Jemima Wilkinson (29 November 1752 - July 1, 1819) was a charismatic American evangelist who preached total sexual abstinence and the Ten Commandments to the Quaker "Society of Universal Friends." Wilkinson's family were strict Quakers; most of their views came from their upbringing in the Quaker religion.
Early life and "resurrection"
Jemima was the daughter of Amy (née Whipple) and Jeremiah Wilkinson, the cousin of Stephen Hopkins, in Cumberland, Rhode Island. The family attended silent worship with Quakers at the Smithfield Meeting House. As a young person in the mid-1770s, Wilkinson also attended meetings with New Light Baptists.
In 1776, a minor epidemic of typhoid spread throughout Rhode Island, and Jemima was infected. This debilitating illness culminated in a fevered state, leaving Wilkinson bedridden and near death. Upon awakening, Jemima claimed to have been sent by God to preach his message. They believed that Christ entered their body during their illness and that they were now neither female nor male. This propelled them to claim that they were "a holy vessel of Jesus Christ and God and the Holy Spirit". They became the "Publick Universal Friend", reborn at their eulogy, and never again responded to their original birth name.
The year "the Friend" came out, they were rejected by their Quaker brethren. Accompanied by several siblings, they began to travel and preach to residents of Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut. During the 1780s, they lived in Worcester and rode a white horse into Philadelphia, PA to preach, where they drew substantial audiences and grew their congregation of "Universal Friends". They were accused of plagiarizing documents authored by members of the Society of Friends, and their personal "seal" may have been adapted from the Quakers. Several Philadelphia newspapers made especial effort to condemn, expose, and discredit their preaching. Being female in the 1700s made the friend a favorite target for libel and slander, but ironically the grandson of their brother Jeptha Wilkinson would later become the inventor of the modern press wheel.
Wilkinson preached a regimen of strict abstinence, and friendship with everyone. They implored all to accept the Fatherhood of God. Many people came to visit them and their followers and were taken in with open arms. Many who came to visit were given all the comforts of home and were only asked to leave if they had done something against the Friends. Michael Bronski writes that by the "mid-1780s the popular press and pamphlet culture covered their sermons in detail and placed particular emphasis on their sexually ambiguous persona. They had a huge following that verged on a cult and eventually started their own religious settlement in central New York State."
In March 1790, they began their "group exodus", travelling upstream along the Susquehanna River through present-day Wilkes Barre, PA and Elmira, NY. On 13 April 1790, they and their followers finally reached the north end of Keuka Lake. They named their new township Jerusalem, NY, but it would later be called Penn Yan, NY. They and their followers were the first white people that the Native Americans in this region ever saw and traded with. They claimed to be called "Chief" by the Seneca nation-tribe.
The Jemima Wilkinson House is still standing in Jerusalem, New York, on a List of Registered Historic Places in Yates County, New York, located on the same branch of Keuka Lake as the birthplace of Seneca Red Jacket.
Wilkinson was one of the first visionaries of religion and Women's rights in the United States. Their followers pioneered the area between Seneca Lake and Keuka Lake, erecting a grain Mill at present-day Dresden, NY.
- Hudson, David. History of Jemima Wilkinson: a preacheress of the eighteenth century, p. ii APPENDIX, NO II
- Bronski, Michael (2011). A Queer History of the United States. Xxx: Beacon Press. p. 50. ISBN 0807044652.
- Wisbey, Herbert A. Jr. Pioneer Prophetess Jemima Wilkinson, the Publick Universal Friend. Cornell University Press.
- Rev. Israel Wilkinson, 1869 Memoirs of the Wilkinson Family in America
- Bronski, Michael (2011). A Queer History of the United States. Xxx: Beacon Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0807044650.
- Pritchard, Ruth."THE VOICE THAT SPAKE AS NEVER MAN SPAKE" (WILKINSON, JEMIMA.)
- Davis, Miles Avery. HISTORY OF JERUSALEM.
- The Friend's Society Index
- Jemima Wilkinson: Celibacy and the Communal Life, The Re-Incarnation of the Divine in Female Form, 1758-1819.
- Last Will & Testament
- Social roots of the Mormon United Order
- PBS History Detectives episode looks at Incorporation papers for Universal Friends
- Claus Bernet (2002). "Jemima Wilkinson". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German) 20. Nordhausen: Bautz. cols. 1545–1553. ISBN 3-88309-091-3.