Jean Pitard

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Jean Pittard.jpg

Jean Pitard (born ~1228 near Bayeux, France, died in Paris at age 87, in ~1315[1][2][3]) was the royal surgeon to Louis IX, Philip the Bold and Philip the Fair of France. At his request, about the year 1270, Louis IX created the Fraternity of St. Cosmas and St. Damian,[4] which defined and organized the profession of surgeons in France.[5][6]

Pitard received his training as an apprentice and did not receive any university training, as a result he was not encumbered by many of the medical and anatomical theories of his contemporaries.[7]


  1. ^ Pluquet, Frédéric (1829). Essai historique sur la ville de Bayeux et son arrondissement (in French). Caen: T. Chalopin. p. 423.  at Google Books
  2. ^ Henschel, August Wilhelm Eduard Theodor; et al. (1847). "Biographisch-litterärische Notizen, berühmte Wundärzte und Aerzte des XIII. und XIV. Jahrhunderts". Janus: Central-Magazin für Geschichte u. Litterärgeschichte d. Medicin, ärztl. Biographik, Epidemiographik, medicinische Geographie und Statistik (in German). Vol. 2 no. 1. pp. 132–151, page 150. 
  3. ^ Others suggest his birth occurred 20 years later, ~1248, and his death in ~1328. Thomas, Antoine (1916). "Jean Pitart, chirurgien et poète" (PDF). Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (in French). 60 (1): 95–111. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 April 2017. 
  4. ^ Confrérie de Saint-Côme et de Saint-Damien "Le Médecin et le chirurgien" (in French). Université Paris-Descartes. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. 
  5. ^ Gourdol, Jean-Yves. "Portraits de Médecins: Histoire des chirurgiens, des barbiers et des barbiers-chirurgiens (History of Surgeons, Barbers and Barber-surgeons)" (in French). Medarus. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. 
  6. ^ Gründer, Johann W. Ludwig (1859). Geschichte der Chirurgie, von den Urzeiten bis zu Anfang des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts (in German). Breslau, Prussia (now Wrocław, Poland): Trewendt et Granier. p. 154. OCLC 6318037. 
  7. ^ Bullough, Vern L. (1959). "Training of the Nonuniversity-Educated Medical Practitioners in the Later Middle Ages". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 14 (10): 446–458. doi:10.1093/jhmas/XIV.10.446.