|United States Senator
January 3, 1997
Serving with Richard Shelby
|Preceded by||Howell Heflin|
|44th Attorney General of Alabama|
January 16, 1995 – January 3, 1997
|Preceded by||Jimmy Evans|
|Succeeded by||William Pryor|
|United States Attorney for the Southern District of Alabama|
|Appointed by||Ronald Reagan|
|Preceded by||William Kimbrough, Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Don Foster|
|Born||Jefferson Beauregard Sessions III
December 24, 1946
Selma, Alabama, U.S.
|Alma mater||Huntingdon College (B.A.)
University of Alabama (J.D.)
|Service/branch||United States Army Reserve|
|Years of service||1973–1986|
|Unit||1184th United States Army Transportation Terminal Unit|
From 1981 to 1993 he served as U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Alabama. President Ronald Reagan nominated him to a judgeship on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Alabama in 1986, but he was not confirmed. Sessions was elected to Attorney General of Alabama in 1994. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1996 and easily re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2014. He and his colleague Richard Shelby are the state's first two-term Republican Senators since Reconstruction.
Sessions was ranked by National Journal in 2007 as the fifth-most conservative U.S. Senator, siding strongly with the Republican Party on political issues. He supported the major legislative efforts of the George W. Bush administration, including the 2001 and 2003 tax cut packages, the Iraq War, and a proposed national amendment to ban same-sex marriage. However, he was one of 25 senators to oppose the establishment of TARP. He has opposed the Democratic leadership since 2007 on most major legislation, including the stimulus bill, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act. As the ranking Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee, he opposed both of President Barack Obama's nominees for the Supreme Court. Sessions was considered as a possible Vice President for Republican nominee Donald Trump in the 2016 election. However Governor Mike Pence of Indiana was later selected for the job.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Political career
- 3 Political positions
- 4 Political contributors
- 5 Committee assignments
- 6 Electoral history
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Early life and education
Sessions was born in Selma, Alabama, the son of Abbie (née Powe) and Jefferson Beauregard Sessions, Jr. His father owned a general store in Hybart, Alabama and then a farm equipment dealership. Both of Sessions' parents are of primarily English ancestry, with some Scots-Irish.
After attending school in nearby Camden, Sessions studied at Huntingdon College in Montgomery, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1969. He was active in the Young Republicans and was student body president there. Sessions attended the University of Alabama School of Law and graduated with his J.D. in 1973.
Sessions and his wife Mary have three grown children and six grandchildren.
Sessions was an Assistant United States Attorney in the Office of the United States Attorney for the Southern District of Alabama beginning in 1975. In 1981, President Reagan nominated Sessions to be the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Alabama. The Senate confirmed him and he held that position for 12 years.
Failed nomination to the district court
In 1986, Reagan nominated Sessions to be a judge of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Alabama. Sessions's judicial nomination was recommended and actively backed by Republican Alabama Senator Jeremiah Denton. A substantial majority of the American Bar Association Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary, which rates nominees to the federal bench, rated Sessions "qualified," with a minority voting that Sessions was "not qualified."
At Sessions' confirmation hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee, four Department of Justice lawyers who had worked with Sessions testified that he had made several racist statements. One of those lawyers, J. Gerald Hebert, testified that Sessions had referred to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) as "un-American" and "Communist-inspired" because they "forced civil rights down the throats of people."
Thomas Figures, a black Assistant U.S. Attorney, testified that Sessions said he thought the Klan was "OK until I found out they smoked pot." Sessions later said that the comment was not serious, but apologized for it. Figures also testified that on one occasion, when the U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division sent the office instructions to investigate a case that Sessions had tried to close, Figures and Sessions "had a very spirited discussion regarding how the Hodge case should then be handled; in the course of that argument, Mr. Sessions threw the file on a table, and remarked, 'I wish I could decline on all of them,'" by which Figures said Sessions meant civil rights cases generally. After becoming Ranking Member of the Judiciary Committee, Sessions was asked in an interview about his civil rights record as a U.S Attorney. He denied that he had not sufficiently pursued civil rights cases, saying that "when I was [a U.S. Attorney], I signed 10 pleadings attacking segregation or the remnants of segregation, where we as part of the Department of Justice, we sought desegregation remedies."
Sessions responded to the testimony by denying the allegations, saying his remarks were taken out of context or meant in jest, and also stating that groups could be considered un-American when "they involve themselves in un-American positions" in foreign policy. Sessions said during testimony that he considered the Klan to be "a force for hatred and bigotry." In regards to the marijuana quote, Sessions said the comment was a joke but apologized.
In response to a question from Joe Biden on whether he had called the NAACP and other civil rights organizations "un-American", Sessions replied "I'm often loose with my tongue. I may have said something about the NAACP being un-American or Communist, but I meant no harm by it."
On June 5, 1986, the Committee voted 10–8 against recommending the nomination to the Senate floor, with Republican Senators Charles Mathias of Maryland and Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania voting with the Democrats. It then split 9–9 on a vote to send Sessions' nomination to the Senate floor with no recommendation, this time with Specter in support. A majority was required for the nomination to proceed. The pivotal votes against Sessions came from his home state's Democratic Senator Howell Heflin of Alabama (ironically, Sessions would succeed Heflin in the Senate just a decade later). Although Heflin had previously backed Sessions, he began to oppose Sessions after hearing testimony, concluding that there were "reasonable doubts" over Sessions' ability to be "fair and impartial." The nomination was withdrawn on July 31, 1986.
One law clerk from the U.S. District Court in Mobile who had worked with Sessions later acknowledged the confirmation controversy, but stated that he observed Sessions as "a lawyer of the highest ethical and intellectual standards."
After joining the Senate Judiciary Committee, Sessions remarked that his presence there, alongside several of the members who voted against him, was a "great irony." When Senator Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania left the GOP to join the Democratic Party on April 28, 2009, Sessions was selected to be the Ranking Member on the Senate Judiciary Committee. At that time, Specter said that his vote against Sessions' nomination was a mistake, because he had "since found that Sen. Sessions is egalitarian."
Alabama Attorney General and U.S. Senate
Sessions was elected Attorney General of Alabama in November 1994, unseating incumbent Democrat Jimmy Evans with 57% of the vote. In 1996, Sessions won the Republican primary for U.S. Senate, after a runoff, and then defeated Democrat Roger Bedford 53%–46% in the November general election. He succeeded Howell Heflin, who had retired after 18 years in the Senate. In 2002, Sessions won reelection by defeating Democratic State Auditor Susan Parker. In 2008, Sessions defeated Democratic State Senator Vivian Davis Figures (sister-in-law of Thomas Figures, the Assistant U.S. Attorney who testified at Sessions' judicial confirmation hearing) to win a third term. Sessions received 63 percent of the vote to Figures' 37 percent. Sessions successfully sought a fourth term in 2014 and was uncontested in both the Republican primary and the general election.
Sessions was only the second freshman Republican senator from Alabama since Reconstruction and gave Alabama two Republican senators, a first since Reconstruction. Sessions was easily reelected in 2002 becoming the first (or second, if one counts his colleague Richard Shelby, who switched from Democrat to Republican in 1994) Republican reelected to the Senate from Alabama.
Sessions was an early backer of the presidential candidacy of Donald Trump, and Sessions has been a major policy adviser to the Trump campaign, especially in regards to immigration and national security. Sessions famously donned a “Make America Great Again” cap at a Trump rally in August 2015, and Stephen Miller, Sessions's longtime-communications director, joined the Trump campaign. On February 28, 2016 he officially endorsed Donald J. Trump for president. The Trump campaign considered Sessions for the position of running mate, and Sessions is widely seen as a potential Cabinet secretary in a Trump administration.
Sessions was ranked by National Journal as the fifth-most conservative U.S. Senator in their March 2007 Conservative/Liberal Rankings. He backs conservative Republican stances on foreign policy, taxes, and social issues. He opposes abortion and illegal immigration. Sessions is the ranking Republican member on the Senate Budget Committee, a former ranking member of the Senate Judiciary Committee, and a senior member of the Armed Services Committee. He also serves on the Environment and Public Works Committee.
Sessions was a supporter of the "nuclear option," a tactic considered by then-Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist in the spring of 2005 to change longstanding Senate rules to stop Democratic filibusters of some of George W. Bush's nominees to the federal courts. When the "Gang of 14" group of moderate Senators reached an agreement to allow filibusters under "extraordinary circumstances," Sessions accepted the agreement but argued that "a return to the tradition of up-or-down votes on all judicial nominees would… strengthen the Senate."
Foreign and military policy
In 2005, Sessions spoke at a rally in Washington, D.C. in favor of the War in Iraq that was held in opposition to an anti-war protest held the day before. Sessions said of the anti-war protesters: "The group who spoke here the other day did not represent the American ideals of freedom, liberty and spreading that around the world. I frankly don't know what they represent, other than to blame America first."
In the 109th Congress, Sessions introduced legislation to increase the death gratuity benefit for families of servicemembers from $12,420 to $100,000. The bill also increased the level of coverage under the Servicemen's Group Life Insurance from $250,000 to $400,000. Sessions' legislation was accepted in the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2005.
Sessions was one of only three senators to vote against additional funding for the VA medical system. He opposed the bill due to cost concerns and indicated that Congress should instead focus on “reforms and solutions that improve the quality of service and the effectiveness that is delivered.”
Crime and security
On October 5, 2005, he was one of nine Senators who voted against a Senate amendment to a House bill that prohibited cruel, inhumane, or degrading treatment or punishment of individuals in the custody or under the physical control of the United States Government.
Sessions has taken a strong stand against any form of citizenship for illegal immigrants. Sessions was one of the most vocal critics of the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007. He is a supporter of E-Verify, the federal database that allows businesses to electronically verify the immigration status of potential new hires, and has advocated for expanded construction of a Southern border fence. In 2013, Sessions claimed that an opt-out provision in immigration legislation before Congress would allow Sec. Janet Napolitano to skip building a border fence. PolitiFact called the claim "False," stating that the provision would allow Napolitano to determine where the fence was built, but not opt out of building it entirely.
Sessions voted for the Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act in committee, which would allow the Attorney General to ask a court to issue a restraining order Internet domain names that host copyright-infringing material.
In 2006, Sessions received the "Guardian of Small Business” award from the National Federation of Independent Business.
Sessions was one of 25 senators to vote against the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (the bank bailout), arguing that it "undermines our heritage of law and order, and is an affront to the principle of separation of powers."
Sessions opposed the $837 billion stimulus bill, calling it "the largest spending bill in the history of the republic." He also expressed skepticism about the $447 billion jobs bill recently proposed by President Obama, and disputed the notion that the bill would be paid for and not add to the national debt.
Sessions has been an opponent of same-sex marriage and has earned a zero rating from the Human Rights Campaign, the United States' largest LGBT advocacy group. He voted against the Matthew Shepard Act, which added acts of bias-motivated violence based on sexual orientation and gender identity to federal hate-crimes law, Sessions voted in favor of advancing the Federal Marriage Amendment in 2004 and 2006. Sessions voted against the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010.
Sessions has also said regarding the appointment of a gay Supreme Court justice, "I do not think that a person who acknowledges that they have gay tendencies is disqualified, per se, for the job" but "that would be a big concern that the American people might feel—might feel uneasy about that."
Sessions is against legalizing cannabis for either recreation or medicine. "I’m a big fan of the DEA", he said during a hearing with the Senate Judiciary Committee. Sessions was "heartbroken" and found "it beyond comprehension" when President Obama claimed that cannabis is not as dangerous as alcohol.
Health care reform
Sessions opposed President Barack Obama's health reform legislation; he voted against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in December 2009, and he voted against the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.
Following Senator Ted Cruz's 21-hour speech opposing the Affordable Care Act, Sessions joined Cruz and 17 other Senators in a failed vote against cloture on a comprehensive government funding bill that would have continued funding healthcare reform.
Supreme Court nominations
While serving as the ranking member on the Judiciary Committee in the 110th Congress, Sessions was the senior Republican who questioned Judge Sonia Sotomayor, President Barack Obama's nominee to succeed retiring Justice David Souter. Sessions focused on Sotomayor's views on empathy as a quality for a judge, arguing that "empathy for one party is always prejudice against another." Sessions also questioned the nominee about her views on the use of foreign law in deciding cases, as well as her role in the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund (PRLDEF). On July 28, 2009, Sessions joined five Republican colleagues in voting against Sotomayor's nomination in the Judiciary Committee. The committee approved Sotomayor by a vote of 13–6. Sessions also voted against Sotomayor when her nomination came before the full Senate. He was one of 31 senators (all Republicans) to do so, while 68 voted to confirm the nominee.
Sessions also served as the ranking Republican on the Judiciary Committee during the nomination process for Elena Kagan, President Obama’s nominee to succeed retired Justice John Paul Stevens. Sessions based his opposition on the nominee’s lack of experience, her background as a political operative (Kagan had said that she worked in the Clinton White House not as a lawyer but as a policy adviser), and her record on guns, abortion, and gay rights. Sessions pointed out that Kagan “has a very thin record legally, never tried a case, never argued before a jury, only had her first appearance in the appellate courts a year ago."
Sessions focused the majority of his criticism on Kagan’s treatment of the military while she was dean of Harvard Law School. During her tenure, Kagan reinstated the practice of requiring military recruiters to coordinate their activities through a campus veterans organization, rather than the school’s Office of Career Services. Kagan argued that she was trying to comply with a law known as the Solomon Amendment, which barred federal funds from any college or university that did not grant military recruiters equal access to campus facilities. Sessions asserted that Kagan’s action was a violation of the Solomon Amendment and that it amounted to “demeaning and punishing the military. He also argued that her action showed a willingness to place her politics above the law.
On July 20, 2010, Sessions and five Republican colleagues voted against Kagan’s nomination. Despite this, the Judiciary Committee approved the nomination by a 13–6 vote. Sessions also voted against Kagan in the full Senate vote, joining 36 other senators (including one Democrat) in opposition. 63 senators voted to confirm Kagan. Following the vote, Sessions remarked on future nominations and elections, saying that Americans would "not forgive the Senate if we further expose our Constitution to revision and rewrite by judicial fiat to advance what President Obama says is a broader vision of what America should be."
On December 11, 2013, Sessions cosponsored the Victims of Child Abuse Act Reauthorization Act of 2013 (S. 1799; 113th Congress), a bill that would reauthorize the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 and would authorize funding through 2018 to help child abuse victims. Sessions argued that "there is not higher duty than protecting our nation's children, and this bill is an important step to ensure the most vulnerable children receive the care and support they deserve."
During his career, his largest donors have come from the legal, health, real estate and insurance industries. From 2005 to 2010, the corporations employing donors who gave the most to his campaign were the Southern Company utility firm, Balch & Bingham law firm, Harbert Management investment firm, Drummond Company coal mining firm, and WPP Group, a UK-based communications services company.
- Committee on Armed Services
- Committee on the Budget 
- Committee on Environment and Public Works
- Committee on the Judiciary
- International Narcotics Control Caucus
|Republican||Jeff Sessions (Incumbent)||795,606||97.25|
|Alabama U.S. Senate Republican Primary Election - 2008|
|Republican||Jeff Sessions*||1,305,383||63.36||+ 4.78|
|Democratic||Vivian Davis Figures||752,391||36.52|
|Republican||Jeff Sessions*||792,561||58.58||+ 6.13|
|Alabama U.S. Senate Republican Primary Election - 1996|
|Republican||Walter D. Clark||18,745||8.60|
|Alabama U.S. Senate Republican Primary Runoff Election - 1996|
|Natural Law||Charles R. Hebner||9,123||0.61|
|Alabama Attorney General Election - 1994|
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- Battle, Robert. "Ancestry of Jefferson Beauregard "Jeff" Sessions III". Rootsweb. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- Jeff Sessions, U.S. Senator Geni.com.
- "The Vindication of Jeff Sessions". Washington Examiner. May 31, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
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- "SESSIONS, Jefferson Beauregard III (Jeff)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
- Sarah Wildman (May 5, 2009). "Jeff Sessions's chequered past". theguardian.com. The Guardian.
- Glen Elsasser (March 29, 1986). "Judicial Nomination `In Deep Trouble". Chicago Tribune.
- Goldman, Sheldon (1999). Picking Federal Judges. Yale University Press. p. 309.
- Wildman, Sarah (December 30, 2002). "Closed Sessions. The senator who's worse than Lott.". The New Republic. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- Rudin, Ken; National Public Radio (May 5, 2009). "Blog: Specter Helped Defeat Sessions In 1986 Judiciary Vote". Political Junkie. NPR. Retrieved August 4, 2009. (blog)
- National Journal, "Sessions Says He's Looking For Judicial Restraint", May 7, 2009.
- Talking Points Memo, "Sessions Subordinate: I Thought I'd Be Fired If I Objected To Being Called 'Boy'" May 7, 2009.
- Williams, Lena (June 6, 1986). "Senate Panel Hands Reagan First Defeat On Nominee for Judgeship". The New York Times. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- Kathleen Hunter; Bart Jansen (May 1, 2009). "All Eyes on Grassley for Judiciary Republicans' Post-Specter Shuffle". CQ Politics. Free Republic. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
- Matt Kelley, Supreme Court pick Sotomayor under fire for comments, USA Today, May 29, 2009.
- Victor Williams, ""New Gang of 14" : Applying "Lets Get This Done" to Appointments", Huffington Post, March 1, 2010.
- Manu Raju, "Specter regrets 'no' vote on Sessions", Politico, May 5, 2009.
- Thomas Barrabi (November 4, 2014). "Jeff Sessions Wins Alabama Senate Race 2014: Republican Re-Elected In Uncontested Race". International Business Times. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
- Stanley-Becker, Isaac (18 July 2016). "In Trump's GOP, Sen. Jeff Sessions rockets from fringe to prime time". Washington Post. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- "Donald Trump Could Do Something Unprecedented In Modern Elections". The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 28, 2016.
- "Political Arithmetik: National Journal 2006 Liberal/Conservative Scores". Political Arithmetik. March 5, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "Sessions: President's Budget Raises Taxes $1.76 Trillion". weeklystandard.com. March 4, 2014. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- Sessions, Jeff (November 27, 2009). "Playing by Reid's rules on filibusters". Washington Post. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
- "The Taxpayer Protection Pledge Signers 112th Congressional List" (PDF). Americans for Tax Reform. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
- Brian J. Foley, "I Gave My Copy of the Constitution to a Pro-War Veteran", Antiwar.com, October 1, 2005.
- "S.77 – HEROES Act of 2005". Library of Congress. January 24, 2005. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- "Congressional Record, August 14, 2005". Sessions.senate.gov. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- "VFW attacks the three Republicans who voted against Senate VA bill". Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- Doyle, Steve (October 1, 2009). "Senate extends E-Verify through Oct. 31". Huntsville Times. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
- Bunis, Dena (September 29, 2006). "Border fence bill may race the clock". Orange County Register. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
- "Sen. Jeff Sessions says immigration bill has provision that lets Janet Napolitano skip fence". Tampa Bay Times Politifact. June 27, 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "Jeff Sessions on Tax Reform". Issues2000. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Jerry Underwood, "Senator Shelby wants auto bailout put in neutral", Birmingham News, November 16, 2008.
- Orndorff, Mary (January 30, 2009). "Alabama Sen. Jeff Sessions among GOP senators fighting stimulus package". Birmingham News. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
- Dwyer, Devin (September 15, 2011). "Republicans Demand to See Fine Print of Obama's Jobs Plan". ABC News. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
- "NOW – Sen. Jeff Sessions (R-Alabama) biography". National Organization for Women. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- "My Officials: Jeff Sessions". Human Rights Campaign.
- "Jeff Sessions – Civil Rights". Issues2000.
- "Senate roll call vote on the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010". Senate.gov. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- "Sessions open minded on gay justice". KGBT News (via Politico). May 7, 2010.
- Linkins, Jason (May 8, 2009). "Sessions: Gay Supreme Court Nominee "Would Be A Big Concern"". Huffington Post.
- "Obama's DEA Nominee Pledges To Ignore Administration's Medical Marijuana Policy".
- "Jeff Sessions: Marijuana Can't Be Safer Than Alcohol Because 'Lady Gaga Says She's Addicted To It".
- "On Passage of the Bill (H.R. 3590 as Amended )". U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
- "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "Twenty-five Republicans buck Cruz on shutdown". Politico. September 27, 2013. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- Robert Barnes, Amy Goldstein,Paul Kane, "Nominee Sotomayor at center stage in Senate", San Francisco Chronicle, July 14, 2009
- Steve Padilla, "Sotomayor hearings: Judge is adamant, Sessions is unconvinced", Los Angeles Times, July 15, 2009.
- Hirschfeld Davis, Julie (July 28, 2009). "Judiciary Committee OKs Sotomayor for high court". Associated Press. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
- Roll Call Vote on the Nomination of Sonia Sotomayor, U.S. Senate, August 6, 2009.
- Elena Kagan (October 17, 2007). "Speech to West Point Cadets" (PDF). Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- Bruce Drake (June 27, 2010). "Republicans to Focus on Whether Elena Kagan Would be a Judicial Activist". Politics Daily. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- JJeff Sessions (July 20, 2010). "A big-government vision". USA Today. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- Carl Hulse (August 5, 2010). "Senate Confirms Kagan in Partisan Vote". New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- Cox, Ramsey (June 30, 2014). "Senate passes bill to protect children from abuse". The Hill. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- Center for Responsible Politics, accessed May 16, 2010, Jeff Sessions: Campaign Finance/Money – Summary – Senate Career
- Center for Responsible Politics, accessed May 16, 2010, Jeff Sessions: Campaign Finance/Money – Top Donors – Senator 2010
- "Committee Assignments: Standing Committees" (PDF).
- "Certified General Election Results" (PDF). Alabama Secretary of State. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jeff Sessions|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jeff Sessions.|
- Senator Jeff Sessions official U.S. Senate site
- Jeff Sessions for Senate
- Jeff Sessions at DMOZ
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at The Library of Congress
- Collected news and commentary from Politico
|Attorney General of Alabama
|Party political offices|
|Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Alabama
1996, 2002, 2008, 2014
|United States Senate|
|U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Alabama
Served alongside: Richard Shelby
|United States order of precedence (ceremonial)|
|United States Senators by seniority