Jenever (Dutch: [jəˈneːʋər] ( listen), English //), also known as genièvre, genever, peket, or in the English-speaking world as Dutch gin (archaic: Holland gin or Geneva gin), is the juniper-flavored national and traditional liquor of the Netherlands and Belgium, from which gin evolved. Traditional jenever is still very popular in the Netherlands, Belgium and nearby French and German regions. The European Union regulations specify that only liquor made in these two countries, two northern French departments and two German federal states can use the name jenever/genever/genièvre.
Jenever was originally produced by distilling malt wine (moutwijn in Dutch) to 50% ABV. Because the resulting spirit was not palatable due to the lack of refined distilling techniques (only the pot still was available), herbs were added to mask the flavour. The juniper berry, jeneverbes in Dutch (which comes from the Latin Juniperus), hence the name jenever (and the English name gin), was used for its alleged medicinal benefits.
There is a tradition that attributes jenever as an invention by the Dutch chemist and alchemist Franciscus Sylvius de Bouve, it was first sold as a medicine in the late 16th century. The problem with this theory is that Dr. Sylvius was born in the 17th century and that during his fourteen-year tenure as a professor at the University of Leiden, his research included distilling medicines with juniper berry oil, but none of his research papers contain any reference to jenever. The dates also do not add up: Dr. Sylvius certainly was not the first to distil with juniper or call a concoction jenever, as proven by written references to jenever in 13th century Bruges, Flanders (Der Naturen Bloeme) and 16th century Antwerp, Flanders (Een Constelijck Distileerboec). The latter contains the first printed jenever recipe.
Additionally, in 1606 the Dutch had already levied taxes on jenever and similar liquors which were sold as alcoholic drinks, suggesting that jenever had stopped being seen as a medicinal remedy many years before Dr. Sylvius was even born. Genever’s prevalence can also be observed in Philip Massinger’s 1623 play, “The Duke of Milan”, which references “geneva”. Geneva was the Anglicized name for jenever, which British soldiers had brought back with them upon returning from battle in the Low Countries in 1587 and again during the early 1600s. Dr. Sylvius would have been just nine years old when Massinger’s play opened. So while the legend of Dr. Sylvius’s “medicine” may be more myth than fact, it has become the tale most people know.
The Nationaal Jenevermuseum Hasselt, Belgium claims unequivocally that jenever was created in the lowlands of Flanders in the thirteenth century. Their assertion is given credence by commentary in 'Jenever in de Lage Landen' by author Prof. Dr. Eric Van Schoonenberghe.
Old and young
There are two types of jenever: oude (old) and jonge (young). This is not a matter of aging, but of distilling techniques. Around 1900, it became possible to distil a high-grade type of alcohol almost neutral in taste, independent of the origin of the spirit. A worldwide tendency for a lighter and less dominant taste, as well as lower prices, led to the development of blended whisky in Great Britain, and in the Netherlands to Jonge Jenever. During the Great War, lack of imported cereals, and hence malt, forced the promotion of this blend. Alcohol derived from molasses from the sugar beet industry was used as an alternative to grain spirit. People started using the term oude for the old-style jenever, and jonge for the new style, which contains more grain instead of malt and can even contain plain sugar-based alcohol. In modern times, jenever distilled from grain and malt only is labelled Graanjenever. Jonge jenever can contain 'no more than' 15% malt wine and 10 grams of sugar per litre. Oude jenever must contain 'at least' 15% malt wine, but no more than 20 g of sugar per litre. Korenwijn (grain wine) is a drink very similar to the 18th century style jenever, and is often matured for a few years in an oak cask; it contains from 51% to 70% malt wine and up to 20 g/l of sugar.
Although the name oude jenever does not necessarily mean that the jenever is in fact old, there are some distilleries that claim that their jenever is aged in oak barrels.
Jonge jenever has a neutral taste, like vodka, with a slight aroma of juniper and malt wine. Oude jenever has a smoother, very aromatic taste with malty flavours. Oude jenever is sometimes aged in wood; its malty, woody and smoky flavours resemble whisky. Different grains used in the production process - such as barley, wheat, spelt and rye - produce different flavoured jenevers.
Hasselt in Belgium, and Schiedam, Amsterdam and Delft in the Netherlands, are well known for their jenevers and often referred to as "jenever cities" (jeneversteden). In Amsterdam, jenever is made by Van Wees and Wynand Fockink. Well-known Schiedam jenever distilleries include Nolet, Onder De Boompjes, Pit and De Kuyper. Near the Dutch-Belgian border, in Baarle-Nassau, Zuidam produces traditional jenevers and Dutch liquors. Other jenever-cities in the Netherlands are Groningen (Hooghoudt) and Dordrecht (Rutte). In Belgium, Deinze is very well known for the Filliers distillery and Aalst is well known for Stokerij De Moor, Belgium's smallest distillery and with the Biercée Distillery, one of only two Belgian distilleries to export their genever to the USA.
Dutch-based Lucas Bols produces and sells oude genever, known as ginebra in Spanish, in South America. Ketel One is now more known for producing vodka, but started out as, and still is, a jenever distillery.
Traditionally the drink is served in a tulip-shaped glass filled to the brim. Jonge jenever, colloquially a jonkie ("young'un"), at room temperature, sometimes, though this is now quite old fashioned, with some sugar and a tiny spoon to stir. The drink is sometimes served cold from a bottle kept in a freezer or on the rocks (jonge met ijs). The higher-quality oude jenever (and korenwijn) is usually served at room temperature. When jenever is drunk with beer (normally lager) as a chaser, it is referred to as a kopstoot (headbutt) or duikboot (submarine) in Flanders. Traditionally, jenever is served in full shot glasses taken directly from the freezer. As the glass is very cold it is advisable to take the first sips without holding the glass, leaving it on the table and bending one's back to apply one's mouth to the glass.
Genever appellations or AOCs
- Exclusive to Belgium, the Netherlands, small parts of France, and small parts of Germany: genever (jenever), grain genever (graanjenever), fruit genever (fruitjenever)
- Exclusive to Belgium and the Netherlands: old genever (oude jenever), young genever (jonge jenever)
- Exclusive to Belgium: O’de Flander real East-Flemish grain genever (O'de Flander Echte Oost-Vlaamse graanjenever), Hasselt genever (Hasseltse jenever), Balegem genever (Balegemse jenever), and Peket (Pékèt)
- Exclusive to two provinces of France: Flanders Artois genever (genièvre Flandres Artois)
- Exclusive to two states of Germany: East-Frisia cereal grain genever (Ostfriesischer Korngenever)
- The Serious Eats Guide to Genever
- Sinclair, George. thinkingbartender.com. "Jenever". Archived from the original on 2007-07-15.
- "Bols Distilleries".
- "Bunnyhugs » Blog Archive » Genever, Geneva or Jenever? History and Product Comparison". bunnyhugs.org.
- "Genever: 500 Years of History in a Bottle".
- "Belgian Genever". Belgian Genever.
Media related to Jenever at Wikimedia Commons