Jeffrey M. Bradshaw

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Jeffrey M. Bradshaw
Jeffrey Bradshaw.jpg
Born1956 (age 61–62)
Salt Lake City, Utah
ResidenceUnited States
CitizenshipUnited States
Alma materUniversity of Utah
Brigham Young University
University of Washington
Scientific career
FieldsCognitive Science, Computer Science
InstitutionsFlorida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition
Doctoral advisorEarl B. Hunt

Jeffrey M. Bradshaw (PhD in Cognitive Science, University of Washington) is a Senior Research Scientist at the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), where he led the research group developing the KAoS policy and domain services framework for distributed systems management and coordination of human-agent-robot teamwork.[1][2] He also co-leads the development of the Luna Agent Framework and the Sol Cyber Framework.[3][4] Bradshaw chairs the Scientific Advisory Council for the Nissan Research Center Silicon Valley (NRC-SV),[5][6] which has the development of autonomous vehicles as a major focus.[7] He and his wife, Kathleen, began a two-year leave of absence from IHMC beginning July 2016 to serve a mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kinshasa Mission of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.[8] They returned to the United States in 2018.[9]

Jeff has been a Fulbright Senior Scholar at the European Institute for Cognitive Sciences and Engineering (EURISCO) in Toulouse, France; a visiting professor at the Institut de Cognitique at the University of Bordeaux;[10][11] is former chair of ACM SIGART (now SIGAI);[12] and former chair of the RIACS Science Council for NASA Ames Research Center. He served as a member of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Emerging Cognitive Neuroscience Research in the Next Two Decades,[13] was an advisor to the HCI and Visualization program at the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI),[14] and was a scientific advisor to the Japanese NEC Technology Paradigm Shifts initiative. He also served as a member of the Board on Global Science and Technology for the National Academies of Science[15] and as an external advisory board member of the Cognitive Science and Technology Program at Sandia National Laboratories.[16] He is an Honorary Visiting Researcher at the Center for Intelligent Systems and their Applications and AIAI at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland,[17] a member of the Graduate Faculty at the Florida Institute of Technology,[18] a faculty associate at the University of West Florida,[19] and is a member of the Technical Committee for IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics.[20] He was a member of the 2015 Defense Science Board Summer Study on Autonomy. In 2011, he received the Web Intelligence Consortium Outstanding Contributions Award.[21]

Bradshaw has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Web Semantics, the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, the Knowledge Acquisition Journal, the International Journal of Human-Computer Studies,[22] Schedae Informaticae, and the Web Intelligence Journal.[23] With Robert Hoffman and Ken Ford, he served as co-editor of the Human-Centered Computing Department for IEEE Intelligent Systems and is a co-editor of Collected Essays on Human-Centered Computing, 2001-2011.[24]

Professional Background[edit]


Bradshaw did his undergraduate work in psychology at the University of Utah. After a year as a research assistant to Bruce L. Brown (cognitive psychology) and Allen E. Bergin (clinical psychology) at Brigham Young University, he entered the clinical psychology program at the University of Washington, under the supervision of Irwin G. Sarason.

As Bradshaw began work on his dissertation, he became aware of the work of John H. Boose, inventor of the automated knowledge acquisition tool, ETS[25] at the recently formed Artificial Intelligence Center at The Boeing Company. Given their mutual interest in the work of American psychologist George Kelly, he was invited by John to join the newly created organization. Within the knowledge acquisition community, he collaborated with colleagues that would be influential throughout his subsequent professional life, including Guy André Boy, William Clancey, Paul J. Feltovich, Kenneth M. Ford, Brian R. Gaines, Tom Gruber, Robert H. Hoffman, David Madigan, Enrico Motta, Mark Musen, Nigel Shadbolt, Mildred Shaw, Bob Wielinga, among many others.[26] In harmony with his new professional direction, he switched his emphasis at the University of Washington [27] and ultimately received his Ph.D. in cognitive science, with Earl B. Hunt as chair of his committee.

1985-2000: Boeing and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center[edit]

From 1985 to 2000, Bradshaw led various research groups at The Boeing Company.[28] Though his earliest publications were focused on memory and language, his research focus soon turned to a wide variety of topics relating human and machine intelligence. With Ken Ford he edited Knowledge Acquisition as a Modeling Activity[29] and became well known for his role in helping develop a suite of successful methodologies and tools for automated knowledge acquisition and for the simplification of complex modeling tasks (Aquinas, Axotl, Canard, DDUCKS). He led the development of eQuality, an interactive visual framework with an underlying ontology-based model for streamlining strategic corporate business processes that was used as the principal enterprise modeling tool for the Boeing 777 airplane program.[30]

Bradshaw has had a continuing interest in improving health care. For eight years he co-led a group at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and was co-principal investigator for an Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) computerized decision support systems (CDSS) grant to develop knowledge-based technology to provide better long-term post-transplant care of bone marrow transplantation patients scattered throughout the world.[31]

Learning technologies has been another area of focus for Bradshaw. He co-chaired The Fourth International Workshop on Human and Machine Cognition, "Education and Smart Machines."[32] As co-chair of the Emerging Technologies subcommittee of the Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee (AICC) for several years, he coordinated cooperative research efforts by airlines, airframe manufacturers, and the computer industry to increase interoperability of advanced training and agent-based performance support tools.[33]

In 1993, Bradshaw was selected as a Fulbright Senior Scholar. His project brought him to the European Institute for Cognitive Sciences and Engineering (EURISCO) in Toulouse, France.[34][35] During his year in France, he drafted the manuscript of a book entitled Software Agents,[36] which became a classic in the field and a best-seller for The MIT Press. Bradshaw saw this new direction as a natural evolution from his early work on knowledge acquisition.[26]

2000-Present: Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC)[edit]

In 1997, Bradshaw took a year-long leave-of-absence from Boeing to pursue research at the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), which was directed by his long-time colleague Ken Ford. In 2000, he joined IHMC full-time.

Bradshaw continued to pioneer the research areas of multi-agent systems. He led the DARPA- and NASA-funded ITAC study team, Software Agents for the Warfighter.[37] He served for over a decade on the Board of Directors of the International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.[38] In addition to his participation as an organizer in many agent-related conferences, he served as co-program chair for the IEEE / WIC / ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology (WI-IAT 2011)[39] and was a co-program chair of the Third International Conference on Autonomous Agents (1999).[40] He served as co-program chair for Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI 2008),[41] as program vice chair of the 2008 IEEE International Conference on Distributed Human-Machine Systems (DHMS 2008),[42] and as co-general chair of the 2009 International Conference on Active Media Technologies (AMT).[43] Current work on the Luna Software Agent Framework leverages IHMC's extensive experience in the design of agent systems.[44] He is also well known for his work on KAoS, a policy and domain services framework based on W3C's OWL ontology standard.[45][46]

Bradshaw's work on the Sol Cyber Framework was sponsored by the United States Department of Defense to address the demanding requirements of distributed network operations centers.[47] Specifically, Luna software agents, KAoS security and teamwork policies, and visualizations based on an understanding of human perception and cognition are used to enable distributed sensemaking, rapid detection of threats, effective protection of critical resources, and resilient mission assurance. He collaborated with Sandia National Laboratories on the "Human Dimensions of Cyber Operations" initiative. In August 2012, he was an invited speaker at the Second Experimental Security Panoramas for Critical System Protection Workshop.

Human-Agent-Robot Teamwork has been one of Bradshaw's central interests for many years. From 2002-2006, KAoS was used as part of a NASA series of annual two-week field tests of human-robot teams performing simulated planetary surface exploration at the Mars Desert Research Station in the Utah desert.[48] Bradshaw was sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security to undertake detailed simulation studies of the use of human-robot teams to secure facilities at Port Everglades. He has also led the ONR-sponsored NAIMT and Coordinated Operations projects where a team of humans and heterogeneous robots performed field exercises at the Naval Air Station in Pensacola, aimed at port reconnaissance, and robot-assisted detection and apprehension of intruders.[49] He co-founded and organized the Human-Agent-Robot Teamwork Workshop (HART) series (2010, 2012,[50] 2015,[51] 2016[52]). He served as lead editor for a special issue of IEEE Intelligent Systems on HART[53][54] and led an international workshop for the National Academies of Science on Intelligent Human-Machine Collaboration.[55] Several of Jeff's co-authored papers relating to the inadequacies of the supervisory control model were cited in a July 2012 Defense Science Board Task Force Report on the role of autonomy in the United States Department of Defense, which recommended that the DoD abandon the use of "levels of autonomy."[56] He served as a member of the 2015 Defense Science Board Summer Study on Autonomy.[57][58]

Bradshaw chairs the Scientific Advisory Council for the Nissan Research Center Silicon Valley (NRC-SV), which has the development of autonomous vehicles as its major focus.[5][6][59]

In partnership with the Autodesk Research Digital Environment program,[60] Bradshaw led IHMC participation in the Advanced Technologies for Life-Cycle Management of Sustainable Building Performance initiative and is a member of the Parametric Human Consortium.[61] He has participated in NASA Blue Sky Study Groups for the "Human-Centered Vision of Mars Exploration" and for the "Small Pressurized Rover,"[62] (later called the "Lunar Electric Rover"[63]) as well as the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Blue Sky study on "Improving Understanding of Complex Information."

Personal background[edit]

Jeff and his wife Kathleen are the parents of four children and twelve grandchildren.[64] He has served twice as a bishop in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and twice as a counselor in the Pensacola Florida Stake Presidency.[27][65][66] Among other publications on temples and the ancient Near East, Jeff has written two volumes to date for a highly acclaimed scholarly commentary series on the book of Genesis entitled In God's Image and Likeness.[67][68] He maintains a blog entitled "Temple Themes in the Scriptures".[27] He is a vice president for The Interpreter Foundation[69] and a member of the Advisory Board for the Academy for Temple Studies.[70] Jeff is the co-founder of Interpreter Science and Mormonism Symposium series, including the 2013 meeting entitled "Cosmos, Earth, and Man"[71] and the 2016 meeting entitled "Body, Brain, Mind, and Spirit".[72] In June 2018, Jeff and Kathleen completed two years of missionary service in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kinshasa Mission.[73]


  1. ^ IHMC Ontology and Policy Management: Published Articles
  2. ^ MILCOM 2011 - Unclassified Program Schedule
  3. ^ Sol: An Agent-Based Framework for Cyber Situation Awareness - Springer
  4. ^ Bunch, L., J.M. Bradshaw, M. Carvalho, T. Eskridge, P. Feltovich, J. Lott and A. Uszok. Human-Agent Teamwork in Cyber Operations: Supporting Co-Evolution of Tasks and Artifacts with Luna. Invited Paper in Ingo J. Timm and Christian Guttmann (eds.), Multiagent System Technologies: Proceedings of the Tenth German Conference on Multiagent System Technologies (MATES 2012), Trier, Germany, 10–12 October 2012. Berlin, Germany: Springer, LNAI 7598, pp. 53-67
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ SAC 2008 - Keynotes Page
  11. ^
  12. ^ Special Interest Group on Artificial Intelligence
  13. ^ Emerging Cognitive Neuroscience and Related Technologies
  14. ^ Unbenanntes Dokument
  15. ^
  16. ^ Sandia National Laboratories: Cognitive Science and Applications
  17. ^ AIAI People
  18. ^ Human-Centered Design Institute
  19. ^ Resea3.indd
  20. ^ Distributed Intelligent Systems - IEEE SMC
  21. ^ WIC Annual
  22. ^ International Journal of Human-Computer Studies - Elsevier
  23. ^ WIC Journal
  24. ^ Collected Essays on Human-Centered Computing, 2001-2011: Robert R. Hoffman, Pat Hayes, Kenneth M. Ford, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw: 9780769547152: Books
  25. ^ Expertise transfer for expert system design - John H. Boose - Google Boeken
  26. ^ a b "From knowledge science to symbiosis science". International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. 71: 171–176. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2012.10.003.
  27. ^ a b c Mormon Scholars Testify » Blog Archive » Jeffrey M. Bradshaw
  28. ^
  29. ^ Knowledge Acquisition As Modeling
  30. ^ eQuality
  31. ^ "Distributed Reuse of Knowledge in a Computerized Decision Support System for Bone-Marrow Post-Transplant Care Over the World Wide Web". Proc AMIA Annu Fall Symp: 844. PMC 2233379.
  32. ^ Smart Machines in Education: Kenneth D. Forbus, Paul J. Feltovich: 9780262561419: Books
  33. ^
  34. ^ KAoS: A Knowledge Agent-Oriented System
  35. ^
  36. ^ Software Agents
  37. ^ Three architectures for semantic integration of agents
  38. ^
  39. ^ Web Intelligence Consortium
  40. ^ Proceedings of the third annual conference on Autonomous Agents
  41. ^ Intelligent User Interfaces
  42. ^ 2008 IEEE International Conference on Distributed Human-Machine Systems
  43. ^ AMT-BI 2009
  44. ^ Invited Talk Human-Agent Teamwork in Cyber Defense - Springer
  45. ^ IHMC Ontology and Policy Management: Published Articles
  46. ^ MILCOM 2011 - Unclassified Program Schedule
  47. ^ Bunch, L., J.M. Bradshaw, Robert R. Hoffman, and Matthew Johnson. Principles for Human-Centered Interaction Design, Part 2: Can Humans and Machines Think Together? IEEE Intelligent Systems, May/June 2015 (vol. 30 iss. 3), pp. 68-75.
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^ Human-agent-robot teamwork
  54. ^
  55. ^ Intelligent Human-Machine Collaboration: Summary of a Workshop
  56. ^
  57. ^ Summer Study on Autonomy
  58. ^ [1]
  59. ^
  60. ^ Digital Environment - Projects - Autodesk Research
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^ Human Exploration of the Solar System Lunar Rover, How the Lunar Electric Rover will work
  64. ^
  65. ^ "New stake presidents", Church News, 2011-05-28.
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^

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