Jean Piccard visiting Brigham Young University in 1938
|Born||January 28, 1884|
|Died||January 28, 1963 (aged 79)|
Minneapolis, United States
|Nationality||Swiss and from 1931 American|
|Occupation||chemist, engineer, professor and balloonist|
|Children||Don Piccard (son)|
|Alma mater||ETH Zürich phd 1909|
|Institutions||University of Munich, |
University of Lausanne,
University of Chicago,
University of Minnesota
Jean Felix Piccard (January 28, 1884 in Basel, Switzerland – January 28, 1963 in Minneapolis, Minnesota), also known as Jean Piccard, was a Swiss-born American chemist, engineer, professor and high-altitude balloonist. He invented clustered high-altitude balloons, and with his wife Jeannette, the plastic balloon. Piccard's inventions and co-inventions are used in balloon flight, aircraft and spacecraft.
Piccard and Jeannette Ridlon met at the University of Chicago where he taught and she received her master's degree. They married and had three sons, John, Paul and Donald, and also had foster children.
Piccard was the co-pilot for his wife Jeannette on the third and final voyage of the Century of Progress. The largest balloon in the world was conceived for him to fly at the World's Fair in 1933 but was flown there by US Navy pilots who were licensed. After this flight he created the liquid oxygen converter when the liquid failed to vaporize on descent after the cabin doors were open. Piccard developed a frost-free window, that was used on this flight and later by the Navy and Air Force in the B-24 Liberator or B-26 Marauder. He used blasting caps and TNT for releasing the balloon at launch and for remote release of external ballast from inside the sealed cabin. This was the first use of pyrotechnics for remote-controlled actuating devices in aircraft, an unpopular, revolutionary idea at the time. Later his student Robert R. Gilruth, who became the director of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, approved and used them in spacecraft.
The July 21st, 1952 issue of The Canberra Times newspaper printed an incorrect front-page article in which Dr. Piccard claimed it would be possible for humans to fly to Mars with balloons as early as 1954, if anyone was willing to invest $250,000. Dr. Piccard had actually claimed he would study the light from Mars through a spectroscope to try to find evidence of oxygen and water at a high altitude to ensure his measurements were as precise as possible.
In 1935 and 1936, to reduce weight and thus enabling a balloon to reach higher altitudes, plastic balloon construction began independently by Max Cosyns in Belgium, Erich Regener in Germany, and Thomas H. Johnson and Jean Piccard, then at the Franklin Institute Bartol Research Foundation in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Johnson suggested cellophane to Jean Piccard.
Piccard with his wife co-invented the plastic balloon and he designed and on 24 June 1936 flew a cellophane balloon built by his students. The balloon was unmanned, 25 feet (7.6 meters) wide, and made of tapered 33-foot (10-meter) gores and one-inch (2.54-cm) 3M Scotch transparent tape. Jean Barnhill, Harold Larson and Lloyd Schumacher cut the gores that fit together like an "orange peel." Harold Hatlestad built the radio equipment and Robert Silliman built the telemeter that sent temperature and pressure data back. Robert Hatch and Silliman maintained radio contact from a station on the roof of the university armory until the radio's battery froze from insufficient insulation. The balloon floated at 50,000 feet, and in ten hours traveled over 600 miles to near Huntsville, Arkansas.
Developed with John Akerman of the University of Minnesota and piloted by Jean Piccard in 1937 in Rochester, Minnesota, the first multi-celled balloon was called The Pleiades and was made of 98 latex rubber balloons. In a letter to Robert Gray of the Dewey and Almy Chemical Co. later published in Time magazine, Piccard describes how he broke balloons with a hunting knife and revolver to control his descent. A TNT charge released the cluster as he expected but sent burning excelsior down that destroyed the first Pleiades. He suggested to Gray that rock wool in place of excelsior would prevent similar accidents in the future.
In February 1946 with Otto C. Winzen, Jean Piccard proposed manned flight to the US Navy using clustered balloons made of thin plastic. In June the Office of Naval Research approved Project Helios and that year General Mills and the University of Minnesota contracted to build a cluster of 100 polyethylene balloons for atmospheric research. Helios was designed to reach 100,000 feet for ten hours with a payload of instruments.
Jean Piccard helped Winzen design the Skyhook polyethylene balloons that replaced Project Helios in 1947. Skyhook balloons were used unmanned for atmospheric research by the Navy and for manned flights by the US Air Force. Later Jean Piccard developed electronics for emptying ballast bags.
Piccard died on January 28, 1963 (his 79th birthday) in Minneapolis.
- Jules Piccard (professor of chemistry)
In 1991, Piccard was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum. Gene Roddenberry named the Star Trek character Jean-Luc Picard after either Jean or his twin Auguste, and it is implied that the character is a descendant of one of the brothers.
Notes and references
- University of California et al. [and informal sources on Jean Piccard talk page] (2003). "Living With A Star: 3: Balloon/Rocket Mission: Scientific Ballooning". Retrieved 2007-01-27.
- Piccard, Elizabeth via National Public Radio (January 23, 2004). "Talk of the Nation: Science on Stage". Retrieved 2007-01-29.
- US Centennial of Flight Commission (2003). "Jean Piccard". Archived from the original on 2006-09-23. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
- Piccard, Don (2005). "Balloon Information Resources: The Beginning". Retrieved 2007-01-28.
- Kraft, Christopher Jr. (2004). "Robert R. Gilruth in Biographical Memoirs V.84 92-111". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2007-01-30.
- Gruppenbild der Montagemannschaft, 1914.01.01-1918.12.31, Archives fédérales suisses
- Winker, J. A., via sample page (1986). "Scientific ballooning, past and present". American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-01-28.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Robert Rechs (November 21, 1983). "Who's Who of Ballooning - P". Retrieved 2007-01-27.
- University of Minnesota Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics: Professor Jean F. Piccard's Contribution to Balloon Flight
- Gilruth, Dr. Robert (May 14, 1986). "NASM Oral History Project, Gilruth #2". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on February 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
- Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics (AEM) Department (July 23, 2004). "Some Notable Early Faculty Members". University of Minnesota. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
- Akerman, John D.; Piccard, Jean F. (1937). "Upper Air Study by Means of Balloons and the Radio Meteorograph". Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). 4 (8): 332–337. doi:10.2514/8.423. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
- Piccard, Jean via Robert Gray (August 16, 1937). "Egg Shell Landing". Time. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
- Goebel, Greg (July 1, 2006). "A Short History Of Balloons & Ballooning: 3.0 The Stratosphere Expeditions". Retrieved 2007-02-01.
- Goodsell, Suzy (August 4, 2011). "The "daddy" of the balloon industry". General Mills blog website. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
- Stekel, Peter (August 1997). "Don Piccard - 50 Years of Ballooning Memories". Balloon Life Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2007-01-26.
- Sprekelmeyer, Linda, editor. These We Honor: The International Aerospace Hall of Fame. Donning Co. Publishers, 2006. ISBN 978-1-57864-397-4.