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Jean Louis (born Jean Louis Berthault; October 5, 1907 in Paris, France – April 20, 1997 in Palm Springs, California) was a French-born, Hollywood costume designer and an Academy Award winner for Best Costume Design.
Life and career
He worked as head designer for Columbia Pictures from 1944 to 1960. His most famous works include Rita Hayworth's black satin strapless dress from Gilda (1946), Marlene Dietrich's celebrated beaded souffle stagewear for her cabaret world tours, as well as the sheer, sparkling gown that Marilyn Monroe wore when she sang "Happy Birthday, Mr. President" to John F. Kennedy in 1962.
The dress was so tight that he is believed to have actually sewn it while Monroe was wearing it. The idea of dresses being a nude color, with crystals coating it, stunned audiences. It gave the members of the audience the illusion that Monroe was nude, except for discretely placed rhinestones covering them head to toe.
Louis had originally designed a version of the dress for Marlene Dietrich, who wore it in her concert shows. An impressed Monroe asked Dietrich about it, who told her how the dress's illusion worked, and sent her to Louis to design a similar dress for her Kennedy appearance. While Dietrich had been seen wearing her version before Monroe, the press coverage surrounding Monroe's appearance at Madison Square Garden in her style of gown swept the globe. This robe became—besides the white one from "The Seven Year Itch"—Marilyn Monroe's most famous robe, selling at auction in 2016 for 4.8 million dollars.
In 1993, four years after the death of his second wife, Louis married former client Loretta Young; they remained married until his death in 1997. He had designed Young's wardrobe for her TV program The Loretta Young Show (1953–61), an anthology show noted for Young's show-opening and closing scenes that had viewers tuning in especially to view her high-fashion outfit for that week. Young was known as the best-dressed actress in America at that time.
For over forty years, Louis designed clothes for almost every star in Hollywood. Around sixty of his designs appeared in movies, and he was eventually nominated for 13 Academy Awards. Some of his clients included Ginger Rogers, Irene Dunne, Lana Turner, Vivien Leigh, Joan Crawford, Julie Andrews, Katharine Hepburn, and Judy Garland. Some of his film credits included, A Star Is Born, Ship of Fools, From Here to Eternity, Thoroughly Modern Millie, and he won an Oscar for his designs in The Solid Gold Cadillac in 1956.
In 1937, a year after Louis immigrated to the United States, he designed a suit that became an icon in the fashion world. The Carnegie suit was one of the first fashions to become very well-liked as an American name design. The fitted blazer and long pencil skirt was worn by several actresses and society women at the time. The Duchess of Windsor became one of his most famous clients, as well as the First Lady Nancy Reagan in the 1980s.
Academy Award nominations
- 1950 – Film: Born Yesterday
- 1952 – Film: Affair in Trinidad
- 1953 – Film: From Here to Eternity
- 1954 – Film: It Should Happen to You
- 1954 – Film: A Star Is Born
- 1955 – Film: Queen Bee
- 1956 – Film: The Solid Gold Cadillac; Won
- 1957 – Film: Pal Joey
- 1958 – Film: Bell, Book and Candle
- 1961 – Film: Judgment at Nuremberg
- 1961 – Film: Back Street
- 1965 – Film: Ship of Fools
- 1966 – Film: Gambit
- 1967 – Film: Thoroughly Modern Millie
Actresses designed for
- Rita Hayworth in Tonight and Every Night, 1945, Gilda, 1946, Down To Earth, 1947, The Lady from Shanghai, 1948, The Loves of Carmen, 1948, Affair in Trinidad, 1952, Miss Sadie Thompson and Salome, 1953
- Irene Dunne in Together Again, 1944
- Claudette Colbert in Tomorrow is Forever 1946
- Judy Holliday in Born Yesterday, 1950 and The Solid Gold Cadillac, 1956
- Lucille Ball in The Magic Carpet, 1951
- Gloria Grahame in The Big Heat, 1953
- Deborah Kerr in From Here to Eternity, 1953
- Judy Garland in A Star is Born, 1954
- Joan Crawford in Queen Bee, 1955
- Betty Grable in Three for the Show, 1955
- Kim Novak in Picnic, 1955, and Bell, Book, and Candle, 1958
- Kim Novak and Rita Hayworth in Pal Joey, 1957
- Lana Turner in Imitation of Life, 1959
- Doris Day in Pillow Talk (1959), The Thrill of It All (1962), Send Me No Flowers (1964) and Ballad of Josie (1968)
- Loretta Young for The Loretta Young Show, Television series, 1953-1961
- Marlene Dietrich in The Monte Carlo Story, 1956, and Judgment at Nuremberg, 1961
- Susan Hayward in Back Street, 1961
- Marilyn Monroe in The Misfits, 1961, and Something's Got to Give (unfinished), 1962
- Shirley MacLaine in Gambit, 1966
- Julie Andrews, Mary Tyler Moore, and Carol Channing in Thoroughly Modern Millie, 1967
- Eva Gabor for Green Acres Television series, 1965-1967
- Barbara Bel Geddes for Dallas Television series, 1978-1984 and 1985-1990 
- Foreman, Liza (February 22, 2013). "Glamour from a 'Gilda' age: How Jean Louis inspired film costumiers". ft.com. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- ENID NEMY (1997-04-24). "Jean Louis, 89; Dressed Stars and Socialites - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2018-09-20.
- "Happy Birthday, Mr President': the story of Marilyn Monroe and that dress".
- "How Marilyn dreamed up THAT dress: Designer who worked on iconic JFK birthday outfit says she wanted to look naked". Daily Mail.
- "Marilyn Monroe's dress from 'Happy Birthday Mr. President' is sold". Today.com. Retrieved 2018-09-20.
- Nemy, Enid (April 24, 1997). "Jean Louis, 89; Dressed Stars and Socialites". New York Times. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
- David Massey - Goldlion. "Official Dallas website Dallas wardrobe and costume on the tv show". Ultimatedallas.com. Retrieved 2018-09-20.
- Hollywood Costume Design/ David Chierchetti, author ISBN 0-517-52637-9
- In A Glamorous Fashion: The Fabulous Years Of Hollywood Costume Design/ W.Robert Lavine, author ISBN 0-684-16610-0