Harding at a Portland, Oregon, reception shortly after the 1994 Winter Olympics
|Full name||Tonya Maxene Price|
|Country represented||United States|
|Born||Tonya Maxene Harding
November 12, 1970
Portland, Oregon, U.S.
|Height||5 ft 1 in (1.55 m)|
|Coach||Diane Rawlinson (1973–1994)
Dody Teachman (1991–92)
A native of Portland, Oregon, Harding was raised primarily by her mother, who enrolled her in ice skating lessons beginning at age four. Harding would spend much of her early life training, eventually dropping out of high school to devote her time to the sport. After climbing the ranks in the U.S. Figure Skating Championships between 1986 and 1989, Harding won the 1989 Skate America competition. She was the 1991 and 1994 U.S. champion before being stripped of her 1994 title, and 1991 World silver medalist. In 1991, she earned distinction as being the first American woman to successfully land a triple axel in competition, and the second woman to do so in history (behind Midori Ito). She is also a two-time Olympian and a two-time Skate America Champion.
In January 1994, Harding became embroiled in controversy when her ex-husband, Jeff Gillooly, orchestrated an attack on fellow US Olympian Nancy Kerrigan. After the 1994 Games had ended, Harding ultimately pleaded guilty to hindering the prosecution and was banned for life on June 30, 1994 from the U.S. Figure Skating Association. The criminal investigation and Harding's banning from the sport were the subject of intense media scrutiny, and it has been referred to as one of the biggest scandals in American sports history.
In the early 2000s, Harding competed as a professional boxer, and her life has been the subject of numerous films, books, and academic studies. In 2017, an Oscar-winning biographical motion picture, I, Tonya, was released. In 2018, she was a contestant on season 26 of Dancing with the Stars, finishing in third place.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Skating career
- 3 Attack on Nancy Kerrigan and aftermath
- 4 Later celebrity
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Cultural significance
- 7 References
- 8 Works cited
- 9 External links
Tonya Maxene Harding was born on November 12, 1970, in Portland, Oregon, to LaVona Golden (b. 1940) and Albert Gordon Harding (1933–2009). Harding was raised in East Portland, and began skating at age three, training with coach Diane Rawlinson. During her youth, Harding also hunted, drag raced, and learned automotive mechanics from her father. LaVona struggled to support the family while working as a waitress, and hand-sewed Tonya's competition skating costumes as the family could not afford to purchase them.
According to Harding, she was frequently abused by her mother. She stated that by the time she was seven years old, both physical and psychological abuse had become a regular part of her life. LaVona admitted to one instance of hitting Tonya at an ice rink. Tonya dropped out of Milwaukie High School during her sophomore year in order to focus on skating; she later earned a General Equivalency Diploma.
Harding trained as a figure skater throughout her youth with coach Diane Rawlinson. In the mid-1980s, she began working her way up the competitive skating ladder. She placed sixth at the 1986 U.S. Figure Skating Championships, fifth in 1987 and 1988, and third in 1989. After winning Skate America in 1989, she was considered a strong contender at the 1990 U.S. Figure Skating Championships, but she was suffering from the flu and asthma and had a poor free skate. After the original program, she dropped from second place and finished seventh overall. She was a powerful free skater and typically had lower placements in the compulsory figures.
Harding's breakthrough year came in 1991, when she landed her first triple axel at the U.S. Championships and won the title with the event's first 6.0 ever given to a single female skater for technical merit. At the 1991 World Championships, she again completed the triple axel—becoming the first American woman to perform it at an international event. Harding would finish second behind Kristi Yamaguchi, and in front of Nancy Kerrigan, marking the first time one country swept the ladies medal podium at the World Figure Skating Championships.
At the Fall 1991 Skate America, Harding recorded three more firsts:
- The first woman to complete a triple axel in the short program;
- The first woman to successfully execute two triple axels in a single competition;
- The first ever to complete a triple axel combination with the double toe loop.
Despite these record-breaking performances, she was never able to successfully perform the triple axel in a competition after 1991, and her competitive results began to decline as a result. Harding trained under Dody Teachman for the upcoming 1992 season, she placed third in the U.S. Championships after twisting her ankle in practice. She finished fourth in the 1992 Winter Olympics, and in the 1992 World Championships, she placed sixth. In the 1993 season, she skated poorly in the U.S. Championships and failed to qualify for the World Championship team.
Following legal controversy, Harding was permitted to remain a member of the U.S. ice skating team at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway. After an issue with her laces, she was given a re-skate in the long program and finished in eighth place, far behind Oksana Baiul (gold) and Nancy Kerrigan (silver).
Figure skating record
|Skate Canada International||4th|
|U.S. Olympic Festival||2nd|
|Prize of Moscow News||1st|
|U.S. Championships||6th||5th||5th||3rd||7th||1st||3rd||4th|
^† In June 1994, Claire Ferguson, the President of the U.S. Figure Skating Association, voted to strip Harding of her 1994 title. However, the competition results were not changed and the title was left vacant rather than moving all the other competitors up one position.
Attack on Nancy Kerrigan and aftermath
On January 6, 1994Nancy Kerrigan was attacked after a practice session at the 1994 U.S. Figure Skating Championships in Detroit by an assailant who was later identified as Shane Stant. Harding's ex-husband, Jeff Gillooly, and her self-appointed bodyguard, Shawn Eckhardt, hired Stant to break Kerrigan's right leg so that she would be unable to compete at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer. After failing to find Kerrigan at her training rink in Massachusetts, Stant followed her to Detroit. When she stepped off the ice after a practice session at Cobo Arena and walked behind a nearby curtain into a corridor, Stant struck her leg about 1 inch (3 cm) above the knee with a 21-inch (53 cm) ASP telescopic baton. Her leg was only bruised, not broken, but the injury forced her to withdraw from the national championship. Harding won that event, and she and Kerrigan were both selected for the 1994 Olympic team. Harding finished eighth in Lillehammer, while Kerrigan, by then recovered from the injury, won the silver medal behind Oksana Baiul from Ukraine., Harding's main team competitor
The attack on Kerrigan and the news of Harding's alleged involvement led to a media frenzy, with The New York Times later characterizing it as "one of the biggest scandals in American sports history." Kerrigan appeared on the cover of both TIME and Newsweek magazines in January 1994. Reporters and TV news crews attended Harding's practices in Portland and camped out in front of Kerrigan's home. CBS assigned Connie Chung to follow her every move in Lillehammer. Four hundred members of the press jammed into the practice rink in Norway. Scott Hamilton complained that "the world press was turning the Olympics into just another sensational tabloid event." The tape-delayed broadcast of the women's short program at the Olympics remains one of the most watched telecasts in American history.
On February 1, 1994, Gillooly accepted a plea offer in exchange for his testimony against Harding. Gillooly, Stant, Eckhardt, and getaway car driver Derrick Smith all served time in prison for the attack. Eckhardt was sentenced to 18 months in prison for racketeering but was released four months early in September 1995.
Harding was charged in Multnomah County, Oregon, but avoided further prosecution and a possible jail sentence by pleading guilty on March 16 to conspiring to hinder prosecution of the attackers. She received three years' probation, 500 hours of community service, and a $160,000 fine. As part of the plea bargain, she was also forced to withdraw from the 1994 World Figure Skating Championships and resign from the United States Figure Skating Association. The USFSA conducted its own investigation of the attack. On June 30, 1994, the association stripped her of her 1994 U.S. Championships title and banned her for life from participating in USFSA-run events as either a skater or a coach. The USFSA concluded that she knew about the attack before it happened and displayed "a clear disregard for fairness, good sportsmanship, and ethical behavior". Although the USFSA has no control over non-competitive professional skating events, she was also persona non grata on the pro circuit because few skaters and promoters would work with her. Consequently, she failed to benefit from the boom in professional skating that ensued in the aftermath of the scandal.
In her 2008 autobiography, The Tonya Tapes, Harding stated that she wanted to call the FBI to reveal what she knew, but decided not to when Gillooly allegedly threatened her with death following a gunpoint gang rape by him and two other men she did not know. He subsequently changed his name to Jeff Stone and called the accusations of gang rape "utterly ridiculous." In 2013, Deadspin sought Jeff Stone for an interview and he again defended himself from the gang rape allegation. Yet he expressed regret that Harding is often "remembered for what I talked her into doing", meaning allegedly plotting to injure Nancy Kerrigan. Stone admitted that his past stupidity was part of Harding's 1994 ruin and maintained that he still considers her a great figure skater. He also said that "I've had it easy, compared to poor Tonya...she tends to be the butt of the joke. It's kind of sad to me". Eckhardt, who legally changed his name to Brian Sean Griffith following his release from jail, died at age 40 on December 12, 2007.
An explicit video showing Harding having sex with her then-husband, Jeff Gillooly, was sold by Gillooly to a tabloid TV show after he was implicated as a conspirator in the Kerrigan attack. Stills from the tape were published by Penthouse in September 1994 and the tape itself was released at about the same time. Both Gillooly and Harding were paid for the Penthouse sale.
On June 22, 1994, in Portland, Oregon, Harding appeared on an AAA professional wrestling show as the manager for wrestling stable Los Gringos Locos. The night's performance included Art Barr and Eddie Guerrero. A promotional musical event was unsuccessful when Harding and her band, the Golden Blades, were booed off the stage at their only performance, in 1995 in Portland, Oregon.
In 1994, Harding was cast in a low-budget action film, Breakaway. The film was released in 1996. On October 29, 1996, Harding received media attention after using mouth-to-mouth resuscitation to help revive an 81-year-old woman, Alice Olson, who collapsed at a bar in Portland while playing video poker.
Harding has also appeared on television, on the game show The Weakest Link: "15 Minutes of Fame Edition" in 2002 along with Kato Kaelin, and in March 2008 became a commentator for TruTV's The Smoking Gun Presents: World's Dumbest....
|Height||5 ft 1 in (155 cm)|
|Wins by KO||0|
In 2002, Harding boxed against Paula Jones on the Fox TV network Celebrity Boxing event, winning the fight. On February 22, 2003, she made her official women's professional boxing debut, losing a four-round split decision against Samantha Browning on the undercard of Mike Tyson vs. Clifford Etienne. Harding's boxing career came about amid rumors that she was having financial difficulties and needed to fight in the ring to earn money. She did another celebrity boxing match, on The Man Show, and won against co-host Doug Stanhope. Stanhope later claimed on his podcast that the fight was fixed because Tonya Harding refused to "fight a man".
On June 24, 2004, after reportedly not having boxed for over a year, she was beaten in a match in Edmonton, Alberta, by Amy Johnson. Fans reportedly booed her as she entered the ring and cheered wildly for Johnson when she won in the third round.
Professional boxing record
|Professional record summary|
|6 fights||3 wins||3 losses|
|6||Loss||3–3||Amy Johnson||TKO||3 (4), 1:04||Jun 25, 2004||Shaw Conference Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada|
|5||Loss||3–2||Melissa Yanas||TKO||1 (4), 1:13||Aug 2, 2003||Silver City Cabaret, Dallas, Texas, U.S.|
|4||Win||3–1||Emily Gosa||UD||4||Jun 13, 2003||Chinook Winds Casino, Lincoln City, Oregon, U.S.|
|3||Win||2–1||Alejandra Lopez||UD||4||Mar 28, 2003||Creek Nation Gaming Center, Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.|
|2||Win||1–1||Shannon Birmingham||UD||4||Mar 15, 2003||Grand Casino, Gulfport, Mississippi, U.S.|
|1||Loss||0–1||Samantha Browning||SD||4||Feb 22, 2003||The Pyramid, Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.|
Automobile racing land speed record
On August 12, 2010, Harding set a new land speed record for a vintage gas coupe with a speed of 97.177 mph (156.391 km/h; 43.442 m/s) driving a 1931 Ford Model A, named Lickity-Split, on the Bonneville Salt Flats.
Dancing with the Stars
In April 2018, Harding was announced as one of the celebrities who will compete on season 26 of Dancing with the Stars. She was partnered with professional dancer Sasha Farber. The couple reached the finals of the competition where Harding finished in third place overall, behind Adam Rippon and Josh Norman.
Harding married Jeff Gillooly in 1990, when she was 19 years old. Their tumultuous marriage ended in divorce in 1993, but they continued seeing each other heading into the 1994 Winter Olympics. She married her second husband, Michael Smith, in 1995; the couple divorced in 1996. She married and took the surname of 42-year-old Joseph Price, whom she met at a local restaurant called Timbers, on June 23, 2010 when she was 39 years old. She gave birth to her only child, a son named Gordon, on February 19, 2011.
Since leaving skating and boxing, Harding has worked as a welder, a painter at a metal fabrication company, and a hardware sales clerk at Sears. As of 2017, she stated that she worked as a painter and deck builder. She resides in Washington state, north of her hometown of Portland, Oregon.
On an appearance on The Ellen DeGeneres Show on February 26, 2018, Harding stated that she is still active in skating and practices three times a week. In a segment during the show, she performed several jumps and spins.
Harding's life, career, and role in the Kerrigan attack have been widely referenced in popular culture, appearing in television, film, music, as well as a primary campaign speech by former President Barack Obama. In 2014, Matt Harkins and Viviana Olen created the Nancy Kerrigan and Tonya Harding Museum in their Brooklyn, New York, apartment, dedicated to collecting and archiving memorabilia related to Harding and the incident. Harkins and Olen stated in a 2017 interview that they had been captivated by Harding's life for years, citing it as "the most American story ever told." A contemporaneous article published in Vogue also noted that Harding had developed a "cult following" in the years since her notoriety.
Representation in other media
- A 1994 television film titled Tonya and Nancy: The Inside Story was released, with Alexandra Powers portraying Harding, and Heather Langenkamp portraying Nancy Kerrigan. The same year, Harding was spoofed by comedian Julie Brown in the television film National Lampoon's Attack of the 5 Ft. 2 In. Women.
- Harding was referred to in the Seinfeld episode "The Understudy": When Jerry's girlfriend, a Broadway performer, takes the stage, she has a problem with the laces on her boot (as Harding encountered in the 1994 Olympics). Jerry's girlfriend got to perform only because the lead actress had an injury said to be caused by hitman, George.
- Harding was also portrayed by sketch actress Alexandra Wentworth in numerous sketches on In Living Color between 1993 and 1994.
- Harding and her role in Kerrigan's attack are referred to in several songs, including: "Headline News," by "Weird Al" Yankovic; "5 Fingas of Death" by Diamond D; "Aunt Dot" by Lil' Kim; "Put Some Keys On That" by Lil Wayne; "Stay Frosty Royal Milk Tea" by Fall Out Boy; "Tonya's Twirls" by Loudon Wainwright III; and "Tonya Harding" by Sufjan Stevens.
- In May 2006, Elizabeth Searle collaborated with composer Abigail Al-Doory to create Tonya and Nancy: The Rock Opera, a chamber opera produced by Tufts University and directed by Meron Langsner. Described as a dark comedy, it premiered in Portland, Oregon in 2008. It was produced also in Los Angeles, New York and Chicago.
- The Price of Gold, part of ESPN's "30 for 30" series, is a 2014 documentary about Harding, who agreed to be interviewed. Kerrigan refused.
- Tonya Harding: The Musical (2014), is a comedy-musical written by Jesse Esparza, with songs by Manny Hagopian, performed at the Upright Citizens Brigade Theater in Los Angeles.
- In June 2017, a play T, written by Dan Aibel, premiered in Chicago at the American Theater Company. Harding is portrayed by Leah Raidt.
- In December 2017, the biographical film I, Tonya, directed by Craig Gillespie, was released, with Australian actress Margot Robbie portraying Harding. Robbie was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress and the Academy Award for Best Actress for her portrayal. Allison Janney played Harding's mother LaVona and won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role.
Harding's role in women's ice skating culture and Kerrigan's 1994 attack have been the subject of numerous academic essays. In 1995, the book Women on Ice: Feminist Essays on the Tonya Harding/Nancy Kerrigan Spectacle was released, which contained numerous essays analyzing Harding's public image in the context of the sport of figure skating.
In a 2014 essay, academic Sarah Marshall noted the pervasive role of the media in the 1994 Kerrigan attack, particularly the manner in which Harding's life outside the realm of skating became publicly scrutinized: "Somehow, in the scandal's aftermath, the form of the Tonya-bash was able to alchemize even the most chilling details of Tonya's life into tabloid gold." Marshall also examines the role of Harding's "tomboy" persona in the context of figure skating.
- Hersh, Phil (January 25, 1994). "Harding, Longtime Coach Different As A Team Can Possibly Be". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- Rakowski, Cat; Valiente, Alexa (January 11, 2018). "Tonya Harding on her continued love for figure skating and what her life is like today". ABC News. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- Brownstone & Franck 1995, p. 155.
- "U.S. Title Is Taken Back From Harding". The New York Times. Associated Press. July 1, 1994. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
- Janofsky, Michael (March 12, 1991). "A Triple Axel With Rippling Effects". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
- Marshall, Sarah (January 2014). "Remote Control: Tonya Harding, Nancy Kerrigan, and the Spectacles of Female Power and Pain". The Believer. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
- Piepenburg, Erik (June 12, 2017). "Tonya Harding, Tragic Muse? More Works Explore a Skating Scandal". The New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
- Janofsky, Michael (February 7, 1994). "Winter Olympics; Always Tonya: As Cool as Ice But Troubled". The New York Times.
- "Tonya Harding: 50 things you didn't know about the skating champion!". Useless Daily. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
- "Albert Gordon Harding". Headlight-Herald. April 14, 2009. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
- "WINTER OLYMPICS; Always Tonya: As Cool as Ice But Troubled". The New York Times. February 7, 1994. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
- Williams 2010, p. 259.
- Smith 1999, pp. 172–3.
- Smith 1999, p. 172.
- Nelson 2013, p. 1356.
- "Tonya Harding's Skating Scandal". Oprah.com. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- "Tonya Harding reveals her side of roller-coaster life". Today Show. May 15, 2008.
- Bartels, Eric (February 18, 2008). "Tonya and Nancy: The Rock Opera • Soap on ice". Portland Tribune. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Saari 1998, p. 697.
- "1994 Winter Olympics: Tonya Harding finishes 8th in women's figure skating". OregonLive.com. Retrieved 2018-05-01.
- Nelson 2013, p. 1357.
- "Skate Canada Results Book Volume 2: 1974–current" (PDF). Skate Canada. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2009. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
- "Prize of Moscow News". Pirouette - Abonnement magazine enfants de 5 à 8 ans (in French). Fleurus Presse. 1988.
- Metcalfe, Jeff (January 30, 2018). "Nancy Kerrigan-Tonya Harding incident had seeds planted in Phoenix". Arizona Central. USA Today. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- Skating magazine, August 1994
- Lowitt, Bruce (November 29, 1999). "Harding, Kerrigan are linked forever by skating incident". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
- "Player in attack on Kerrigan dies at 40". Yahoo News. December 15, 2007. Archived from the original on December 18, 2007.
- Crossman, Matt (December 19, 2013). "Harding-Kerrigan 20 Years Later: Remembering the Stunning, Life-Changing Attack". Bleacher Report.
- Swift, E. M. (February 14, 1994). "Anatomy of a Plot". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Nelson 2013, pp. 1356–57.
- Harvey, Randy (February 26, 1994). "Baiul Wins Gold; Kerrigan Takes Silver : Olympics: Figure skating events wind up--in more controversy". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
- Hamilton 1999, p. 561.
- Nielsen Media Research (August 6, 2000). "Top 100 TV Shows of All Time". Variety. Retrieved April 5, 2018. (Subscription required (. ))
- "Kerrigan Attacker and Accomplice Sent to Jail". The New York Times. May 17, 1994. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Longman, Jere (January 6, 1994). "Jealousy on Ice". The New York Times.
- Long, James; Hogan, Dave (March 17, 1994). "Tonya Harding-Nancy Kerrigan: Harding found guilty of hindering investigation". The Oregonian. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
- "The Tonya Harding–Nancy Kerrigan Saga". The Washington Post. 1998. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Hamilton & Benet 1999, pp. 558, 585.
- Treaster, Joseph B. (February 2, 1994). "What Gillooly Says, and What Harding Says". The New York Times. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
- Swift, E. M. (February 14, 1994). "Anatomy of a Plot". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Nelson, Amy K. (February 14, 1994). "Finding Gillooly: What Happened To Figure Skating's Infamous Villain?". Retrieved June 21, 2018/. Check date values in:
- Nelson, Amy K. (December 13, 2013). "Finding Gillooly: What Happened To Figure Skating's Infamous Villain?". Retrieved June 21, 2018/. Check date values in:
- "Biggest Star Sex Tape Scandals". Us Weekly. August 21, 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- "Tonya Harding's Original 1994 Contract with PENTHOUSE". LiveAuctioneers. August 20, 2014. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Guerrero 2005, pp. 100–1.
- "Stage Fright". People. Vol. 44 no. 12. Time, Inc. September 18, 1995. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Tonya Harding Debuts As Singer In Portland Concert For MDA". The Seattle Times. August 30, 1995. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Loh, Sandra Tsing (July 23, 1994). "Look Who's Back: Movies: Tonya Harding gives acting a spin in the action film 'Breakaway,' getting raves from cast and crew". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
- Schmitz, Ashleigh (January 9, 2014). "The Tonya Harding, Nancy Kerrigan Scandal Turns 20: Is Harding a Victim, Too?". Parade. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
- "Harding Helps to Save Woman's Life". The New York Times. Associated Press. October 29, 1996. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Johnson, Hayes (2002). The Best of Times: The Boom and Bust Years of America before and after Everything Changed (ebook). p. 594. ISBN 978-0-156-02701-4.
- "truTV Presents: World's Dumbest". TV.com. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Wilner, Barry (February 21, 2003). "Tonya Harding Loses in Pro Boxing Debut". Midland Daily News.
- "Ep. #22: Comedian Andy Andrist - Pt.2". The Doug Stanhope Podcast. Archived from the original on August 8, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
- Chapin, Dwight (March 23, 2004). "Why Harding wasn't in bout / Manager cites death threats, skills of foe". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "Tonya Harding takes pounding". News24.com. June 26, 2004. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
- Maine, D'Arcy (December 8, 2017). "From the rink to the ring: Tonya Harding's short-lived boxing career". ESPN. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
- Eggers, Kerry (January 5, 2007). "Ready for 'Life With Tonya'?". Portland Tribune.
- "Tonya Harding's professional boxing record". BoxRec.com. Retrieved January 13, 2007.
- "Speed Week Results Wednesday August 12, 2009". Southern California Timing Association and Bonneville Nationals Inc. August 19, 2009. Archived from the original on August 19, 2009.
- "What's New?: Tonya sets record at Bonnevill Salt Flats". Charliesweb.com. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- "Adam Rippon, Tonya Harding and more superstar athletes to face-off in Dancing With the Stars season 26". ABC News.
- "Tonya Harding biography". tonyaharding.com. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved July 16, 2006.
- "Tonya Harding". Biography.com. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- Brodesser-Akner, Taffy (January 10, 2018). "Tonya Harding Would Like Her Apology Now". The New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
- "Nation & World". Contra Costa Times. January 19, 2013. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013.
- Fleeman, Mike (February 23, 2011). "Tonya Harding welcomes a son". People. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
- Gillespie, Craig (dir.) (2017). I, Tonya. Neon Films.
- Herron, Elise (January 11, 2018). "Tonya Harding Moved Away From Oregon, Maybe Because People Threw Rats In Her Mailbox". Willamette Week. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
- Lester, Paul (March 4, 2009). "Tonya Harding bitter and thankful over Obama's 'kneecap' comment". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- "Like 'Dynasty' On Ice: The Nancy Kerrigan And Tonya Harding Museum". NPR. April 19, 2015. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- Olen, Viviana; Harkins, Matt (December 6, 2017). "The Cult of Tonya Harding". Vulture. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- Bobb, Brooke (December 8, 2017). "I, Tonya's Costume Designer on Why She Didn't Want to Take a Cheap Shot at '90s Fashion". Vogue. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
- Loynd, Ray (April 29, 1994). "Tonya & Nancy: The Inside Story". Variety. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
- Schwarzbaum, Lisa (August 19, 1994). "National Lampoon's Attack of the 5'2" Women". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
- Lavery, David; Dunne, Sara Lewis (2006). Seinfeld, Master of Its Domain. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9780826418036. Retrieved April 9, 2009.
- Bauer, Ted. "All World Power Rankings: When It Comes To The Best Pop Culture References To Tonya Harding, We'Ll Go With 'Rochelle, Rochelle'". ESPN. Archived from the original on September 7, 2009. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
- Ginell, Richard S. (May 9, 1994). "In Living Color". Variety. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
- Bromley, Tom (2006). We Could Have Been the Wombles: The Weird and Wonderful World of One-Hit Wonders. Penguin. p. 90. ISBN 0-14-101711-2.
- Solomon, Dan (February 12, 2012). "Nancy Kerrigan Versus Tonya Harding : A Rap History". Noisey. Vice. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- "Fall Out Boy – Stay Frosty Royal Milk Tea". genius.com. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
- "January 19, 1996 (Early Show) The Bottom Line, New York City". Loudon Wainwright III. Retrieved July 21, 2007.
- Monroe, Jazz (December 6, 2017). "Sufjan Releases New Song "Tonya Harding": Listen". Pitchfork. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
- "History". Tonya & Nancy the Rock Opera.
- ERIK PIEPENBURG, "Tonya Harding, Tragic Muse? More Works Explore a Skating Scandal", New York Times, 12 June 2017; accessed 10 February 2018
- Mizoguchi, Karen (March 21, 2016). "Margot Robbie to Play Tonya Harding in Upcoming Film I, Tonya". People. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
- Baughman 2013, pp. i–v.
- Baughman, Cynthia, ed. (2013) . Women on Ice: Feminist Essays on the Tonya Harding/Nancy Kerrigan Spectacle. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-91150-8. OCLC 830322475. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
- Brownstone, David M.; Franck, Irene (1995). People in the News, 1995. Macmillan Reference USA. ISBN 0-02-897058-6.
- Guerrero, Eddie (2005). Cheating Death, Stealing Life: The Eddie Guerrero Story. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7434-9353-2.
- Hamilton, Scott; Benet, Lorenzo (1999). Landing It: My Life on and off the Ice. Kensington Books. ISBN 1-57566-466-6.
- Nelson, Murry R. (2013). American Sports: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-39753-0.
- Saari, Peggy (1998). Great Misadventures: Bad Ideas That Led to Big Disasters. Thomson Gale. ISBN 0-7876-2799-2.
- Smith, Lissa, ed. (1999). Nike is a Goddess: The History of Women in Sports. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 978-0-87113-761-6. OCLC 255351946. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
- Williams, Patricia J. (2010). "The Ethnic Scarring of American Whiteness". In Lubiano, Wahneema. The House That Race Built: Original Essays by Toni Morrison, Angela Y. Davis, Cornel West, and Others on Black Americans and Politics in America Today. Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 253–63. ISBN 978-0-307-55679-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tonya Harding.|