University of Jena
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Logo of the University of Jena
|Latin: Universitas Litterarum Jenensis|
|Budget||€ 372 million|
|Location||Jena, Thuringia, Germany|
The university was established in 1558 and is counted among the ten oldest universities in Germany. It is affiliated with six Nobel Prize winners, most recently in 2000 when Jena graduate Herbert Kroemer won the Nobel Prize for physics. It was renamed after the poet Friedrich Schiller who was teaching as professor of philosophy when Jena attracted some of the most influential minds at the turn of the 19th century. With Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, G. W. F. Hegel, F. W. J. Schelling and Friedrich von Schlegel on its teaching staff, the university has been at the centre of the emergence of German idealism and early Romanticism.
Elector John Frederick of Saxony first thought of a plan to establish a university at Jena upon Saale in 1547 while he was being held captive by emperor Charles V. The plan was put into motion by his three sons and, after having obtained a charter from the Emperor Ferdinand I, the university was established on 2 February 1558. The university, jointly maintained by the Saxon Duchies who derived from partitioning of John Frederick's duchy, was thus named Ducal Pan-Saxon University (German: Herzoglich Sächsische Gesamtuniversität) or Salana (after the river Saale).
Prior to the 20th century, University enrollment peaked in the 18th century. The university's reputation peaked under the auspices of Duke Charles Augustus, Goethe's patron (1787–1806), when Gottlieb Fichte, G. W. F. Hegel, Friedrich Schelling, Friedrich von Schlegel and Friedrich Schiller were on its teaching staff.
Founded as a home for the new religious opinions of the sixteenth century, it has since been one of the most politically radical universities in Germany. Jena was noted among other German universities at the time for allowing students to duel and to have a passion for Freiheit, which were popularly regarded as the necessary characteristics of German student life. The University of Jena has preserved a historical detention room or Karzer with famous caricatures by Swiss painter Martin Disteli.
In the latter 19th century, the department of zoology taught evolutionary theory, with Carl Gegenbaur, Ernst Haeckel and others publishing detailed theories at the time of Darwin's "Origin of Species" (1858). The later fame of Ernst Haeckel eclipsed Darwin in some European countries, as the term "Haeckelism" was more common than Darwinism.
In 1905, Jena had 1,100 students enrolled and its teaching staff (including Privatdozenten) numbered 112. Amongst its numerous auxiliaries then were the library, with 200,000 volumes; the observatory; the meteorological institute; the botanical garden; the seminaries of theology, philology, and education; and the well-equipped clinical, anatomical, and physical institutes.
After the end of the Saxon duchies in 1918, and their merger with further principalities into the Free State of Thuringia in 1920, the university was renamed as the Thuringian State University (Thüringische Landesuniversität) in 1921. In 1934 the university was renamed again, receiving its present name of Friedrich Schiller University. During the 20th century, the cooperation between Zeiss corporation and the university brought new prosperity and attention to Jena, resulting in a dramatic increase in funding and enrollment.
During the Third Reich, staunch Nazis moved into leading positions at the university. The racial researcher and SS-Hauptscharführer Karl Astel was appointed professor in 1933, bypassing traditional qualifications and process; he later became rector of the University in 1939. Also in 1933, many professors had to leave the university as a consequence of the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service. Student fraternities - in particular the Burschenschaften - were dissolved and incorporated into the Nazi student federation. The Nazi student federation enjoyed before the transfer of power and won great support among the student body elections in January 1933, achieving 49.3% of the vote, which represents the second best result. Between the Jena connections and the NS students wide-ranging human and ideological connections were recorded.
When the Allied air raids to Jena in February and March struck in 1945, the University Library, the University main building and several clinics in the Bachstraße received total or significant physical damage. Completely destroyed were the Botanical Garden, the psychological and the physiological institute and three chemical Institutes. An important event for the National Socialist period was the investigation of the pediatrician Yusuf Ibrahim. A Senate Commission noted the participation of the physician to the "euthanasia" murders of physically or mentally disabled children.
In the 20th century the university was promoted through cooperation with Carl Zeiss (company) and also became thereby a mass university. In 1905 the university had 1,100 students and 112 university teachers, so this figure has since been almost twenty-fold. The Thuringian State University is the only comprehensive university of the Free State.
Since 1995, there is a university association with the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg and the University of Leipzig. The aim is firstly to give the students the opportunity to visit with relatively few problems at the partner universities and events in order to broaden the range of subjects and topics. Currently e. g. has joined a cooperation in teaching in the field of bioinformatics. In addition, the cooperation provides the university management the opportunity to share experiences with their regular meetings and initiate common projects. So z. B. went from the successful bid to the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) from the University network. The co-operation continues at other levels: for example in a joint mentoring program for female postdocs or in the central German archives network. And last but not least, there are common sports activities.
The university is organised into the following ten schools:
- economics and business administration
- social and behavioural sciences
- mathematics and computer science
- physics and astronomy
- chemical and earth sciences
- biology and pharmacy
Research at Friedrich Schiller University traditionally focusses on both humanities and sciences. In addition to the faculties the following "Collaborative Research Centres" (German "Sonderforschungsbereich", short: "SFB") operate at the university:
- SFB/TR 7 "Gravitationswellenastronomie: Methoden - Quellen - Beobachtung"
- SFB/TR 18 Relativistische Laser-Plasma-Dynamik
- SFB 1076 "AquaDiva : Understanding the Links Between Surface and Subsurface Biogeospere"
- SFB/TR 124 FungiNet "Pathogenic fungi and their human host: Networks of interaction"
- SFB 1127 "Chemische Mediatoren in komplexen Biosystemen"
- SFB / TR 166 "Hochleistungs-Lichtmikroskopie zur Aufklärung der Funktionen von Membranrezeptoren (ReceptorLight)"
In 2006 the research center, Jena Center - History of the 20th century, was founded. In 2007 the graduate school "Jena School for Microbial Communication" (JSMC) was established within the German Universities Excellence Initiative. In 2008 the Center for Molecular Biomedicine (CMB) and the interdisciplinary research center Laboratory of the Enlightenment were developed as research institutions. 2014 the "Center of Advanced Research" (ZAF) was established.
Jena University is one of the founder of The German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, that was founded in 2013. It is a research centre of the German Research Foundation (DFG).
Friedrich Schiller University is the only German University with a chair for gravitational theory and one for Caucasus Studies.
Notable faculty and alumni
- Eva Ahnert-Rohlfs (doctorate in astronomy 1951)
- Johann Bachstrom, writer, scientist, physician and Lutheran theologian
- Ernst Gottfried Baldinger, German physician
- Hans Berger
- Rudolf Brandt (1909–1948), Nazi SS officer, executed for war crimes
- Werner Braune (1909–1951), Nazi SS officer, executed for war crimes
- Alfred Brehm
- Rudolf Carnap
- Heinrich Cotta, pioneer of scientific forestry
- Georg Friedrich Creuzer
- Claus Dierksmeier German philosopher
- Carl H. Dorner
- Johann Gottlieb Fichte
- Gottlob Frege
- Roland Freisler
- Johann Matthias Gesner
- Nelson Glueck
- Peter Griess
- Friedrich von Hagedorn
- Arvid Harnack
- Gerhart Hauptmann Nobel Prize–winning writer
- Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
- Cuno Hoffmeister
- George Kessler
- Georg Klaus
- Karl Korsch (graduated from the University of Jena's law school summa cum laude superato, 1911)
- Jan Kollár, Panslavist and poet
- Li Linsi, Chinese educator and diplomat
- István Kováts
- Karl Christian Friedrich Krause
- Herbert Kroemer, Nobel Prize–winning physicist
- August Leskien
- Robert Ley
- Francis Lieber, emigrant to USA, author of "Lieber Code"
- Lucas Maius
- Karl Marx (doctorate in absentia, 1841)
- Ernest Nash
- Ernst Ottwalt
- Axel Oxenstierna
- Henri Pittier
- Samuel von Pufendorf
- Gerhard von Rad
- Erich Roth (1910–1947), Nazi Gestapo member executed for war crimes
- Solomon Marcus Schiller-Szinessy, doctorate (philosophy) (mathematics)
- Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
- Friedrich Schiller
- Arthur Schopenhauer (philosophy doctorate in absentia, 1813)
- Otto Schott, inventor of borosilicate glass
- Hugo Schuchardt, linguist
- David Spence (rubber chemistry), early pioneer in rubber chemistry
- Johann Gustav Stickel, orientalist
- Michael Stifel
- Kurt Tucholsky
- Christa Wolf
- Christian Wolff
- Carl Zeiss
Museums and collections at the University
Among the collections which are open to the public are the Phyletic Museum, an institution which is unique in Europe for illustrating the history of evolution, the Ernst-Haeckel-Memorialmuseum, the Mineralogical Collection which traces its roots back to Goethe and the second oldest Botanical Garden of Middle Europe. The Schiller Gardenhouse and the Goethe Memorial at the Botanical Garden are reminders of the two towering geniuses of Jena. Both buildings are also open to the public.
Oriental Collections / Papyrus Collection
- The Alphons-Stübel-Collection of Early Photographs from the Orient (1857-1890)
- Hilprecht Collection
- Orientalisches Münzkabinett (OMJ)
- Papyrus Collection
- Collection of Ancient Art
- Collection of Plaster Casts of Ancient Sculpture
- The Photo- and Slide Collection of the Institute of Classical Archaeology
- The Collection of Prehistory and Early History
- The Bilzingsleben collection
- Departement of Art History and Custodia
Natural Sciences and Natural History
- The Ernst-Haeckel-Haus
- Zygomycetes (Mould Fungi)
- Didactics of Biology
- Herbarium Haussknecht (JE)
- Botanical garden
- Phyletic Museum
Mineralogy & Geology
- Mineralogical Collection
- Teaching Collection of Models for Mineralogy
History of Sciences
- Collection of scientific and technical devices for physics
- Astronomical collection
- The Meyer Steineg Collection of Medical History in Jena
- Anatomical Collection
- Medical History
- Goethe Memorial
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Jena". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 315.
- Mayhew, Henry (1864): German Life and Manners as Seen in Saxony at the Present Day: With an Account of Village Life - Town Life - Fashionable Life - Domestic Life - Married Life - School and University Life, &c., of Germany at the Present Time: Illustrated with Songs and Pictures of the Student Customs at the University of Jena. In Two Volumes. London [Vol. II, Section VII, Chapter VI-XI: Student Life at Jena].