Jean Sibelius (/, /; Swedish pronunciation (help·info)), born Johan Julius Christian Sibelius (8 December 1865 – 20 September 1957), was a Finnish violinist and composer of the late Romantic and early-modern periods. Widely recognized as his country's national composer, Sibelius is often credited for supporting the rise of the Finnish national identity in the country's struggle for independence.
The core of his oeuvre is his set of seven symphonies which, like his other major works, continue to be performed and recorded in his home country and internationally. In addition to his symphonies, Sibelius's best-known compositions include Finlandia, the Karelia Suite, Valse triste, the Violin Concerto, the choral symphony Kullervo, and The Swan of Tuonela (from the Lemminkäinen Suite). Other works include pieces inspired by the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala, over a hundred songs for voice and piano, incidental music for numerous plays, the opera Jungfrun i tornet (The Maiden in the Tower), chamber music, piano music, Masonic ritual music, and 21 publications of choral music. Throughout his career, the composer found inspiration in nature and Nordic mythology, especially the heroic legends of the national epic, the Kalevala.
Sibelius composed prolifically until the mid-1920s but after completing his Seventh Symphony (1924), the incidental music to The Tempest (1926), and the tone poem Tapiola (1926), he failed to produce any major works in his last thirty years, a stunning and perplexing decline commonly referred to as 'The Silence of Järvenpää', the location of his home. Although he is reputed to have stopped composing, he attempted to continue writing, including abortive efforts on an eighth symphony. In later life, he wrote Masonic music and re-edited some earlier works while retaining an active but not always favourable interest in new developments in music.
The Finnish 100 mark bill featured his image until 2002 when the euro was adopted. Since 2011, Finland has celebrated a Flag Day on 8 December, the composer's birthday, also known as the "Day of Finnish Music". In 2015, the 150th anniversary of the composer's birth, a number of special concerts and events have been planned, especially in the city of Helsinki.
- 1 Life
- 2 Move to Ainola
- 3 Activity in Freemasonry
- 4 Nature
- 5 Musical style
- 6 Reception
- 7 Selected works
- 8 Legacy
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Sources
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Sibelius was born on 8 December 1865 in Hämeenlinna in the Grand Duchy of Finland, an autonomous part of the Russian Empire. He was the son of the Swedish-speaking medical doctor Christian Gustaf Sibelius and Maria Charlotta Sibelius née Borg. The family name stems from the Sibbe Estate in Eastern Uusimaa which was owned by his paternal great grandfather. Sibelius's father died of typhus in July 1868, leaving substantial debts. As a result, his mother—who was again pregnant—had to sell their property and move the family into the home of Katarina Borg, her widowed mother, who also lived in Hämeenlinna. Sibelius was therefore brought up in a decidedly female environment, the only male influence coming from his uncle, Pehr Ferdinand Sibelius, who was interested in music, especially the violin. It was he who gave the boy a violin when he was ten years old and later encouraged him to maintain his interest in composition. For Sibelius, Uncle Pehr not only took the place of a father but of a musical adviser.
From an early age, Sibelius showed a strong interest in nature, frequently walking around the countryside when the family moved to Loviisa on the coast for the summer months. In his own words: "For me, Loviisa represented sun and happiness, Hämeenlinna was where I went to school. Loviisa was freedom." It was in Hämeenlinna, when he was seven, that his aunt Julia was brought in to give him piano lessons on the family's upright instrument, rapping him on the knuckles whenever he played a wrong note. He reacted by improvising on his own but nevertheless learned to read music. Not surprisingly, he later turned to the violin which he preferred. He participated in trios with his elder sister Linda, who played the piano, and his younger brother Christian on the cello. (Christian Sibelius was to become an eminent psychiatrist, still remembered for his contributions to modern psychiatry in Finland.) Furthermore, Sibelius often played in quartets with neighbouring families, receiving a background in chamber music. Fragments survive of his early compositions of the period, a trio, a piano quartet and a Suite in D Minor for violin and piano. Around 1881, he recorded on paper his short pizzicato piece Vattendroppar (Water Drops) for violin and cello although it might just have been a musical exercise. The first reference he himself made to composing comes in a letter from August 1883 in which he reveals he had composed a trio and was working on another: "They are rather poor, but it is nice to have something to do on rainy days." In 1881, he started to take violin lessons from the local bandmaster, Gustaf Levander, immediately developing a particularly strong interest in the instrument. Setting his heart on a career as a great violin virtuoso, he soon succeeded in becoming quite an accomplished player, performing David's Concerto in E minor in 1886 and, the following year, the last two movements of the Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto in Helsinki. Despite his success as an instrumentalist, he ultimately chose to become a composer.
Although his mother tongue was Swedish, in 1874 Sibelius attended Lucina Hagman's Finnish-speaking preparatory school. In 1876, he was then able to continue his education at the Finnish-language Hämeenlinna Normal Lyceum where he proved to be a rather absent-minded pupil although he did quite well in mathematics and botany. Despite having to repeat a year, he succeeded in passing the school-leaving examination in 1885 which allowed him to study at university. As a boy he was known as Janne, a colloquial form of Johan. However, during his student years, he adopted the French form Jean, inspired by the business card of his deceased seafaring uncle. Thereafter he became known as Jean Sibelius.
Studies and early career
After graduating from high school in 1885, Sibelius began to study law at the Imperial Alexander University in Finland but, showing far more interest in music, soon moved to the Helsinki Music Institute (now the Sibelius Academy) where he studied from 1885 to 1889. One of his teachers was the founder Martin Wegelius, who did much to support the development of education in Finland. It was he who gave Sibelius formal lessons in composition, an art which until then he had learnt himself. Another important influence was his teacher Ferruccio Busoni, a pianist with whom he enjoyed a lifelong friendship. His close circle of friends included the pianist and writer Adolf Paul and the conductor to be Armas Järnefelt (who introduced him to his influential family including his sister Aino who would become Sibelius's wife). The most remarkable of his works during this period was the Violin Sonata in F, rather reminiscent of Grieg.
Sibelius continued his studies in Berlin (from 1889 to 1890 with Albert Becker) and in Vienna (from 1890 to 1891 with the Hungarian Karl Goldmark and the Austrian Robert Fuchs). In Berlin, he had the opportunity to widen his musical experience by going to a variety of concerts and operas, including the premiere of Richard Strauss's Don Juan. He also heard the Finnish composer Robert Kajanus conducting the Berlin Philharmonic in a programme which included his symphonic poem Aino, a patriotic piece which may well have triggered Sibelius's later interest in using the epic poem Kalevala as a basis for his compositions. While in Vienna, he became particularly interested in the music of Anton Bruckner whom, for a time, he regarded as "the greatest living composer", although he continued to show interest in Beethoven and Wagner. He enjoyed his year in Vienna, frequently partying and gambling with his new friends. It was also in Vienna that he turned to orchestral composition, working on the Overture in E major and the Scène de Ballet. While embarking on Kullervo, an orchestral work inspired by the epic Finnish poem Kalevala, he fell ill but was restored to good health when a "stone" was removed. Shortly after returning to Helsinki, Sibelius thoroughly enjoyed conducting his Overture and the Scène de Ballet at a popular concert. He was also able to continue working on Kullervo, now that he was increasingly developing an interest in all things Finnish. Premiered in Helsinki on 28 April 1892, the work was an enormous success.
It was around this time that Sibelius finally abandoned his cherished aspirations as a violinist:
My tragedy was that I wanted to be a celebrated violinist at any price. Since the age of 15 I played my violin practically from morning to night. I hated pen and ink—unfortunately I preferred an elegant violin bow. My love for the violin lasted quite long and it was a very painful awakening when I had to admit that I had begun my training for the exacting career of a virtuoso too late.
In addition to the long periods he spent studying in Vienna and Berlin (1889–1891), in 1900–1901 he travelled to Italy with his family. He composed, conducted and socialized actively in the Scandinavian countries, the UK, France and Germany. In 1914 he was the composer of the year at the Norfolk Music Festival in Connecticut, USA, premiering his symphonic poem The Oceanides commissioned by the millionaire Carl Stoeckel.
Marriage and family
While Sibelius was studying music in Helsinki in the autumn of 1888, Armas Järnefelt, a friend from the Music Institute, invited him to the family home. There he met and immediately fell in love with Aino, the 17-year-old daughter of General Alexander Järnefelt, the governor of Vaasa, and Elisabeth Clodt von Jürgensburg, a Baltic aristocrat. The wedding was held on 10 June 1892 at Maxmo. They spent their honeymoon in Karelia, the home of the Kalevala. It served as an inspiration for Sibelius's tone poem En Saga, the Lemminkäinen legends and the Karelia Suite.
Their home, Ainola, was completed on Lake Tuusula, Järvenpää, in 1903. They had six daughters: Eva, Ruth, Kirsti (who died very young from typhoid), Katarina, Margareta and Heidi. Eva married an industrial heir, Arvi Paloheimo, and later became the CEO of the Paloheimo Corporation. Ruth Snellman was a prominent actress, Katarina Ilves became the wife of a banker, and Heidi Blomstedt was a designer, her husband Aulis Blomstedt being an architect. Margareta married the conductor Jussi Jalas, Aulis Blomstedt's brother.
In 1907, Sibelius underwent a serious operation for suspected throat cancer. The impact of this brush with death has been said to have inspired works that he composed in the following years, including Luonnotar and the Fourth Symphony.
Slow rise to fame
In 1892, the Kullervo became the beginning of Sibelius's focus on orchestral music. It was described by the composer Axel Törnudd as "a volcanic eruption" while Juho Ranta who sang in the choir stated, "It was Finnish music." At the end of the year, the composer's grandmother, Katarina Borg died. Sibelius went to her funeral, visiting his Hämeenlinna home one last time before the house was sold. On 16 February 1893, the first (long) version of En Saga was presented in Helsinki although it was not too well received, the critics suggesting that superfluous sections should be eliminated (as they were in Sibelius's 1902 version). Even less successful were three more performances of Kullervo in March which one critic found was incomprehensible and lacking in vitality. Following the birth of Sibelius's first child Eva, in April the premiere of his choral work Väinämöinen's Boat-ride was a considerable success, receiving the support of the press.
On 13 November 1893, the full version of Karelia was premiered at a Student Association Gala at the Seurahuone in Viipuri with the collaboration of the artist Axel Gallén and the sculptor Emil Wikström who had been brought in to design the stage sets. While the first performance was difficult to appreciate over the background noise of the talkative audience, a second performance on 18 November was more successful. Furthermore, on the 19th and 23rd, Sibelius presented an extended suite of the work in Helsinki, conducting the orchestra of the Philharmonic Society. Sibelius's music was increasingly presented in Helsinki's concert halls. In the 1894–95 season, works such as En Saga, Karelia and Vårsang (composed in 1894) were included in at least 16 concerts in the capital, not to mention those in Turku. When performed in a revised version on 17 April 1895, the composer Oskar Merikanto welcomed Vårsang (Spring Song) as "the fairest flower among Sibelius's orchestral pieces".
For a considerable period, Sibelius worked on a grand opera, Veneen luominen (The Building of the Boat), again based on the Kalevala. To some extent he had come under the influence of Wagner but he finally realized his mistake, drawing instead inspiration from Liszt's tone poems. Adapted from material for the opera which was never completed, his Lemminkäinen Suite consisted of four legends in the form of tone poems. They were premiered in Helsinki on 13 April 1896 to a full house. In contrast to Merikanto's enthusiasm for the Finnish quality of the work, the critic Karl Flodin found the cor anglais solo in The Swan of Tuonela "stupendously long and boring", although he considered the first legend, Lemminkäinen and the Maidens of the Island, represented the peak of Sibelius's achievement to date.
To pay his way, from 1892 Sibelius had taken on teaching assignments at the Music Institute and at Kajanus's conducting school but this left him insufficient time for composing. The situation improved considerably when in 1898 he was awarded a substantial annual grant, initially for ten years and later extended for life. He was able to complete the music for Adolf Paul's play King Christian II. Performed on 24 February 1898, its catchy tunes appealed to the public. The scores of four popular pieces from the play were published in Germany and sold well in Finland. When the orchestral suite was successfully performed in Helsinki in November 1898, Sibelius commented: "The music sounded excellent and the tempi seem to be right. I think this is the first time that I have managed to make something complete." The work was also performed in Stockholm and Leipzig.
In January 1899, Sibelius embarked on his First Symphony at a time when his patriotic feelings were being enhanced by the Russian emperor Nicholas II's restrictions on the powers of the Grand Duchy of Finland. The symphony was well received by all when it was premiered in Helsinki on 26 April 1899. But the programme also premiered the even more compelling, blatantly patriotic Song of the Athenians for boys' and male choirs. The song immediately brought Sibelius the status of a national hero. Another patriotic work followed on 4 November in the form of eight tableaux depicting episodes from Finnish history known as the Press Celebration Music. It had been written in support of the staff of the Päivälehti newspaper which had been suspended for a period after editorially criticizing Russian rule. The last tableau, Finland Awakens, was particularly popular; after minor revisions, it became the well-known Finlandia.
In February 1900, Sibelius and his wife were deeply saddened by the death of their youngest daughter. Nevertheless, in the spring Sibelius went on an international tour with Kajanus and his orchestra, presenting his recent works (including a revised version of his First Symphony) in thirteen cities including Stockholm, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Berlin and Paris. The critics were highly favourable, even those in Berlin. Their enthusiastic reports in the Berliner Börsen-Courier, the Berliner Fremdenblatt and the Berliner Lokal Anzeiger finally brought the composer international recognition.
During a trip with his family to Rapallo in 1901, Sibelius began to write his Second Symphony, partly inspired by the fate of Don Juan in Mozart's Don Giovanni. It was finally completed in early 1902 with its premiere in Helsinki on 8 March. The work was received with tremendous enthusiasm by the Finns. Merikanto felt it exceeded "even the boldest expectations" while Evert Katila qualified it as "an absolute masterpiece". Flodin, too, wrote of a symphonic composition "the likes of which we have never had occasion to listen to before".
Sibelius spent the summer in Tvärminne near Hanko where he worked on the song Var det en dröm (Was it a Dream) as well as on a new version of En Saga. When it was performed in Berlin with the Berlin Philharmonic in November 1902, it served to firmly establish the composer's reputation in Germany leading shortly afterwards to the publication of his First Symphony.
In 1903, Sibelius spent much of his time in Helsinki where he indulged excessively in wining and dining, running up considerable bills in the restaurants. Nevertheless, he continued to compose, one of his major successes being Valse triste, one of six pieces of incidental music he composed for his brother-in-law Arvid Järnefelt's play Kuolema (Death). Short of money, he sold the piece at a low price but it quickly gained considerable popularity not only in Finland but internationally.
Move to Ainola
During his long stays in Helsinki, Sibelius's wife Aino frequently wrote to him pleading him to return home but to no avail. Even after their fourth daughter, Katarina, was born, he continued to work away from home. Early in 1904, he finished his Violin Concerto but its first public performance on 8 February was not a success. It led to a revised condensed version which was performed in Berlin the following year. In November 1903, Sibelius began to build his new home Ainola (Aino's Place) near Lake Tuusula some 45 km (30 miles) north of Helsinki. To cover the construction costs, he gave concerts in Helsinki, Turku and Vaasa in early 1904 as well as in Tallinn, Estonia, and in Latvia during the summer. The family were finally able to move into the new property on 24 September 1904, making friends with the local artistic community, including the painters Eero Järnefelt and Pekka Halonen and the novelist Juhani Aho.
The year 1926 saw a sharp and lasting decline in Sibelius' output: after his Seventh Symphony he produced only a few major works during the rest of his life. Arguably the two most significant were incidental music for Shakespeare's The Tempest and the tone poem Tapiola. For most of the last thirty years of his life, Sibelius even avoided talking publicly about his music.
There is substantial evidence that Sibelius worked on an eighth symphony. He promised the premiere of this symphony to Serge Koussevitzky in 1931 and 1932, and a London performance in 1933 under Basil Cameron was even advertised to the public. The only concrete evidence for the symphony's existence on paper is a 1933 bill for a fair copy of the first movement and short draft fragments first published and played in 2011. Sibelius had always been quite self-critical; he remarked to his close friends, "If I cannot write a better symphony than my Seventh, then it shall be my last." Since no manuscript survives, sources consider it likely that Sibelius destroyed most traces of the score, probably in 1945, during which year he certainly consigned a great many papers to the flames. His wife Aino recalled,
In the 1940s there was a great auto da fé at Ainola. My husband collected a number of the manuscripts in a laundry basket and burned them on the open fire in the dining room. Parts of the Karelia Suite were destroyed – I later saw remains of the pages which had been torn out – and many other things. I did not have the strength to be present and left the room. I therefore do not know what he threw on to the fire. But after this my husband became calmer and gradually lighter in mood.
On 1 January 1939, Sibelius participated in an international radio broadcast which included the composer conducting his Andante Festivo. The performance was preserved on transcription discs and later issued on CD. This is probably the only surviving example of Sibelius interpreting his own music.
Final years and death
From 1903 and for many years thereafter Sibelius had lived in the countryside, but from 1939 to 1944 Jean and Aino again had a home in Helsinki. After the war he came to the city only a couple of times. The so-called "Silence of Ainola" became something of a myth, as in addition to countless official visitors and colleagues, his grandchildren and great grandchildren also spent their holidays in Ainola.
Sibelius avoided public statements about other composers, but Erik Tawaststjerna and Sibelius' secretary Santeri Levas have documented his private conversations in which he considered Bartók and Shostakovich the most talented composers of the younger generations. In the 1950s he actively promoted the young Finnish composer Einojuhani Rautavaara.
His 90th birthday, in 1955, was widely celebrated and both the Philadelphia Orchestra under Eugene Ormandy and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra under Sir Thomas Beecham gave special performances of his music in Finland. The orchestras and their conductors also met the composer at his home; a series of memorable photographs were taken to commemorate the occasions. Both Columbia Records and EMI released some of the pictures with albums of Sibelius' music. Beecham was honoured by the Finnish government for his efforts to promote Sibelius both in Britain and the United States.
Erik Tawaststjerna also relates an endearing anecdote regarding Sibelius' death:
[He] was returning from his customary morning walk. Exhilarated, he told his wife Aino that he had seen a flock of cranes approaching. "There they come, the birds of my youth," he exclaimed. Suddenly, one of the birds broke away from the formation and circled once above Ainola. It then rejoined the flock to continue its journey.
Two days later, on 20 September 1957, Sibelius died of a brain hemorrhage at age 91, in Ainola, where he is buried in the garden. Another well-known Finnish composer, Heino Kaski, died the same day. Aino lived there for the next twelve years until she died on 8 June 1969; she is buried alongside her husband.
Activity in Freemasonry
When freemasonry was revived in Finland, having been forbidden during the Russian sovereignty, Sibelius was one of the founding members of Suomi Lodge No. 1 in 1922 and later became the Grand Organist of the Grand Lodge of Finland. He composed the ritual music used in Finland (Op 113) in 1927 and added two new pieces composed in 1946. The new revision of the ritual music of 1948 is one of his last works.
Sibelius loved nature, and the Finnish landscape often served as material for his music. He once said of his Sixth Symphony, "[It] always reminds me of the scent of the first snow." The forests surrounding Ainola are often said to have inspired his composition of Tapiola. On the subject of Sibelius' ties to nature, his biographer, Erik Tawaststjerna, wrote:
Even by Nordic standards, Sibelius responded with exceptional intensity to the moods of nature and the changes in the seasons: he scanned the skies with his binoculars for the geese flying over the lake ice, listened to the screech of the cranes, and heard the cries of the curlew echo over the marshy grounds just below Ainola. He savoured the spring blossoms every bit as much as he did autumnal scents and colours.
Like many of his contemporaries, Sibelius was initially enamored by the music of Wagner. A performance of Parsifal at the Bayreuth Festival had a strong effect on him, inspiring him to write to his wife shortly thereafter, "Nothing in the world has made such an impression on me, it moves the very strings of my heart." He studied the scores of Wagner's operas Tannhäuser, Lohengrin, and Die Walküre intently. With this music in mind, he began work on an opera of his own, entitled Veneen luominen (The Building of the Boat). However, his appreciation for Wagner waned and he ultimately rejected Wagner's Leitmotif compositional technique, considering it to be too deliberate and calculated. Departing from opera, he later used the musical material from the incomplete Veneen luominen in his Lemminkäinen Suite (1893). He did, however, compose a considerable number of songs for voice and piano, whose early interpreters included Aino Ackté and above all Ida Ekman.
More lasting influences included Ferruccio Busoni, Anton Bruckner and Tchaikovsky. Hints of Tchaikovsky's music are particularly evident in works such as Sibelius' First Symphony (1899) and his Violin Concerto (1905). Similarities to Bruckner are most strongly felt in the 'unmixed' timbral palette and sombre brass chorales of Sibelius' orchestration, a fondness for pedal points, and in the underlying slow pace of the music.
Sibelius progressively stripped away formal markers of sonata form in his work and, instead of contrasting multiple themes, focused on the idea of continuously evolving cells and fragments culminating in a grand statement. His later works are remarkable for their sense of unbroken development, progressing by means of thematic permutations and derivations. The completeness and organic feel of this synthesis has prompted some to suggest that Sibelius began his works with a finished statement and worked backwards, although analyses showing these predominantly three- and four-note cells and melodic fragments as they are developed and expanded into the larger "themes" effectively prove the opposite.[page needed]
This self-contained structure stood in stark contrast to the symphonic style of Gustav Mahler, Sibelius' primary rival in symphonic composition. While thematic variation played a major role in the works of both composers, Mahler's style made use of disjunct, abruptly changing and contrasting themes, while Sibelius sought to slowly transform thematic elements. In November 1907 Mahler undertook a conducting tour of Finland, and the two composers were able to take a lengthy bath together, leading Sibelius to comment:
I said that I admired [the symphony's] severity of style and the profound logic that created an inner connection between all the motifs ... Mahler's opinion was just the reverse. 'No, a symphony must be like the world. It must embrace everything.'
However, the two rivals did find common ground in their music. Like Mahler, Sibelius made frequent use of both folk music and literature in his compositions. The Second Symphony's slow movement was sketched from the motif of Il Commendatore in Don Giovanni, while the stark Fourth Symphony combined work for a planned "Mountain" symphony with a tone poem based on Edgar Allan Poe's The Raven. Sibelius also wrote several tone poems based on Finnish poetry, beginning with the early En Saga and culminating in the Tapiola (1926), his last major composition.
Over time, he sought to use new chord patterns, including naked tritones (for example in the Fourth Symphony), and bare melodic structures to build long movements of music, in a manner similar to Joseph Haydn's use of built-in dissonances. Sibelius would often alternate melodic sections with noble brass chords that would swell and fade away, or he would underpin his music with repeating figures which push against the melody and counter-melody.
Sibelius' melodies often feature powerful modal implications: for example much of the Sixth Symphony is in the (modern) Dorian mode. He studied Renaissance polyphony – as did his contemporary, the Danish composer Carl Nielsen – and his music often reflects this early trend. He often varied the movements in a piece by changing the note values of melodies, rather than the conventional change of tempi. He would often draw out one melody over a number of notes, while playing a different melody in shorter rhythm. For example, his Seventh Symphony comprises four originally sketched movements fused into telescopical and partly parallel functions without pause, where every important theme is in C major or C minor; the variation comes from the time and rhythm. His harmonic language was often restrained, even iconoclastic, compared to that of many contemporaries who were already experimenting with musical Modernism. As reported by Neville Cardus in the Manchester Guardian in 1958:
Sibelius exerted considerable influence on symphonic composers and musical life, at least in English-speaking and Nordic countries. The Finnish symphonist Leevi Madetoja was a pupil of Sibelius. In Britain, Vaughan Williams and Arnold Bax both dedicated their fifth symphonies to Sibelius. Furthermore, Tapiola is prominently echoed in both Bax's Sixth Symphony and Moeran's Symphony in G Minor. The influence of Sibelius' compositional procedures is also strongly felt in the First Symphony of William Walton. When these and several other major British symphonic essays were being written in and around the 1930s, Sibelius' music was very much in vogue, with conductors like Beecham and Barbirolli championing its cause both in the concert hall and on record. Walton's composer friend Constant Lambert even claimed that Sibelius was "the first great composer since Beethoven whose mind thinks naturally in terms of symphonic form". Earlier, Granville Bantock had championed Sibelius (the esteem was mutual: Sibelius dedicated his Third Symphony to the English composer, and in 1946 he became the first President of the Bantock Society). More recently, Sibelius was also one of the composers championed by Robert Simpson. Malcolm Arnold acknowledged his influence, and Arthur Butterworth also saw Sibelius' music as a source of inspiration in his work.
Eugene Ormandy and to a lesser extent, his predecessor Leopold Stokowski, were instrumental in bringing Sibelius' music to American audiences by frequently programming his works; the former developed a friendly relationship with Sibelius throughout his life. Later in life he was championed by critic Olin Downes, who wrote a biography of the composer.
In 1938 Theodor Adorno wrote a critical essay, notoriously charging that "If Sibelius is good, this invalidates the standards of musical quality that have persisted from Bach to Schoenberg: the richness of inter-connectedness, articulation, unity in diversity, the 'multi-faceted' in 'the one'." Adorno sent his essay to Virgil Thomson, then music critic of the New York Herald Tribune, who was also critical of Sibelius; Thomson, while agreeing with the essay's sentiment, declared to Adorno that "the tone of it [was] more apt to create antagonism toward [Adorno] than toward Sibelius". Later, the composer, theorist and conductor René Leibowitz went so far as to describe Sibelius as "the worst composer in the world" in the title of a 1955 pamphlet.
Perhaps one reason Sibelius has attracted both the praise and the ire of critics is that in each of his seven symphonies he approached the basic problems of form, tonality, and architecture in unique, individual ways. On the one hand, his symphonic (and tonal) creativity was novel, while others thought that music should be taking a different route. Sibelius' response to criticism was dismissive: "Pay no attention to what critics say. No statue has ever been put up to a critic."
In the latter decades of the twentieth century, Sibelius began to be re-assessed more favourably: Milan Kundera dubbed the composer's approach to be that of "antimodern modernism", standing outside the perpetual progression of the status quo. In 1990, the composer Thea Musgrave was commissioned by the Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra to write a piece in honour of the 125th anniversary of Sibelius' birth: Song of the Enchanter was premiered on 14 February 1991. In 1984, American avant-garde composer Morton Feldman gave a lecture in Darmstadt, Germany, wherein he stated that "the people you think are radicals might really be conservatives – the people you think are conservatives might really be radical," whereupon he began to hum Sibelius' Fifth Symphony.
Sibelius has fallen in and out of fashion but remains one of the most popular twentieth century symphonists, both in the concert hall and on record. Sibelius had spent much time producing profitable chamber music for home use, salon music, occasional works for the stage and other incidental music, all of which has now been systematically recorded on BIS Records' complete Sibelius Edition. This major editorial project to record every note of Sibelius also encompasses surviving sketches and early versions of his major works.
With 8 December 2015 being the 150th anniversary of Sibelius' birth, the Helsinki Music Centre has planned an illustrated and narrated "Sibelius Finland Experience Show" every day during the summer of 2015. The production is also planned to extend over 2016 and 2017.
These are ordered chronologically; the date is the date of composition rather than publication or first performance.
- Kullervo, Symphonic Poem for soprano, baritone, chorus and orchestra, Op. 7 (1892)
- En Saga, Tone Poem for orchestra, Op. 9 (1892/1902)
- Karelia Overture for orchestra, Op. 10 (1893)
- Karelia Suite for orchestra, Op. 11 (1893)
- Rakastava (The Lover) for male voices and strings or strings and percussion, Op. 14 (1893/1911)
- Lemminkäinen Suite (Four Legends from the Kalevala) for orchestra, Op. 22 (1893) – these legends, which include The Swan of Tuonela, are often performed separately
- Skogsrået (The Wood Nymph), Tone Poem for orchestra, Op. 15 (1894)
- Vårsång (The Spring Song) for orchestra, Op. 16 (1894)
- Kung Kristian II (King Christian II), Suite from the incidental music for orchestra, Op. 27 (1898)
- Sandels, Improvisation for chorus and orchestra, Op. 28 (1898)
- Finlandia for orchestra and optional chorus, Op. 26 (1899)
- Snöfrid (The Beloved Beauty) for reciter, chorus and orchestra, Op. 29 (1899)
- Tulen Synty (The Origin of Fire), Op. 32 (1902)
- Symphony No. 1 in E minor for orchestra, Op. 39 (1899/1900)
- Symphony No. 2 in D major for orchestra, Op. 43 (1902)
- Violin Concerto in D minor, Op. 47 (1903/1905)
- Kuolema (The Death) (Valse triste and Scene with Cranes) for orchestra, Op. 44 (1904/06)
- Dance Intermezzo for orchestra, Op. 45/2 (1904/07)
- Pelléas et Mélisande, Incidental music/Suite for orchestra, Op. 46 (1905)
- Pohjolan tytär (Pohjola's Daughter), Tone Poem for orchestra, Op. 49 (1906)
- Symphony No. 3 in C major for orchestra, Op. 52 (1907)
- Svanevit (Swan-white), Suite from the incidental music for orchestra, Op. 54 (1908)
- Nightride and Sunrise, Tone Poem for orchestra, Op. 55 (1909)
- Dryadi (The Dryad) for orchestra, Op. 45/1 (1910)
- Two Pieces from Kuolema for orchestra, Op. 62 (1911)
- Symphony No. 4 in A minor for orchestra, Op. 63 (1911)
- Scènes Historiques, Suite No. 2, Op. 66 (1912)
- Two Serenades for violin and orchestra, Op. 69 (1912)
- Barden (The Bard), Tone Poem for orchestra and harp, Op. 64 (1913/14)
- Luonnotar (Spirit of Nature, Mother Earth), Tone Poem for soprano and orchestra, Op. 70 (1913)
- Aallottaret (The Oceanides), Tone Poem for orchestra, Op. 73 (1914)
- Impromptu, Op. 78 (1915)
- Symphony No. 5 in E-flat major for orchestra, Op. 82 (1915, revised 1916 and 1919)
- Oma Maa (My Own Land) for chorus and orchestra, Op. 92 (1918)
- Jordens sång (Song of the Earth) for chorus and orchestra, Op. 93 (1919)
- Valse Lyrique, Op. 96 (1920)
- Symphony No. 6 in D minor for orchestra, Op. 104 (1923)
- Symphony No. 7 in C major for orchestra, Op. 105 (1924)
- The Tempest, Incidental music for soloists, chorus and orchestra, Op. 109 (1925)
- Väinön virsi (Väinö's Hymn) for chorus and orchestra, Op. 110 (1926)
- Tapiola, Tone Poem for orchestra, Op. 112 (1926)
- Andante Festivo (for string quartet 1922; string orchestra and timpani 1938)
- Suite for violin and strings, Op 117
- Viisi joululaulua, (Five Christmas Songs) Op. 1, solo songs (1897–1913)
- Seven Songs, Op. 17, with lyrics by J. L. Runeberg, K. A. Tavaststjerna, Oscar Levertin, A.V. Forsman (Koskimies, Finnish surname), and Ilmari Calamnius (Kianto, Finnish surname). Composed between 1891 and 1904.
- Incidental music to Hjalmar Procopé's play Belshazzar's Feast, Op. 51 (1906)
- Voces intimae, Op. 56, string quartet (1909)
- Jäger March (Jääkärimarssi), for male chorus and symphony orchestra, Op. 91a (1915)
In 1972, Sibelius' surviving daughters sold Ainola to the State of Finland. The Ministry of Education and the Sibelius Society of Finland opened it as a museum in 1974. The Finnish 100 mark bill featured his image until 2002 when the euro was adopted. Since 2011, Finland has celebrated a Flag Day on 8 December, the composer's birthday, also known as the 'Day of Finnish Music'. The year 2015, the 150th anniversary of the composer's birth, will feature a number of special concerts and events, especially in the city of Helsinki.
- "Sibelius". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- Tawaststjerna (1997, p. 15): only in the 1990s was it discovered that Sibelius' original first names (at christening) were Johan Christian Julius; he himself used the order Johan Julius Christian, and that is present in most sources.
- "Brother Sibelius". The Music of Freemasonry. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- "100 markkaa 1986". Setelit.com. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- "Ministry of Interior-Days the Finnish flag is flown".
- "Join the Sibelius 150 Celebration in 2015". Visit Helsinki. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- Ringbom 1950, p. 8.
- Goss 2009, p. 19.
- Goss 2009, p. 53.
- Lagrange 1994, p. 905.
- Murtmäki 2000.
- Barnett 2007, p. 4.
- "Sibelius" (in Swedish). Nordisk Familjebok. 1926. p. 281. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Ringbom 1950, pp. 10–13.
- "Music becomes a serious pursuit 1881-1885". Jean Sibelius. Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "Childhood 1865-1881". Jean Sibelius. Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- Barnett 2007, p. 6.
- Grimley 2004, p. 67.
- "Studies in Helsinki 1885-1888". Jean Sibelius. Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Ringbom 1950, p. 14.
- Ekman 1972, p. 11.
- Goss 2009, p. 75.
- Lagrange 1994, p. 985.
- Tawaststjerna 1976, p. 62.
- "Kalevala taiteessa – Musiikissa: Ensimmäiset Kalevala-aiheiset sävellykset" (in Finnish). Kalevalan Kultuuruhistoria. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "Studies in Vienna 1890-1891". Jean Sibelius. Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- "Kullervo and the wedding 1891-1892". Jean Sibelius. Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Kaufman 1938, p. 218.
- Goss 2011, p. 162.
- "Classical Destinations: An Armchair Guide to Classical Music". Amadeus Press. 2006. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-57467-158-2.
- Lew 2010, p. 134.
- "The occupants of Ainola". Jean Sibelius. Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "All Music Guide to Classical Music: The Definitive Guide to Classical Music". Backbeat Books. 2005. pp. 1279–1282. ISBN 978-0-87930-865-0.
- Barnett 2007, p. 74.
- "The Symposion years 1892-1897". Jean Sibelius. Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Barnett 2007, p. 85.
- Tawaststjerna 1976, p. 162.
- "Sibelius: Spring Song (original 1894)". ClassicLive. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- Grimley 2004, p. 101.
- Tawaststjerna 1976, p. 166.
- Lagrange 1994, p. 988.
- "Towards an international breakthrough 1897-1899". Jean Sibelius. Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Works for choir and orchestra". Jean Sibelius. Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Jean Sibelius Press celebration music (Sanomalehdistön päivien musikki), incidental music for orchestra". AllMusic. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Incidental music". Jean Sibelius. Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "A child's death, and international breakthrough, 1900-1902". Jean Sibelius. Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- Ringbom 1950, p. 71.
- "The Waltz of Death and the move to Ainola 1903-1904". Jean Sibelius, Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- Botstein 2011.
- Kilpeläinen 1995.
- Sirén 2011a.
- Sirén 2011b.
- Stearns 2012.
- "The war and the destruction of the eighth symphony 1939–1945". Jean Sibelius. Finnish Club of Helsinki.
- Ross 2009.
- "INKPOT CLASSICAL MUSIC REVIEWS: SIBELIUS Karelia Suite. Luonnotar. Andante Festivo. The Oceanides. King Christian II Suite. Finlandia. Gothenburg SO/Järvi (DG)". Inkpot.com. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- Music for Freemasonry
- Tawaststjerna 1976, p. 21.
- Tawaststjerna 1976, p. 209.
- Pike 1978.
- Burnett-James 1989, p. 41.
- Burnett-James 1989, p. 94.
- Freed 1995.
- Lambert 1934, p. 318.
- Walker 2008.
- Glenda Dawn Goss. Jean Sibelius and Olin Downes: Music, friendship, criticism.
- Adorno 1938.
- Leibowitz 1955.
- Song of the Enchanter, Thea Musgrave.
- Adorno, Theodor (1938). "Törne, B. de, Sibelius; A Close Up". Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung 7: 460–463. Later reprinted as "Glosse über Sibelius". Cited and translated in Jackson, Timothy L. (2001). "Preface". In Jackson, Timothy L.; Murtomäki, Veijo. Sibelius Studies. Cambridge University Press. p. xviii. ISBN 978-0-521-62416-9.
- Barnett, Andrew (2007). Sibelius. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11159-0.
- Botstein, Leon (14 August 2011). "The Transformative Paradoxes of Jean Sibelius". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Burnett-James, David (1989). Sibelius. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-1683-8.
- Ekman, Karl (1972). Jean Sibelius, his Life and Personality. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-8371-6027-6.
- Freed, William (1995). "William Walton, Symphony No. 1 in B-flat minor [1968 version]". The Kennedy Center for Performing Arts. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- Goss, Glenda Dawn (2009). Sibelius: A Composer's Life and the Awakening of Finland. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-30479-3.
- Goss, Glenda Dawn (2011). "Jean Sibelius and His American Connections". In Grimley, Daniel M. Jean Sibelius and His World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-15280-6.
- Grimley, Daniel M. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Sibelius. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-89460-9.
- Kaufman, Schima (1938). Everybody's music. Columbia Broadcasting System: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.
- Kilpeläinen, Kari (1995). "Sibelius Eight. What happened to it?". Finnish Music Quarterly (4). Archived from the original on 8 October 2007.
- Lagrange, Christophe (1994). Au coeur du classique: Les Grands compositeurs et leur musique (in French) 5. Little Big Man. ISBN 978-2-7365-0029-0.
- Lambert, Constant (1934). Music Ho!. New York: Charles Scribner – via Project Gutenberg Canada.
- Leibowitz, René (1955). Sibelius, le plus mauvais compositeur du monde. Liège, Belgium: Éditions Dynamo. OCLC 28594116.
- Lew, Douglas (2010). Great Composers in Watercolor. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4269-3437-7.
- Murtmäki, Veijo (2000). "Sibelius, Jean (1865 - 1957)". In Marjomaa, Ulpu. 100 Faces from Finland: A Biographical Kaleidoscope. Translated by Roderick Fletcher. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura [The Finnish Literature Society]. ISBN 951-746-215-8. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015.
- Pike, Lionel (1978). Beethoven, Sibelius and 'the Profound Logic': Studies in Symphonic Analysis. Athlone Press. ISBN 978-0-485-11178-1.
- Ringbom, Nils-Eric (1950). Sibelius (in Danish). translated from the Swedish by Johan Koch. Nyt Nordisk Forlag Arnold Busck.
- Ross, Alex (2009) [First published 2007]. "5". The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century (3rd ed.). Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-1-84115-476-3.
- Sirén, Vesa (October 2011a). "Is this the sound of Sibelius' lost Eighth Symphony?". Helsingin Sanomat.
- Sirén, Vesa (30 October 2011b). "Soiko HS.fi:n videolla Sibeliuksen kadonnut sinfonia?". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Stearns, David Patrick (3 January 2012). "One last Sibelius symphony after all?". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Tawaststjerna, Erik W. (1976). Sibelius: 1865–1905. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03014-5.
- Tawaststjerna, Erik W. (1997). Tawaststjerna, Erik T., ed. Sibelius (in Finnish). Helsinki: Otava. ISBN 951-1-14231-3.
- Walker, Lynne (2008). "King Arthur". MusicWeb International. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- de Gorog, Lisa (with the collaboration of Ralph de Gorog) "From Sibelius to Sallinen: Finnish Nationalism and the Music of Finland". New York, Greenwood Press, 1989.
- Goss, Glenda Jean Sibelius: Guide to Research. New York: Garland Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-8153-1171-3
- Johnson, Harold E. (1960). Jean Sibelius. Otava.
- Layton, Robert. Sibelius. New York: Schirmer Books, 1993. Master Musicians Series. ISBN 978-0-02-871322-9.
- Levas, Santeri. Sibelius: a personal portrait. London, Dent, 1972. ISBN 978-0-460-03978-9.
- Morgan, Robert P. (1991) [First published 1990]. "Other European Currents". The Norton Introduction to Music History: Twentieth-Century Music (1st ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 121–123. ISBN 978-0-393-95272-8.
- Mäkelä, Tomi (2011). Jean Sibelius. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84383-688-9.
- Rickards, Guy. Jean Sibelius. London and New York, Phaidon Press, 1997. ISBN 978-0-7148-4776-4.
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- Jean Sibelius – the website (English)
- The Sibelius Society of Finland
- Films on Jean Sibelius by director Christopher Nupen
- Jean Sibelius Museum
- Finlandia by Jean Sibelius, thisisFINLAND
- Sibelius material in the BBC Radio 3 archives
- Jean Sibelius link collection
- Free scores by Jean Sibelius at the International Music Score Library Project
- Works by or about Jean Sibelius in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Jean Sibelius discography at MusicBrainz
- List of compositions at AllMusic
- Jean Sibelius at Find a Grave