archives.bitterrootstar.com. Retrieved 2016-12-13.
- Three Cups of Tea, chapter 5. (disk 2, tracks 16-18 of the audiobook version)
- "A gift for an entire village-- A failed mountaineer becomes a philanthropist after a village without a school saves his life" Archived 2008-04-05 at the Wayback Machine, Marilyn Gardner, Christian Science Monitor, September 12, 2006
- "Central Asia Institute History" Archived 2014-12-24 at the Wayback Machine, Central Asia Institute