Jebli Arabic

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Jebli
Jebelia
Native toMorocco
EthnicityJbalas, Ghomaras, Sanhajas de Srayr
Language codes
ISO 639-3(included in ary)
Glottologjebl1238[1]
Nord du Maroc, carte ethno-linguistique.PNG
Ethnolinguistic map of northern Morocco: purple represents Jebli-speaking areas, blue represents other pre-Hilalian Arabic-speaking areas (old Urban, Zerhoun and Sefrou area)

Jebli (Jebelia) is a possibly pre-Hilalian Arabic dialect spoken in the mountains of the north of Morocco.

The historical development of this Moroccan dialect is unclear.

The word jebli means "of/from the mountain". It is mainly spoken in the western and southern Rif by tribes of Sherifian, Berber and Morisco descent over the past ten centuries.

  • Jbalas: all the forty-four tribes speak Jebli Arabic ;
  • Ghomaras: out of nine tribes, seven are fully Jebli-speaking, the two remaining are partially Jebli-speaking with a significant Ghomara Berber-speaking community ;
  • Sanhajas de Srayr: one Jebli-speaking tribe –Ketama– out of ten tribes, the remaining (nine) speak Sanhaja Berber ;
  • Riffians: out of twenty tribes, six are fully or partially Arabophone; among them, five speak Mountain Arabic −Targuist, Aït Itteftf, Aït Boufrah, Mestasa and Metioua− while the last one –Settout– speak Hilalian Arabic ;
  • Ghiatas, Maghraouas and Meknassas: the three tribes –that aren't part of any larger confederacy– are fully Jebli-speaking ;
  • Tribes of Zerhoun (Zerahnas) and the neighborhood of Sefrou (Kechtala, Behalil and Yazgha): although not belonging to the same ethno-linguistic group than Jebalas, their pre-Hilalian dialects are sometimes classified as belonging to the same macro-family (westernmost pre-Hilalian village dialects) than Jebli.

Jebli is heavily influenced by Berber; the grammar of Jebli is almost Berber while most the words are Arabic. The vocabulary is highly influenced by Spanish.

Examples of Jebli[edit]

Jebli English translation Source language/etymology
trawzez blue jeans trowsers (English)
assallas darkness asellas "darkness" (Berber)
karretēra car road carretera "paved road/highway" (Spanish)
ntina you (Classical Arabic)
âyyəl, ṭfel boy عائلة "family" (Classical Arabic); cf. Egyptian Arabic: ˤayyel "child"
sṭiṭu little (Berber)
ħami warm حام "feverish" (Classical Arabic); cf. Iraqi Arabic: ħɑ̄mi "warm"
qayla sun قائلة "resting" (spec. at noon time); due to the time of rest when the sun was at its highest point at noon (Classical Arabic)
jjro dog jaru "puppy" (Classical Arabic)
yəmma mom (Berber)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Jebli". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.