Jeongjong of Joseon

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Yi Bang-gwa
Yi Gyeong
King of Joseon
Reign 14 October 1398 – 28 November 1400
Predecessor Taejo of Joseon
Successor Taejong of Joseon
Former King of Joseon
Tenure 28 November 1400 – 9 September 1418
Predecessor Taejo of Joseon
Successor Taejong of Joseon
Grand Former King of Joseon
Tenure 9 September 1418 – 15 October 1419
Predecessor Taejo of Joseon
Born (1357-07-18)July 18, 1357
Died October 15, 1419(1419-10-15) (aged 62)
Consort Queen Jeongan
Posthumous name
King Jeongjong Gongjeong Uimun Jangmu Onin Sunhyo the Great of Korea
정종공정의문장무온인순효대왕
定宗恭靖懿文莊武溫仁順孝大王
Temple name
Jeongjong
House Jeonju Yi
Father Taejo of Joseon
Mother Queen Shinui
Jeongjong of Joseon
Hangul 정종
Hanja 定宗
Revised Romanization Jeongjong
McCune–Reischauer Chŏngjong
Birth name
Hangul 이방과
Hanja 李芳果
Revised Romanization I Bang-gwa
McCune–Reischauer I Panggwa

Jeongjong of Joseon (18 July 1357 – 15 October 1419), born Yi Bang-gwa, whose changed name is Yi Gyeong, was the second king of Joseon (or Chosun) Dynasty (1399–1400). He was the second son of the founder and first king of the dynasty, King Taejo of Joseon.

Biography[edit]

Born in 1357 as Yi Bang-Gwa, he was a prudent, generous, brave, and able military officer. During the latter days of the declining Goryeo Dynasty, Jeongjong followed his father, Yi Seonggye, to various battlefronts and fought at his side. When his father became king in 1392, he became prince.

King Taejo had two wives—the first one, who gave birth to six of the king's sons including Jeongjong, died before King Taejo was crowned. Taejo had second wife, who had 2 sons from him. The king favored his youngest son, whose mother was Taejo's second wife. Prime Minister Jeong Dojeon also backed him as the successor to the throne, causing much disappointment from other princes. In 1398, King Taejo's fifth son, Yi Bang-won, who later would be King Taejong of Joseon, led a coup along with many military officers and killed his two brothers, Prime Minister Jeong, and many of his faction. Yi Bang-won first tried to show that he was not intended to take the throne, so he gave a push to his older brother Jeongjong (who was also the oldest then), to be a crown prince. King Taejo was upset and abdicated in disgust, and Jeongjong became king in the following year, 1399. The same year he moved the capital back to Gaegyeong, the old Goryeo capital.

In 1400, a conflict broke out between Yi Bang-won and his older brother, Yi Bang-gan. Yi Bang-won's force attacked and defeated that of Bang-gan's, Bang-gan was then sent into exile along with his family. General Bak Bo, who persuaded Bang-gan to fight against Bangwon, was executed. King Jeongjong, knowing the acting king of the kingdom was his younger brother Bangwon, appointed him as a crown prince, and abdicated a few days later.

He was an able, wise administrator even though his short reign was marked by bloodshed within the royal family. He banned all kinds of private troops on the advice of Crown Prince Bangwon. He died in 1419, and was buried near Kaeseong.

Genealogy[edit]

Ancestors[edit]

Family[edit]

  1. Queen Jeongan of the Gyeongju Kim (22 January 1355 - 2 August 1412) (정안왕후 김씨)[2][3]
  2. Royal Noble Consort Seong of the Chungju Ji clan (성빈 지씨)[4]
    1. Yi Hu-Saeng, Prince Deokcheon (1397 - 1465) (이후생 덕천군)[5]
    2. Yi Mal-Saeng, Prince Dopyeong (1402 - 1439) (이말생 도평군)
  3. Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Chungju Ji clan (숙의 지씨)[4]
    1. Yi Won-Saeng, Prince Uipyeong (? - 1461) (이원생 의평군)
    2. Yi Mu-Saeng, Prince Seonseong (10 December 1396 - 7 July 1460) (이무생 선성군)[6]
    3. Yi Ho-Saeng, Prince Imseong (이호생 임성군)[7]
    4. Princess Hamyang (함양옹주)[8][9] [10]
  4. Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Haengju Ki clan (? - 1457) (숙의 기씨)[11]
    1. Yi Gun-Saeng, Prince Sunpyeong (? - 1456) (이군생 순평군)
    2. Yi Ui-Saeng, Prince Geumpyeong (? – 1435) (이의생 금평군)
    3. Yi Yung-Saeng, Prince Jeongseok (1409 - 1464) (이융생 정석군)
    4. Yi Seon-Saeng, Prince Murim (1410 - 1474) (이선생 무림군)
    5. Princess Sukshin (1401 - 1486) (숙신옹주)[12]
    6. Princess Goseong (고성옹주)[8][13] [14]
    7. Princess Sangwon (상원옹주)[8][15][16]
    8. Princess Jeonsan (전산옹주)[8][17][18]
  5. Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Mun clan (숙의 문씨)
    1. Yi Gwi-Saeng, Prince Jongui (1393 – 1451) (이귀생 종의군)
  6. Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Lee clan (숙의 이씨)
    1. Yi Jong-Saeng, Prince Jinnam (1406 – 1470) (이종생 진남군)
  7. Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Haepyeong Yun clan (1368 - 1417) (숙의 윤씨)[19]
    1. Yi Deok-Saeng, Prince Sudo (? - 1449) (이덕생 수도군)
    2. Yi Nok-Saeng, Prince Imeon (1399 - 1432) (이녹생 임언군)
    3. Yi Bok-Saeng, Prince Seokbo (1399 - 1447) (이복생 석보군)[7]
    4. Yi Bo-Saeng, Prince Jangcheon (이보생 장천군)[20]
    5. Princess Incheon (인천옹주)[8][21][22]
    6. Princess Haman (함안옹주)[8][23][24]
  8. Princess Gaui of the Yu clan (가의궁주 유씨)
    1. Princess Deokcheon (덕천옹주)[8] [25]
  9. Cho Gung-Jang (초궁장)[26]
  10. Ki-Mae (기매)

His full posthumous name[edit]

  • King Jeongjong Gongjeong Uimun Jangmu Onin Sunhyo the Great of Korea
  • 정종공정의문장무온인순효대왕
  • 定宗恭靖懿文莊武溫仁順孝大王

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ By the time of Taejo's abdication and Jeongjong's accession on 14 October 1398, Taejo was already bestowed the title of Retired King (태상왕 taesangwang).
  2. ^ Called "Consort Deok" (덕비) during her lifetime. In the aftermath of the Second Strife of Princes when her husband abdicated in favor of his younger brother Taejong (who was then the newly-appointed Crown Prince) on 28 November 1400, along with his being bestowed the courtesy title of "Retired King Inmun'gong'ye, " (인문공예상왕), she was bestowed the courtesy title of "Queen Dowager Sundeok" (순덕왕대비; "Queen Dowager" is the closest translation of her title even though her husband is still alive) by her royal brother-in-law. Her other little-known posthumous name is "Queen Anjeong" (안정왕후) [Diary of Prince Yeonsan-gun, vol. 52, 08 April 1504, entry 1; Diary of Prince Gwanghae-gun, vol.18, 06 August 1609, entry 1].
  3. ^ Daughter of Kim Cheon-seo (김천서), Lord Wolseong (월성부원군); and Lady Lee (이씨), Lady Samhanguk (삼한국대부인).
  4. ^ a b Ji Yoon (지윤, ?-1377) and Lady Ahn (안씨)'s 3 daughters each married to Taejo's 2 eldest sons: the eldest daughter married Prince Jinan-daegun (Taejo's eldest son) and became his princess consort (Lady Samhanguk (삼한국대부인)). Their other 2 daughters became Jeongjong's concubines; the youngest daughter first became the Decent Beauty (숙의) while the 2nd daughter later became the Royal Concubine Seong (성빈) while .
  5. ^ Later married Lady Lee of the Jangsu Lee clan (장수 이씨), Princess Gotaek (고택군부인). Their grandson Seong Hui-an (성희안), thru their eldest daughter's husband Seong Chan (성찬), would be one of the leaders of the 1506 coup that ousted Prince Yeonsan-gun and placed to the throne his younger half-brother Prince Jinseong-'daegun.
  6. ^ His first wife was Jeong Mong-ju's granddaughter.
  7. ^ a b His wife Lady Lee (군부인 이씨) had no issue with her husband, and as a remedy, he adopted his younger half-brother Prince Seokbo-gun's 3rd son Yi Geum-son, becoming Prince Gokseong-gun (이금손 곡성군).
  8. ^ a b c d e f g On 18 November 1431, Sejong summoned and held a discussion with 5 of his ministers regarding Jeongjong (then known thru his temple name as "Gongjeong" (공정대왕); Sukjong granted him his final temple name of "Jeongjong" on 03 July 1681 [Sukjong Sillok, vol.11, entry 2])'s illegitimate daughters as well as his 2 brothers Princes Jin'an-daegun & Ik'an-daegun's legitimate daughters, whom Sejong wants to give due courtesy since his female cousins are still of royal blood, and also since he has his own illegitimate daughters and expects the same due courtesy addressed to them as well. Sejong proposed to emulate the system of the Jin Dynasty wherein the emperor's daughters were addressed as "Imperial Princesses" (full title 군공주 gun'gongju, shortened to 군주 gunju), and wants to bestow the same title, albeit lowered in rank and style. At Hwang Hui (황희)'s agreement, Sejong then ordered the discussion to be moved to the Hall of Worthies for further discussion & evaluation [Sejong Sillok, vol.54, entry 4]. On 22 November, Sejong finally bestowed the title of "Princess" (군주) to 7 of Jeongjong's illegitimate daughters, as well as his brothers' legitimate daughters, and also on Sejong's eldest brother Prince Yangnyeong-daegun's legitimate 5th daughter [Sejong Sillok, vol.54, entry 3].
  9. ^ Per Sejong, her alternate title is also "Princess Ham'yang" (함양군주).
  10. ^ Later married Park Gaeng (박갱), son of Park Deuk-jung (박득중); created Lord Jidon (지돈녕).
  11. ^ Daughter of Ki Myeon (기면), & elder sister of Ki Geon (기건, ?-1460), Duke Jeongmu (정무공).
  12. ^ Later married Kim Se-min (김세민), son of Kim Gyeom (김겸); created Lord Pandon (판돈녕).
  13. ^ Per Sejong, her alternate title is also "Princess Goseong" (고성군주).
  14. ^ Later married Kim Han (김한), son of Kim Jeong-gyeong (김정경); created Lord Jijung (지중추).
  15. ^ Per Sejong, her alternate title is also "Princess Sang'won" (상원군주).
  16. ^ Later married Jo Hyo-san (조효산), son of Jo Eui-bang (조의방).
  17. ^ Per Sejong, her alternate title is "Princess Ansong" (안성군주).
  18. ^ Later married Lee Hui-jong (이희종).
  19. ^ Daughter of Inspector General Yoo Bang-eon (대사헌 윤방언).
  20. ^ In 1444, Sejong bestowed the posthumous title of "Lord Jangcheon" (장천정) to Jeongjong's youngest son, and in 1872, Gojong upgraded the posthumous title to "Prince Jangcheon-gun".
  21. ^ Per Sejong, her alternate title is also "Princess Incheon" (인천군주).
  22. ^ Later married Lee Gwan-shik (이관식), son of Lee Seong-gan(이성간).
  23. ^ Per Sejong, her alternate title is also "Princess Ham'an" (함안군주).
  24. ^ Later married Yi Hang-shin (이항신), created Lord Bujidon (부지돈녕), Prince Consort Wollim (월림군), & Duke Sojeong (소정공).
  25. ^ Later married Byeon Sang-bok (변상복, ?-1455), son of Byeon Yi (변이).
  26. ^ A kisaeng from Hwangju who comforted Jeongjong after his abdication, and was involved in the eventual stripping of Prince Yangnyeong's title of "Crown Prince" [Taejong Sillok].
Jeongjong of Joseon
Born: 18 July 1357 Died: 15 October 1419
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Taejo
King of Joseon
October 14, 1398 – November 28, 1400
Succeeded by
Taejong