Jeff Davis County, Texas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Jeff Davis County
County
Jeff Davis County
Jeff Davis County Courthouse in Fort Davis
Jeff Davis County Courthouse in Fort Davis
Map of Texas highlighting Jeff Davis County
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 30°43′N 104°08′W / 30.72°N 104.13°W / 30.72; -104.13
Country United States
State Texas
Founded1887
Named forJefferson Davis
SeatFort Davis
Largest townFort Davis
Area
 • Total2,265 sq mi (5,870 km2)
 • Land2,265 sq mi (5,870 km2)
 • Water0.08 sq mi (0.2 km2)  0%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total1,996
 • Density0.88/sq mi (0.34/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district23rd
Websitewww.co.jeff-davis.tx.us

Jeff Davis County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2020 census, its population was 1,996.[1] Its county seat is Fort Davis.[2] The county is named for Jefferson Davis. Jefferson Davis served as the 23rd United States Secretary of War in the 1850s, and as President of the Confederate States of America.[3]

Jeff Davis County is recognizable for its unique shape; it is a pentagon that has no north–south nor east–west boundaries, save for a six-mile line serving as its southern boundary. It is the only county in the United States that touches a foreign country (Mexico) at a single point. Jeff Davis is one of the nine counties that compose the Trans-Pecos region of West Texas.

The county contains the 270,000-acre (1,100 km2) Texas Davis Mountains American Viticultural Area. About 50 acres (0.2 km2) are "under vine". The McDonald Observatory, owned by the University of Texas at Austin, is located near Fort Davis.

History[edit]

Native Americans[edit]

Prehistoric peoples camped at Phantom Lake Spring, in present-day northeastern Jeff Davis County, and may have used the springs for irrigation.[4] Indian pictographs in the Painted Comanche Camp of Limpia Canyon were discovered by the Whiting and Smith Expedition of 1849.[5]

As white migrants moved into the area, tensions with Native Americans increased. The groups competed for resources, and armed conflicts were conducted for more than two decades, especially after the Civil War. In August 1861, Mescalero Apache under Chief Nicolas attacked Fort Davis, driving off livestock and killing three people. In the ensuing chase by the cavalry, Nicolas ambushed the soldiers, killing them all.[6]

In September 1868 at Horsehead Hills, a group of volunteer Mexican and buffalo soldiers from Fort Davis attacked and destroyed a Mescalero village to recover captives and stolen livestock. In January 1870, a group of soldiers attacked a Mescalero Apache village near Delaware Creek in the Guadalupe Mountains. In July 1880, soldiers at Tinaja de las Palmas attacked a group of Mescaleros led by Chief Victorio. In August 1880, buffalo soldiers ambushed Victorio at Rattlesnake Springs. Victorio retreated to Mexico, where he was killed in October of that year by Mexican soldiers. The last Indian depredation in the area was at Barry Scobee Mountain in 1881.[7]

Early days[edit]

In March 1849, Lieutenants William H. C. Whiting and William F. Smith were sent out by Maj. Gen. William J. Worth of the Texas 8th Military Department to look for a route from San Antonio to El Paso del Norte. A second party, led by Dr. John S. Ford and financed by a group of Austin merchants, pioneered a trail that ran north of the Davis Mountains before turning southward toward El Paso. In June 1849 Lt. Col. Joseph E. Johnston, attached to Bvt. Maj. Jefferson Van Horne's battalion, was sent for additional surveying.

At El Paso, Horne established Fort Bliss. Texas Ranger Big Foot Wallace escorted the San Antonio-El Paso Mail coach through the mountains.[8] Fort Davis was established in 1854. The land was leased from surveyor John James at $300 a year. The federal government surrendered the fort to the Confederacy in 1861. The CSA abandoned it in 1862 after their defeat at Glorieta Pass, New Mexico. The facility was reoccupied by U.S. troops on July 1, 1867, as a base for actions against Native American forces.[9][10]

County establishment and growth[edit]

The Texas Legislature established Jeff Davis County on March 15, 1887. Fort Davis was named as the county seat.[10] Cattle ranchers began operating in the county in the 1880s. The towns of Valentine[11] and Chispa[12] became supply centers for the ranchers and were later designated as railroad stops as railway construction entered the area.

Fort Davis has always been the county's largest town. By 1970, Madera Springs was known as the smallest town in Texas.[13] Davis Mountains State Park opened to the public in the 1930s, improved during the Great Depression.[14]

Fort Davis National Historic Site was established in 1961. The Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute arboretum was established in 1974.[15][16]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,265 square miles (5,870 km2), virtually all of which is land.[17] The county is home to the Davis Mountains, the highest mountain range located entirely within Texas.

Protected areas[edit]

The county has parks and preserves maintained by federal and state park services, in addition to the Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute and the Nature Conservancy of Texas. In addition to the properties listed below, the Nature Conservancy has been instrumental in the creation of conservation easements protecting an additional 69,600 acres (28,200 ha) of private property surrounding its preserve.[18]

Park or preserve Maintaining authority Area Year established
Chihuahuan Desert Nature Center and Botanical Gardens Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute 507 acres (205 ha)[19] 1978[19]
Davis Mountains State Park Texas Parks and Wildlife Department 2,709 acres (1,096 ha)[20] 1933[20]
Davis Mountains Preserve The Nature Conservancy of Texas 33,075 acres (13,385 ha)[18] 1997[21]
Fort Davis National Historic Site National Park Service 523 acres (212 ha)[22] 1961[23]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties and municipalities[edit]

Climate[edit]

Map this section's coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML

Jeff Davis County predominantly experiences a semiarid steppe climate with 83.0% of the county classified as cold semiarid (Köppen BSk) and 0.4% classified as hot semiarid (Köppen BSh). An additional 16.5% is classified as having a hot arid desert climate (Köppen BWh).[24] Within the county, precipitation increases while daytime and nighttime temperatures generally become milder with increasing elevation. Rainfall is most abundant from May through October. Snowfall is also more abundant at higher elevations despite having higher wintertime average low temperatures.

Fort Davis
Climate data for Fort Davis, Texas (Jan 1, 1902–Mar 31, 2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 60.8
(16.0)
64.4
(18.0)
71.3
(21.8)
78.9
(26.1)
85.8
(29.9)
90.3
(32.4)
88.4
(31.3)
87.4
(30.8)
83.2
(28.4)
76.9
(24.9)
67.5
(19.7)
60.6
(15.9)
76.3
(24.6)
Average low °F (°C) 28.8
(−1.8)
31.8
(−0.1)
37.3
(2.9)
45.0
(7.2)
53.4
(11.9)
60.3
(15.7)
62.1
(16.7)
61.0
(16.1)
55.3
(12.9)
45.7
(7.6)
35.9
(2.2)
29.7
(−1.3)
45.5
(7.5)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.50
(13)
0.46
(12)
0.38
(9.7)
0.54
(14)
1.31
(33)
1.98
(50)
2.85
(72)
2.91
(74)
2.27
(58)
1.35
(34)
0.54
(14)
0.55
(14)
15.64
(397.7)
Source: Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute[26]


McDonald Observatory
Climate data for Mount Locke, Texas (Jan 1, 1935–Mar 31, 2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 53.5
(11.9)
56.9
(13.8)
63.7
(17.6)
71.4
(21.9)
78.6
(25.9)
84.5
(29.2)
82.7
(28.2)
81.3
(27.4)
76.6
(24.8)
70.5
(21.4)
61.2
(16.2)
54.4
(12.4)
69.6
(20.9)
Average low °F (°C) 32.0
(0.0)
33.9
(1.1)
38.2
(3.4)
45.2
(7.3)
52.4
(11.3)
58.2
(14.6)
58.9
(14.9)
58.4
(14.7)
54.4
(12.4)
48.0
(8.9)
38.7
(3.7)
33.6
(0.9)
46.0
(7.8)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.68
(17)
0.49
(12)
0.40
(10)
0.50
(13)
1.63
(41)
2.49
(63)
3.82
(97)
3.69
(94)
2.95
(75)
1.61
(41)
0.61
(15)
0.60
(15)
19.47
(493)
Source: Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute[27]


Valentine
Climate data for Valentine, Texas (Jun 1, 1978–Mar 31, 2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 60.3
(15.7)
65.0
(18.3)
72.0
(22.2)
80.0
(26.7)
87.7
(30.9)
93.8
(34.3)
92.1
(33.4)
90.3
(32.4)
86.0
(30.0)
78.9
(26.1)
68.3
(20.2)
60.6
(15.9)
77.9
(25.5)
Average low °F (°C) 27.0
(−2.8)
30.5
(−0.8)
36.0
(2.2)
43.3
(6.3)
52.2
(11.2)
60.9
(16.1)
62.9
(17.2)
61.6
(16.4)
56.3
(13.5)
46.6
(8.1)
35.1
(1.7)
27.7
(−2.4)
45.0
(7.2)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.42
(11)
0.46
(12)
0.24
(6.1)
0.42
(11)
0.77
(20)
1.99
(51)
2.46
(62)
2.22
(56)
2.11
(54)
1.33
(34)
0.50
(13)
0.53
(13)
13.45
(343.1)
Source: Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute[28]


Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18901,394
19001,150−17.5%
19101,67845.9%
19201,445−13.9%
19301,80024.6%
19402,37531.9%
19502,090−12.0%
19601,582−24.3%
19701,527−3.5%
19801,6477.9%
19901,94618.2%
20002,20713.4%
20102,3426.1%
20201,996−14.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[29]
1850–2010[30] 2010–2014[31]

2020 census[edit]

Jeff Davis County, Texas - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010[32] Pop 2020[33] % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 1,490 1,282 63.62% 64.23%
Black or African American alone (NH) 10 0 0.43% 0.00%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 8 6 0.34% 0.30%
Asian alone (NH) 7 14 0.30% 0.70%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 1 0 0.04% 0.00%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 1 15 0.04% 0.75%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 35 66 1.49% 3.31%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 790 613 33.73% 30.71%
Total 2,342 1,996 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.


2010 Census[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, 2,342 people were living in the county; 90.2% were White, 1.0% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 5.8% of some other race, and 2.0% of two or more races. About 33.7% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).

As of the census[34] of 2000, 2,207 people, 896 households, and 632 families were living in the county. The population density was less than 1/km2 (1/sq mi). The 1,420 housing units averaged less than 1/km2 (1/sq mi). The racial makeup of the county was 90.53% White, 0.91% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 5.17% from other races, and 2.99% from two or more races. About 35.48% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Of the 896 households, 27.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.80% were married couples living together, 6.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.40% were not families. About 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.30% had someone living alone who was 65 older. The average household size was 2.39, and the average family size was 2.88.

In the county, the age distribution was 24.40% under 18, 5.30% from 18 to 24, 24.10% from 25 to 44, 30.00% from 45 to 64, and 16.30% who were 65 or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $32,212, and for a family was $39,083. Males had a median income of $27,011 versus $21,384 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,846. About 14.10% of families and 15.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.10% of those under age 18 and 19.60% of those age 65 or over.

Government[edit]

Map of Jeff Davis County, Texas with numbered voting precincts and colored commissioners court precincts

County offices[edit]

The Texas Constitution requires that Jeff Davis and all other Texas counties, regardless of area or population, be governed by an elected five-member commissioners court. It exercises power and jurisdiction over all county business. The court is composed of the county judge as presiding officer, and four county commissioners elected to four-year terms from single-member precincts.[35]

The county judge under the state's constitution is elected to a four-year term and is designated as a conservator of the peace. The judge need not be an attorney, but is constitutionally required to be well informed in the law of the state.[36] The judge serves as the budget officer for the commissioners court, and with the assistance of the county clerk, prepares the annual budget proposal.[37][38] In addition to presiding over meetings of the Commissioners Court, the County Judge officiates the County Court.[39] The County Judge has jurisdiction over misdemeanor offenses in which the fine may exceed $500[40] or in which confinement or imprisonment may be imposed.[41]

The current Jeff Davis county judge is Curtis Evans, a Republican.[42]

The state constitution calls for the election of justices of the peace and constables from individual precincts. Because Jeff Davis County has a population of fewer than 18,000 persons, it is permitted to have a single county-wide precinct for the election of these offices.[35] The justice court in criminal cases has original jurisdiction in matters punishable by a fine only. In civil matters, the court has exclusive jurisdiction in all disputes involving $200 or less.[43]

The constable executes and returns processes, warrants, and precepts as directed, including eviction notices, and is expressly authorized to perform acts and services including the serving civil or criminal processes, citations, notices, warrants, subpoenas, and writs, and may do so anywhere within the county. Additionally, the constable may serve civil processes in all contiguous counties. The constable is also expected to attend sessions of the justice court.[44]

The sheriff is elected to a four-year term.[45] Because the county has a population of fewer than 10,000, the sheriff also serves as the assessor-collector of taxes.[46] The county is served by Sheriff Rick McIvor, a Democrat first elected in 2008, and now serving his second term.[47][48]

The county clerk holds a four-year elected term and serves as clerk to both commissioners court and county court, and acts as recorder for the county. Because Jeff Davis County has fewer than 8,000 residents, the county clerk also serves as the district clerk.[49]

District offices[edit]

Jeff Davis County is within the 23rd congressional district; it is represented in the U.S. Congress by Rep. Tony Gonzales, a Republican.

The county is represented in the Texas Legislature by state Senator Cesar Blanco, a Democrat of the 29th senatorial district, and State Representative Eddie Morales, a Democrat of the 74th legislative district.

Martha M. Dominguez, a Democrat, represents the county from District 1 on the State Board of Education.[50]

Politics[edit]

United States presidential election results for Jeff Davis County, Texas[51]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 784 60.08% 501 38.39% 20 1.53%
2016 695 58.35% 422 35.43% 74 6.21%
2012 719 60.32% 440 36.91% 33 2.77%
2008 749 60.60% 468 37.86% 19 1.54%
2004 764 65.47% 378 32.39% 25 2.14%
2000 708 66.79% 283 26.70% 69 6.51%
1996 482 50.05% 370 38.42% 111 11.53%
1992 360 41.10% 321 36.64% 195 22.26%
1988 524 60.23% 325 37.36% 21 2.41%
1984 511 62.70% 299 36.69% 5 0.61%
1980 409 56.10% 300 41.15% 20 2.74%
1976 288 47.45% 309 50.91% 10 1.65%
1972 382 64.20% 202 33.95% 11 1.85%
1968 191 38.51% 239 48.19% 66 13.31%
1964 174 36.33% 304 63.47% 1 0.21%
1960 182 47.77% 195 51.18% 4 1.05%
1956 239 58.72% 165 40.54% 3 0.74%
1952 306 62.58% 183 37.42% 0 0.00%
1948 75 18.66% 309 76.87% 18 4.48%
1944 51 12.23% 331 79.38% 35 8.39%
1940 50 11.79% 374 88.21% 0 0.00%
1936 33 10.15% 291 89.54% 1 0.31%
1932 46 15.23% 252 83.44% 4 1.32%
1928 157 58.15% 112 41.48% 1 0.37%
1924 49 26.63% 117 63.59% 18 9.78%
1920 41 31.06% 91 68.94% 0 0.00%
1916 74 23.79% 234 75.24% 3 0.96%
1912 62 30.24% 129 62.93% 14 6.83%


Education[edit]

Map of Jeff Davis County, Texas with school district boundaries

Western Jeff Davis County is served by the Valentine Independent School District, while central and eastern Jeff Davis County are served by the Fort Davis Independent School District.

Communities[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

The Mountain Goats recorded a song called "Jeff Davis County Blues" on the 2002 album All Hail West Texas.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Jeff Davis County, Texas". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  2. ^ "NACo Explorer - Jeff Davis County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  3. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 168.
  4. ^ Brune, Gunnar (June 15, 2010). "Phantom Lake Spring". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
  5. ^ "The Painted Comanche Camp". Texas Beyond History. UT-Texas. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
  6. ^ "Indian War Engagements Involving Troops from Fort Davis". National Park Service. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
  7. ^ Leckie, William H and Shirley A (2007). "The Victorio War". The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Black Cavalry in the West. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 211–233. ISBN 978-0-8061-3840-4.
  8. ^ Kohout, Martin Donell (June 15, 2010). "Jeff Davis County, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
  9. ^ "Founding of Fort Davis". National Park Service. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
  10. ^ a b "Fort Davis, Texas". Texas Escapes. Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
  11. ^ "Valentine, Texas". Texas Escapes. Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
  12. ^ "Chispa, Texas". Texas Escapes. Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
  13. ^ Flynn, Buddy (June 15, 2010). "Madera Springs, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
  14. ^ "Davis Mountains State Park". Texas Parks and Wildlife Dept. Retrieved December 15, 2010.
  15. ^ Bartlett, Dick (1995). Saving the Best of Texas: A Partnership Approach to Conservation. University of Texas Press. pp. 168–169. ISBN 978-0-292-70835-8.
  16. ^ Buckner, Sherry; Kimball, Allan C (2006). GPP Travel. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-7627-4174-8.
  17. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
  18. ^ a b Staff. "Davis Mountains Preserve". The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  19. ^ a b Staff. "About Us". Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  20. ^ a b Staff (December 16, 2014). "Davis Mountains State Park, History". Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  21. ^ Staff (February 5, 2013). "Davis Mountains Preserve, Saving a 'Sky Island' in the Wilds of Far West Texas" (PDF). The Nature Conservancy. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 20, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  22. ^ Land Resources Division (December 31, 2014). "Listing of Acreage (Summary)" (PDF). National Park Service. p. 5. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  23. ^ Staff (March 31, 2015). "Fort Davis: Frontier Post". National Park Service. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  24. ^ Kottek, M.; Grieser, J.; Beck, C.; Rudolf, B.; Rubel, F. (2006). "Main Köppen-Geiger Climate Classes for US counties". Schweizerbart Science Publishers. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  25. ^ a b c "US COOP Station Map". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
  26. ^ "FORT DAVIS, TEXAS (413262), Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
  27. ^ "MOUNT LOCKE, TEXAS (416104), Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
  28. ^ "VALENTINE, TEXAS (419270), Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
  29. ^ "Decennial Census of Population and Housing by Decades". US Census Bureau.
  30. ^ "Texas Almanac: Population History of Counties from 1850–2010" (PDF). Texas Almanac. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
  31. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 18, 2011. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
  32. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Jeff Davis County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  33. ^ "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Jeff Davis County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  34. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  35. ^ a b Article 5, Section 18 of the Constitution of Texas (February 15, 1876)
  36. ^ Article 5, Section 15 of the Constitution of Texas (February 15, 1876)
  37. ^ Title 4, Subtitle B, Chapter 111, Subchapter A, Section 111.002, Texas Local Government Code. Retrieved on April 9, 2015.
  38. ^ Title 4, Subtitle B, Chapter 111, Subchapter A, Section 111.003, Texas Local Government Code. Retrieved on April 9, 2015.
  39. ^ Article 5, Section 16 of the Constitution of Texas (February 15, 1876)
  40. ^ Title 1, Chapter 4, Article 4.07, Texas Code of Criminal Procedure. Retrieved on April 4, 2015.
  41. ^ Title 1, Chapter 4, Article 4.11, Texas Code of Criminal Procedure. Retrieved on April 4, 2015.
  42. ^ "Jeff Davis County". Fort Davis, Texas. Retrieved June 22, 2021.
  43. ^ Article 5, Section 19 of the Constitution of Texas (February 15, 1876)
  44. ^ Title 3, Subtitle B, Chapter 86, Subchapter C, Section 86.021, Texas Local Government Code. Retrieved on April 8, 2015.
  45. ^ Article 5, Section 23 of the Constitution of Texas (February 15, 1876)
  46. ^ Article 8, Section 14 of the Constitution of Texas (February 15, 1876)
  47. ^ Griffin, Tim (September 2, 2008). "Former Longhorn QB McIvor running for sheriff". ESPN. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
  48. ^ Halpern, Alberto Tomas (November 6, 2012). "Same sheriff, new county attorney in Jeff Davis County". The Big Bend Sentinel. Marfa, Texas. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
  49. ^ Article 5, Section 20 of the Constitution of Texas (February 15, 1876)
  50. ^ Staff. "SBOE Member District 1". Texas Education Agency. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  51. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 10, 2018.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 30°43′N 104°08′W / 30.72°N 104.13°W / 30.72; -104.13