Jedburgh

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Jedburgh
Jedburgh Castle 01.jpg
"Strenue et Prospere", Earnestly and Successfully
Jedburgh is located in Scottish Borders
Jedburgh
Jedburgh
Location within the Scottish Borders
Population3,910 (mid-2016 est.)[1]
OS grid referenceNT6520
• Edinburgh41 mi (66 km)
• London293 mi (472 km)
Council area
Lieutenancy area
CountryScotland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townJEDBURGH
Postcode districtTD8
Dialling code01835
PoliceScotland
FireScottish
AmbulanceScottish
UK Parliament
Scottish Parliament
Websitehttp://www.jedburgh.org.uk/
List of places
UK
Scotland
55°28′37″N 2°32′46″W / 55.477°N 2.546°W / 55.477; -2.546Coordinates: 55°28′37″N 2°32′46″W / 55.477°N 2.546°W / 55.477; -2.546

Jedburgh (/ˈɛdbərə/; Scottish Gaelic: Deadard; Scots: Jeddart or Jethart)[2] is a town and former royal burgh in the Scottish Borders and the traditional county town of the historic county of Roxburghshire,[3] the name of which was randomly chosen for Operation Jedburgh in support of the D-Day invasion.

Location[edit]

Jedburgh lies on the Jed Water, a tributary of the River Teviot. It is 10 miles (16 km) from the border with England, and is dominated by the substantial ruins of Jedburgh Abbey. Other notable buildings in the town include Queen Mary's House, Jedburgh Castle Jail, now a museum, and the Jedburgh Library. Other places nearby are Ancrum, Bairnkine, Bonjedward, Camptown, Crailing, Edgerston, Ferniehirst Castle, Nisbet and Oxnam.

Mercat Cross from Castlegate

History[edit]

Jedburgh began as Jedworð, the "worth" or enclosed settlement on the Jed. Later the more familiar word "burgh" was substituted for this, though the original name survives as Jeddart/Jethart.[4]

Bishop Ecgred of Lindisfarne founded a church at Jedburgh in the 9th century, and King David I of Scotland made it a priory between 1118 and 1138, housing Augustinian monks from Beauvais in France. The abbey was founded in 1147, but border wars with England in the 16th century left it a ruin.[5]

The deeply religious Scottish king Malcolm IV died at Jedburgh in 1165, aged 24. His death is thought to have been caused by Paget's disease of bone.[6]

David I built a castle at Jedburgh, and in 1174 it was one of five fortresses ceded to England. It was an occasional royal residence for the Scots. It was demolished in 1409.[7]

Panorama of Jedburgh Castle

In 1258, Jedburgh was a focus of royal attention, with negotiations between Scotland's Alexander III and England's Henry III over the succession to the Scottish throne, leaving the Comyn faction dominant. Alexander III was married to Yolande in the abbey in 1285.[8]

Its proximity to England made it subject to raids and skirmishes by both Scottish and English forces but its strategic position also brought the town valuable trade. At various times and at various locations the town supported a horse market, a cattle market, a corn market and a butcher market. Farm workers and servants also attended hiring fairs seeking employment.[9]

Mary, Queen of Scots, stayed at a certain house in the town in 1566 and that house is now a museum – Mary Queen of Scots House.[10]

The title "Lord of Jedburgh Forest" was granted to George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus on his marriage to the Princess Mary, daughter of Robert III in 1397.[citation needed] It is a subsidiary title of the present Earl of Angus, the Duke of Hamilton.[citation needed] The Duke of Douglas was raised to the position of Viscount Jedburgh Forest, but he died without an heir in 1761.[citation needed]

In 1745, the Jacobite army led by Prince Charles Edward Stuart passed through the town on its way to England, and the Prince also stayed there.[citation needed] The Castle Prison opened in 1823.[7]

In 1787, the geologist James Hutton noted what is now known as the Hutton Unconformity[11] at Inchbonny, near Jedburgh.[12][13] Layers of sedimentary rock which are tilted almost vertically are covered by newer horizontal layers of red sandstone.[14] This was one of the findings that led him to develop his concept of an immensely long geologic time scale with "no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end."[11]

The Scots name for the town is part of the expression "Jeddart justice" or "Jethart Justice", in which a man was hanged first, and tried afterwards.[15]

Notable people[edit]

Plaque on the entrance to Allerley Well Park gifted by John Tinline

Several notable people were born in the town, including Reverend Doctor Thomas Somerville's niece, Mary Somerville in 1780[16] (the eminent scientist and writer, after whom Somerville College, Oxford is named, and who appeared on the Royal Bank of Scotland £10 note from 2017).

James Thomson (1700–1748) who wrote "Rule Britannia", was born in Ednam, a village only twelve miles away, but he was educated in Jedburgh.[citation needed] David Brewster, physicist, mathematician, scientist, writer and inventor of the kaleidoscope, was born in Jedburgh in 1781.[citation needed] The popular preacher Rev. Robert Aitken (1800–1873) was born in Crailing near Jedburgh.[citation needed] General Sir Bindon Blood was born nearby in 1842.[citation needed] Alexander Jeffrey (F.S.A. Scot.) was a solicitor in the town and was also the county historian. He died in Jedburgh in 1874.[citation needed] The author and broadcaster Lavinia Derwent was born in a farmhouse a few miles outside Jedburgh in 1909.[citation needed] The Tinline brothers emigrated from Jedburgh in the late 1830s. George Tinline made a career in banking in Australia.[17] John Tinline went to New Zealand and made his wealth in farming. John returned to Jedburgh later in life and gifted Allerley Well Park to his hometown.[18]

The town's best known rugby sons are the scrum-halves, Roy Laidlaw and Gary Armstrong.[citation needed] Former Scotland rugby team captain Greig Laidlaw also hails from Jedburgh.[citation needed]

Douglas Young fought at Heavyweight at the 1984 Summer Olympics.[19]

Emmy Award-winning journalist Nick Watt is from Jedburgh and hosted a short film about the town for the Travel Channel.[20]

The town today[edit]

The Canongate in 2018.
The laddies Ba game in Jedburgh in 2020: >>> On the left they reach for the ball and the uppies then take it to the right

The abbey is maintained by Historic Environment Scotland and open to the public (there is an entry fee). Finds from excavations are displayed on site in the visitor centre attached to the Abbey ruins. The Abbey, though much damaged over the years is still one of the finest late Norman buildings remaining in Scotland.[citation needed] Now roofless, part of the church was used as the parish church into the 19th century.[citation needed] Jedburgh Castle Jail, built in the early 19th century on the site of the medieval castle, is also open to the public. Borders traditions like the annual Callant's Festival, and Jedburgh Royal British Legion (Scotland) Pipe Band and Jedforest Instrumental Band add local colour.[citation needed] Local delicacies include Jethart Snails (boiled sweets in the shape of a snail, said to originate from a recipe given to a local baker by a French prisoner, during the Napoleonic Wars)[21][22] and Jethart pears. The fertile soil of Jedburgh makes it ideal for growing pear trees, and the pear trade was a thriving industry in Jedburgh for centuries; although most of the pear orchards have now gone, some of the pear trees still remain.

An annual event is the Jethart Hand Ba game. The Canongate Brig dates from the 16th century. The nearby Capon Oak Tree is recognised to be of national interest[23] and the 19th century Jedburgh Castle Jail[24] and the town spire are among the town's notable buildings.The town's industries included textiles, tanning and glove-making, grain mills, and electrical engineering.[citation needed] Schooling currently takes place at Jedburgh Grammar School, Howdenburn and Parkside primaries; a new school combining primary and secondary schools, Jedburgh Intergenerational Community Campus is due to open in spring 2020.[citation needed]

Transport[edit]

Although Jedburgh no longer has any rail access it is well located on the road network. The A68 provides direct access to Edinburgh (48 miles (77 km)) and Newcastle-upon-Tyne (58 miles (93 km)). Carlisle is 57 miles (92 km) away and Hawick, Kelso, Selkirk and Galashiels are all within 20 miles (30 km).

Jedburgh is known to motorists from the Edinburgh and Newcastle-upon-Tyne areas as Jedburgh is signposted as a primary destination on the A68.

Bus services to Jedburgh are provided by Borders Buses.[25] Until July 2013 they were mostly run by local operator Munro's of Jedburgh.[26]

Sport[edit]

The town is home to a Rugby Club, Jed-Forest which was founded in 1885[27] Under-18 "Semi Junior" rugby is played by Jed Thistle at Lothian Park.[citation needed] Also football is represented by Jed Legion FC which currently plays in 'A' League of the Border Amateur League.[28] They play their home matches at Woodend. Ancrum AFC play in the village of Ancrum just to the north at Bridgend Park and include many players from Jedburgh and are in the Border Amateur 'C' League.[citation needed] A Bowling Club is located at Allars Mill.[citation needed] Cricket was once also played at Woodend but the club disbanded in the late 80s.[citation needed]

Jedburgh has a golf club dating from 1892, the course has 18 holes.[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mid-2016 Population Estimates for Settlements and Localities in Scotland". National Records of Scotland. 12 March 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  2. ^ "Scots Language Centre: Scottish Place Names in Scots". Scotslanguage.com. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  3. ^ Groome's Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland, 2nd edition, published 1896. Article on Jedburgh
  4. ^ Williamson, May (1942). "The Non-Celtic Place-Names of the Scottish Border Counties" (PDF). Edinburgh University. pp. 16–17.
  5. ^  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Jedburgh". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 299–300, see page 299. ...David, prince of Cumbria, here founded a priory for Augustinian monks..... and in 1147, [he] erected it into an abbey...Repeatedly damaged in Border warfare, it was ruined in 1544–45...
  6. ^ Scott, W. W. (23 September 2004). "Malcolm IV (1141–1165), king of Scots". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/17860. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  7. ^ a b Historic Environment Scotland. "CASTLEGATE, JEDBURGH CASTLE OLD JAIL WITH EXERCISE YARD WALLS, FORTIFICATIONS, PORTCULLIS GATES, ENTRANCE GATES AND OUTER EMBANKMENT WALL (Category A Listed Building) (LB35482)". Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  8. ^ Connolly, Sharon Bennett (15 September 2017). Heroines of the Medieval World. Amberley Publishing. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-1-4456-6265-7.
  9. ^ Olsen, Judy (2003). Old Jedburgh. Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing. p. 3. ISBN 9781840332360.
  10. ^ "Mary Queen of Scots House". Jedburgh.org.uk. 2012–2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  11. ^ a b "James Hutton: The Founder of Modern Geology". Earth: Inside and Out. American Museum of Natural History. 2000. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
  12. ^ Graphic Design Section (1999). "Border Brains Walks Berwickshire". Scottish Borders Council. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  13. ^ Montgomery, Keith (2003). "Siccar Point and Teaching the History of Geology" (PDF). University of Wisconsin. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
  14. ^ "Visitor Attractions. Hutton's Unconformity". Jedburgh online. Archived from the original on 2 February 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012. Whilst visiting Allar's Mill on the Jed Water, Hutton was delighted to see horizontal bands of red sandstone lying 'unconformably' on top of near vertical and folded bands of rock.
  15. ^ Trimble, Kim. "The Reivers". www.turnbullclan.com. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  16. ^ Somerville, Mary Fairfax Greig. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 11 & 12. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1981. pp. 521–522.
  17. ^ Hirst, Christine (1976). "Tinline, George (1815–1895)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. 6. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2 April 2020 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  18. ^ Scholefield, Guy, ed. (1940). A Dictionary of New Zealand Biography : M–Addenda (PDF). II. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs. p. 386. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  19. ^ "Boxing at the 1984 Los Angeles Summer Games: Men's Heavyweight". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  20. ^ "Nick Watt's Hometown". Travel Channel. 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  21. ^ Herdman, John (22 November 1992). The County of Roxburgh. Scottish Academic Press. ISBN 9780707307206 – via Google Books.
  22. ^ Davidson, Alan (22 January 2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199677337 – via Google Books.
  23. ^ "Tree - Ancient Tree Inventory". ati.woodlandtrust.org.uk. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  24. ^ Wood, John R. I.; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Pablo; Williams, Bethany R. M.; Scotland, Robert W. (16 March 2020). "Figure 20 from: Wood JR.I, Muñoz-Rodríguez P, Williams BR.M, Scotland RW (2020) A foundation monograph of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the New World. PhytoKeys 143: 1-823". dx.doi.org. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  25. ^ "Borders Buses Timetables". Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  26. ^ "Munro's of Jedburgh – Home Page". Munrosofjedburgh.co.uk. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  27. ^ "Application for financial assistance" (PDF). Scottish borders council. 23 January 2017.
  28. ^ "Border Amateur Football League ::Border Amateur Football League". Bafl.leaguerepublic.com. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  29. ^ "My Homepage". Jedburgh Golf Club.

External links[edit]