Jejudo

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This article is about the South Korean island. For the South Korean province, see Jeju Province. For the city, see Jeju City.
Jeju-do
Native name: 제주도
Nickname: Sammu-samda-do
(Island of no three kinds and many three kinds)
Image of Jejudo
Image of Jejudo
Map of Jejudo
Map of Jejudo
Geography
Location East Asia
Archipelago Jeju
Area 1,848 km2 (714 sq mi)
Length 73 km (45.4 mi)
Width 64 km (39.8 mi)
Highest elevation 1,950 m (6,400 ft)
Highest point Hallasan
Country
South Korea
Special Autonomous Province Jeju Special Autonomous Province
Largest settlement Jeju City (pop. 408,364)
Demographics
Population 583,284
Ethnic groups Korean
Jejudo
Hangul 제주도
Hanja 濟州島
Revised Romanization Jejudo
McCune–Reischauer Chejudo

Jejudo is the largest island on the Korean Peninsula, and the main island of Jeju Province. The island lies in the Korea Strait, southwest of South Jeolla Province. The island contains the natural World Heritage Site Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes.[1] Jeju Island has a temperate climate and even in winter, the temperature rarely falls below freezing point.

History[edit]

Historical names[edit]

Historically, the island has been called by many different names including:

  • Doi (도이, 島夷, literally "Island barbarian")
  • Dongyeongju (동영주, 東瀛州)
  • Juho (주호, 州胡)
  • Tammora (탐모라, 耽牟羅)
  • Seomra (섭라, 涉羅)
  • Tangna (탁라, 乇羅)
  • Tamna (탐라, 耽羅)
  • Quelpart
  • Junwonhado (준원하도, 준원下島 meaning southern part of peninsula)
  • Taekseungnido (택승리도, meaning the peaceful hot island in Joseon Dynasty)

Before the Japanese annexation in 1910, the island was usually known as Quelpart to Europeans. The name apparently came from the first European ship to spot the island, the Dutch Quelpaert, which sighted it after being blown off course on its way to the Dutch trading base in Nagasaki, Japan, from Taiwan (then the Dutch colony of Formosa).

When Korea was annexed by Japan in 1910, Jeju then became known as Saishū, which is the Japanese reading of the hanja for Jeju.

Before 2000, when the Seoul government changed the official Romanization of Hangul, Jeju-do was spelled Cheju-do. Almost all written references to the island before that use that spelling.

Geography[edit]

Baengnokdam in Hallasan
Waves crashing on Jeju seashore

Jeju Island is a volcanic island, dominated by Halla-san (Halla Mountain): a volcano 1,950 metres (6,400 ft) high and the highest mountain in South Korea. The island measures approximately 73 kilometres (45 mi) across, east to west, and 41 kilometres (25 mi) from north to south.[2]

The island was created entirely from volcanic eruptions approximately 2 million years ago, during the time period extending from the Tertiary to the beginning of the Quaternary period, and consists chiefly of basalt and lava. The eruptions took place in the Cenozoic era. It has a humid subtropical climate, warmer than that of the rest of Korea, with four distinct weather seasons. Winters are cool and dry while summers are hot, humid, and sometimes rainy.

An area covering about 12% (224 square kilometres or 86 square miles) of Jeju is known as Gotjawal Forest.[3] This area remained uncultivated until the 21st century, as its base of ʻAʻā lava made it difficult to develop for agriculture. Because this forest remained pristine for so long, it has a unique ecology.[4] The forest is the main source of groundwater and thus the main water source for the half million people of the island, because rainwater penetrates directly into the aquifer through the cracks of the ʻAʻā lava under the forest. Gotjawal forest is considered an internationally important wetland under the Ramsar Convention by some researchers[5] because it is the habitat of unique species of plants and is the main source of water for the residents, although to date it has not been declared a Ramsar site.[6]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Jeju-si, Jeju-do (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
9.4
(48.9)
12.8
(55)
17.5
(63.5)
21.6
(70.9)
24.8
(76.6)
29.0
(84.2)
29.8
(85.6)
25.8
(78.4)
21.3
(70.3)
16.0
(60.8)
11.0
(51.8)
18.9
(66)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.7
(42.3)
6.4
(43.5)
9.4
(48.9)
13.8
(56.8)
17.8
(64)
21.5
(70.7)
25.8
(78.4)
26.8
(80.2)
23.0
(73.4)
18.2
(64.8)
12.8
(55)
8.1
(46.6)
15.8
(60.4)
Average low °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
3.6
(38.5)
6.1
(43)
10.2
(50.4)
14.4
(57.9)
18.7
(65.7)
23.3
(73.9)
24.3
(75.7)
20.4
(68.7)
15.1
(59.2)
9.8
(49.6)
5.3
(41.5)
12.9
(55.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 65.2
(2.567)
62.6
(2.465)
88.6
(3.488)
89.6
(3.528)
96.4
(3.795)
181.4
(7.142)
239.9
(9.445)
262.5
(10.335)
221.6
(8.724)
80.3
(3.161)
61.9
(2.437)
47.7
(1.878)
1,497.6
(58.961)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.6 10.3 11.2 10.0 10.4 11.8 12.5 13.5 10.8 7.0 9.3 10.8 130.2
Avg. relative humidity (%) 65.3 64.9 64.9 66.5 70.4 76.8 78.3 76.5 73.7 66.9 65.1 65.1 69.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 70.4 105.4 158.9 194.4 211.9 170.9 195.6 195.6 161.7 178.5 126.0 84.8 1,854.1
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration[7]
Climate data for Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 10.7
(51.3)
11.6
(52.9)
14.4
(57.9)
18.5
(65.3)
22.0
(71.6)
24.6
(76.3)
28.3
(82.9)
30.1
(86.2)
27.4
(81.3)
23.4
(74.1)
18.2
(64.8)
13.2
(55.8)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
7.8
(46)
10.6
(51.1)
14.8
(58.6)
18.6
(65.5)
21.7
(71.1)
25.6
(78.1)
27.1
(80.8)
23.9
(75)
19.3
(66.7)
14.1
(57.4)
9.3
(48.7)
16.6
(61.9)
Average low °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
4.4
(39.9)
7.1
(44.8)
11.3
(52.3)
15.3
(59.5)
19.2
(66.6)
23.5
(74.3)
24.6
(76.3)
21.1
(70)
15.9
(60.6)
10.6
(51.1)
5.9
(42.6)
13.5
(56.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 61.0
(2.402)
77.1
(3.035)
131.2
(5.165)
174.9
(6.886)
205.8
(8.102)
276.9
(10.902)
309.8
(12.197)
291.6
(11.48)
196.6
(7.74)
81.6
(3.213)
71.4
(2.811)
45.1
(1.776)
1,923
(75.709)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 10.3 9.5 11.0 10.5 10.7 12.9 14.3 14.2 10.3 6.1 7.4 8.1 125.3
Avg. relative humidity (%) 62.8 62.1 62.4 64.5 69.9 78.2 84.1 79.0 72.5 63.9 63.2 62.2 68.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 152.2 152.6 174.0 190.9 199.0 144.2 142.1 184.2 176.1 207.1 170.5 161.8 2,054.7
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration[8]

Places of Interest[edit]

Utilities[edit]

The island's power-grid is connected to mainland plants by the HVDC Haenam-Cheju, and electricity is also provided by generators located on the island. As of 2001, there were four power plants on Jeju, with more under planning and construction. The most notable of these are the gas-fired generators of Jeju Thermal Power Plant, located in Jeju City. The present-day generators of this plant were constructed from 1982 onwards, replacing earlier structures that dated from 1968.[11] As elsewhere in Korea, the power supply is overseen by the Korea Electric Power Corporation, or KEPCO.

In February 2012, the governor of the state of Hawaii, Neil Abercrombie, and the director of the Electricity Market and Smart Grid Division at the Korea Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Choi Kyu-Chong, signed a letter of intent to share information about Smart Grid technology. The Jeju Smart Grid was initially installed in 6,000 homes in Gujwa-eup and is being expanded. South Korea is using the pilot program of the Smart Grid on Jeju Island as the testing ground in order to implement a nationwide Smart Grid by 2030.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Unesco names World Heritage sites". BBC News. June 28, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2010. 
  2. ^ Map of Korea: Cheju Island The People's Korea. Accessed 8 July 2012
  3. ^ Jeong, Gwang-jung, 2004, Gotjawal and the livelihood of Jeju's People, 2004, Jeju Educational College, V. 33, pp. 41–65. 정광중, 2004, 곶자왈과 제주인의 삶, 제주교육대학교 논문집. http://www.riss4u.net/link?id=A35499718, page 49
  4. ^ Yim, Eun-young, 2007, Bryophyte Flora of Dongbaek-dongsan, Jeju-do, Cheju National University, M.A. thesis. 임은영, 2007, 제주도 동백동산의 선태식물상, 제주대학교 석사학위논문. http://www.riss4u.net/link?id=U10812496_003
  5. ^ Jang, Yong-chang and Chanwon Lee, 2009, "Gotjawal Forest as an internationally important wetland," Journal of Korean Wetlands Studies, 2009, Vol 1.
  6. ^ Ramsar site list at the Wayback Machine (archived January 14, 2009) Accessed June 2009
  7. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 제주(184)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  8. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 서귀포(189)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  9. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 성산(188)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  10. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 고산(185)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  11. ^ "Jeju Thermal P/P". Korea Midland Power website. Archived from the original on June 16, 2005. Retrieved July 29, 2005. 
  12. ^ "Korea and Hawaii join forces in Smart Grid venture". The Jeju Weekly. Feb 24, 2012. Retrieved Mar 5, 2012. 

Coordinates: 33°21′56″N 126°31′41″E / 33.3656°N 126.5281°E / 33.3656; 126.5281