Jeremiah (//; Hebrew: יִרְמְיָהוּ, Modern: Yirmeyahu [jiʁmeˈjahu], Tiberian: Yirmĭyāhū; Greek: Ἰερεμίας; Arabic: إرميا Irmiyā meaning "Yah Exalts", also called the "Weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible (Christian Old Testament). According to religious tradition, Jeremiah authored the Book of Jeremiah, the Books of Kings and the Book of Lamentations, with the assistance and under the editorship of Baruch ben Neriah, his scribe and disciple.
Greater detail is known about Jeremiah's life than for that of any other prophet. However no biography of him can be written as there are so few facts available.
Judaism considers the Book of Jeremiah part of its canon, and regards Jeremiah as the second of the major prophets. Christianity also regards Jeremiah as a prophet and he is quoted in the New Testament. Islam also considers Jeremiah a prophet, and he is listed as a major prophet in Ibn Kathir's Qisas Al-Anbiya (Stories of the Prophets).
- 1 Chronology
- 2 Biblical narrative
- 3 Religious views
- 4 Historicity
- 5 Scholarly view
- 6 Nebo-Sarsekim tablet
- 7 Cultural influence
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Jeremiah's ministry was active from the thirteenth year of Josiah, king of Judah (3298 AM, or 626 BC), until after the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of Solomon's Temple in 3358 AM or 587 BC. This period spanned the reigns of five kings of Judah: Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah. The Hebrew-language chronology Seder HaDoroth (published 1768) gives Jeremiah's final year of prophecy to be 3350 AM, whereby he transmitted his teachings to Baruch ben Neriah.
Lineage and early life
Jeremiah was the son of Hilkiah, a kohen (Jewish priest) from the Benjamite village of Anathoth. The difficulties he encountered, as described in the books of Jeremiah and Lamentations, have prompted scholars to refer to him as "the weeping prophet".
Jeremiah was called to prophetic ministry in c. 626 BC. Jeremiah was called by YHWH to give prophesy of Jerusalem's destruction that would occur by invaders from the north. This was because Israel had been unfaithful to the laws of the covenant and had forsaken God by worshiping the Baals. The people of Israel had even gone as far as building high altars to Baal in order to burn their children in fire as offerings. This nation had deviated so far from God that they had broken the covenant, causing God to withdraw his blessings. Jeremiah was guided by God to proclaim that the nation of Judah would be faced with famine, plundered and taken captive by foreigners who would exile them to a foreign land.
According to Jeremiah 1:4-5, Yahweh called Jeremiah to prophetic ministry in about 626 BC, about one year after Josiah king of Judah is said to have turned the nation toward repentance from idolatrous practices. According to the Books of Kings, and Jeremiah, Josiah's reforms were insufficient to save Judah and Jerusalem from destruction, because of the sins of Manasseh, Josiah's grandfather, and Judah's return to Idolatry (Jer 11.10ff.). Such was the lust of the nation for false gods that after Josiah's death, the nation would quickly return to the gods of the surrounding nations. Jeremiah was said to have been appointed to reveal the sins of the people and the coming consequences.
Jeremiah resisted the call by complaining that he was only a child and did not know how to speak. However, the Lord insisted that Jeremiah go and speak, and he touched Jeremiah's mouth to place the word of the Lord there. God told Jeremiah to "Get yourself ready!" The character traits and practices Jeremiah was to acquire are specified in Jeremiah 1 and include not being afraid, standing up to speak, speaking as told, and going where sent. Since Jeremiah is described as emerging well trained and fully literate from his earliest preaching, the relationship between him and the Shaphan family has been used to suggest that he may have trained at the scribal school in Jerusalem over which Shaphan presided.
In his early ministry, Jeremiah was primarily a preaching prophet, preaching throughout Israel. He condemned idolatry, the greed of priests, and false prophets. Many years later, God instructed Jeremiah to write down these early oracles and his other messages.
Jeremiah's ministry prompted plots against him. (Jer.11:21-23) Unhappy with Jeremiah's message, possibly for concern that it would shut down the Anathoth sanctuary, his priestly kin and the men of Anathoth conspired to kill him. However, the Lord revealed the conspiracy to Jeremiah, protected his life, and declared disaster for the men of Anathoth. When Jeremiah complains to the Lord about this persecution, he is told that the attacks on him will become worse.
A priest Pashur the son of ben Immer, a temple official in Jerusalem had Jeremiah beaten and put in the stocks at the Upper Gate of Benjamin for a day. After this, Jeremiah expresses lament over the difficulty that speaking God's word has caused him and regrets becoming a laughingstock and the target of mockery. He recounts how if he tries to shut the word of the Lord inside and not mention God's name, the word becomes like fire in his heart and he is unable to hold it in.
Conflicts with false prophets
Whilst Jeremiah was prophesying the coming destruction, a number of other prophets were prophesying peace. Jeremiah spoke against these other prophets.
According to the book of Jeremiah, during the reign of King Zedekiah, The Lord instructed Jeremiah to make a yoke of the message that the nation would be subject to the king of Babylon. The prophet Hananiah opposed Jeremiah's message. He took the yoke off of Jeremiah's neck, broke it, and prophesied to the priests and all the people that within two years the Lord would break the yoke of the king of Babylon, but the Lord spoke to Jeremiah saying "Go and speak to Hananiah saying, you have broken the yoke of wood, but you have made instead a yoke of iron." (see: Jeremiah 28:13)
Relationship with the Northern Kingdom (Samaria)
Jeremiah was sympathetic to as well as descended from the Northern Kingdom. Many of his first reported oracles are about, and addressed to, the Israelites at Samaria. He resembles the northern prophet Hosea, in his use of language, and examples of God's relationship to Israel. Hosea seems to have been the first prophet to describe the desired relationship as an example of ancient Israelite marriage, where a man might be polygynous, while a woman was only permitted one husband. Jeremiah often repeats Hosea's marital imagery (Jer. 2:2b–3; 3:1–5, 19–25; 4:1–2).
The Biblical narrative portrays Jeremiah as being subject to additional persecutions. After Jeremiah prophesied that Jerusalem would be handed over to the Babylonian army, the king's officials, including Pashur the priest, tried to convince King Zedekiah that Jeremiah should be put to death because he was discouraging the soldiers as well as the people. Zedekiah answered that he would not oppose them. Consequently, the king's officials took Jeremiah and put him down into a cistern, where he sank down into the mud. The intent seemed to be to kill Jeremiah by allowing him to starve to death in a manner designed to allow the officials to claim to be innocent of his blood. A Cushite rescued Jeremiah by pulling him out of the cistern, but Jeremiah remained imprisoned until Jerusalem fell to the Babylonian army in 587 BC.
The Babylonians released Jeremiah, and showed him great kindness, allowing Jeremiah to choose the place of his residence, according to a Babylonian edict. Jeremiah accordingly went to Mizpah in Benjamin with Gedaliah, who had been made governor of Judea.
Johanan succeeded Gedaliah, who had been assassinated by an Israelite prince in the pay of Ammon "for working with the Babylonians." Refusing to listen to Jeremiah's counsel, Johanan fled to Egypt, taking with him Jeremiah and Baruch, Jeremiah's faithful scribe and servant, and the king's daughters. There, the prophet probably spent the remainder of his life, still seeking in vain to turn the people to God from whom they had so long revolted. There is no authentic record of his death.
In Jewish rabbinic literature, especially the aggadah, Jeremiah and Moses are often mentioned together; their life and works being presented in parallel lines. The following ancient midrash is especially interesting, in connection with Deut. xviii. 18, in which "a prophet like Moses" is promised: "As Moses was a prophet for forty years, so was Jeremiah; as Moses prophesied concerning Judah and Benjamin, so did Jeremiah; as Moses' own tribe [the Levites under Korah] rose up against him, so did Jeremiah's tribe revolt against him; Moses was cast into the water, Jeremiah into a pit; as Moses was saved by a slave (the slave of Pharaoh's daughter); so, Jeremiah was rescued by a slave (Ebed-melech); Moses reprimanded the people in discourses; so did Jeremiah."
As with many other prophets of the Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah is also regarded as a prophet in Islam by many Muslims. Jeremiah is not mentioned in the Qur'an, but Muslim exegesis and literature narrates many instances from the life of Jeremiah and tradition fleshes out his narrative. For example, some hadiths and tafsirs narrate that the Parable of the Hamlet in Ruins is about Jeremiah. Also, in Sura 17(Al-Isra), Ayah 4–7, that is about the two corruptions of children of Israel on the earth, some hadith and tafsir cite that one of these corruptions is the imprisonment and persecution of Jeremiah. According to Ahmadis the memorization of the Qur'an fulfills Jeremiah's prophecy, "I will put my Law within them and I will write it upon their hearts".
Scholars differ widely in their views on the likelihood of there being an actual prophet named Jeremiah. II Kings, which describes events contemporary with Jeremiah in great detail, does not mention his name. There is no extra biblical occurrence of his name. Views differ from the belief that the narratives and poetic sections in Jeremiah are contemporary with his life (W.L. Holladay), to the view that Jeremiah is no more than a literary character (R. P. Carroll).
Scholars cannot prove the authorship of Jeremiah with any certainty, although consensus has gathered around a thesis of multiple sources, mainly because of the contrast between the poetic discourses and the prose narrative. Some modern scholars think the Deuteronomic School edited Jeremiah because of the similarity of phrasing between the books of Jeremiah and Deuteronomy. For example, Egypt is referred to as an "iron furnace" in both Jeremiah 11:4 and Deuteronomy 4:20. They also share a similar view of divine justice.
In July 2007, Assyrologist Michael Jursa translated a cuneiform tablet dated to 595 BC, as describing a Nabusharrussu-ukin as "the chief eunuch" of Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. Jursa hypothesized that this reference might be to the same individual as the Nebo-Sarsekim mentioned in Jeremiah 39:3.
- Wells, John C. (1990). Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 383. ISBN 978-0-582-05383-0.) entry "Jeremiah"
- "Jeremiah", New Bible Dictionary, Second Edition, Tyndale Press, Wheaton, IL, USA 1987.
- "Lamentations", The Anchor Bible, commentary by Delbert R. Hillers, 1972, pp.XIX-XXIV
- ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 11, pg 125
- Matthew 2:18, Hebrews 8:8–12 ESV Hebrews 10:16–17 ESV
- Qassas Al-Anbiya, Mu'assasa Umm Al-Qura: Mansoura, n.d., page 527
- Seder HaDoroth year 3298
- Jeremiah, New Bible Dictionary, Second Edition, Tyndale Press, 1987 pp. 559-560
- Introduction to Jeremiah, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 917
- Seder HaDoroth, year 3350
- (Jeremiah 1:1)
- "Who Weeps in Jeremiah VIII 23 (IX 1)? Identifying Dramatic Speakers in the Poetry of Jeremiah," Joseph M. Henderson, Vetus Testamentum, Vol. 52, Fasc. 2 (Apr., 2002), pp. 191-206
- Jeremiah, Lamentations, Tremper Longman, Hendrickson Publishers, 2008, p. 6
- Jer.2, Jer.3, Jer.5, Jer.9
- (Jeremiah 19:4,5)
- Emil G. Hirsch, Joseph Jacobs, Executive Committee of the Editorial Board., Julius H. Greenstone. (1904). "Jeremiah". Jewish Encyclopaedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day. v.7, New York : Funk & Wagnall, p. 100. Retrieved 16 May 2016. JewishEncyclopedia.com
- 2 Kings 23:26–27
- 2 Kings 23:32
- Jeremiah 1–2
- Jeremiah and Lamentations: From Sorrow to Hope, Philip Graham Ryken, R. Kent Hughes, 2001, pp.19–36
- Jeremiah and Lamentations: From Sorrow to Hope, Philip Graham Ryken, R. Kent Hughes, 2001, pp. 19–36
- Jeremiah (Prophet), The Anchor Bible Dictionary Volume 3, Doubleday, 1992 p.686
- Jeremiah 1:6–9
- Jeremiah 1:17 NIV
- Jeremiah 1
- 2 Kings 22:8–10
- "Jeremiah (Prophet)", The Anchor Bible Dictionary Volume 3, Doubleday, 1992 p.687
- Jeremiah 1:7
- Jeremiah 3:12–23, Jeremiah 4:1–4
- Jeremiah 6:13–14
- Jeremiah 36:1–10
- Jeremiah 11:18–2:6
- "Commentary on Jeremiah", The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 950
- Jeremiah 20:7
- Jeremiah 20:9
- Jeremiah 6:13–15, Jeremiah 14:14–16, Jeremiah 23:9–40, Jeremiah 27–28, Lamentations 2:14
- ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 11, pg 126
- "Commentary of Jeremiah", The NIV Study Bible, Zondervan, 1995, p. 1544
- Jeremiah 38
- Jeremiah 40
- Jeremiah 43
- This article incorporates text from the 1901–1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, a publication now in the public domain.
- Pesiqta, ed. Buber, xiii. 112a
- Tafsir al-Qurtubi, vol 3, p 188; Tafsir al-Qummi, vol 1, p 117.
- Tafsir al-Kashaf, vol 2, p 649; Jawami' al-Jami', vol 2, p 360.
- Arif Humayun. ISLAM THE SUMMIT OF RELIGIOUS EVOLUTION (PDF). Islam International Publications. p. 67. Retrieved June 8, 2014.
- Tabari, i, 646f.
- Michael D. Coogan, A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament (New York: Oxford, 2009), 300.
- The Oxford Handbook of the Prophets, Oxford University Press, 3 Oct 2016, edited Carolyn Sharp, author Marvin A Sweeney, pg 456
- "Ancient Document Confirms Existence Of Biblical Figure". Retrieved 2007-07-16.
- "Jeremiah 39:3 and History: A New Find Clarifies a Mess of a Text – Ancient Hebrew Poetry". ancienthebrewpoetry.typepad.com.
- Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Portland House. 1989. p. 766. ISBN 978-0-517-68781-9.
- "jeremiad". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-23.
- Bright, John. A History of Israel. Westminster John Knox Press: Louisville, KY, 1959.
- Bright, John. The Kingdom of God. Abingdon Press: Nashville, TN, 1953.
- Friedman, Richard E. Who Wrote The Bible?, Harper and Row, NY, USA, 1987.
- Abraham Joshua Heschel, The Prophets. HarperCollins Paperback, 1975. ISBN 978-0-06-131421-6
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Jeremiah". Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.
- Ackroyd, Peter R. (1968). Exile and Restoration: A Study of Hebrew Thought in the Sixth Century BC. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
- Bright, John (1965). The Anchor Bible: Jeremiah (2nd ed.). New York: Doubleday.
- Meyer, F.B. (1980). Jeremiah, priest and prophet (Revised ed.). Fort Washington, PA: Christian Literature Crusade. ISBN 0-87508-355-2.
- Perdue, Leo G.; Kovacs, Brian W., eds. (1984). A Prophet to the Nations: Essays in Jeremiah Studies. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns. ISBN 0-931464-20-X.
- Rosenberg, Joel (1987). "Jeremiah and Ezekiel". In Alter, Robert; Kermode, Frank. The literary guide to the Bible. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-87530-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jeremiah.|
- Jeremiah Jewish Encyclopedia 1906
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Jeremias (2)". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Download Lamentations with linear Hebrew and English and afterword, from neohasid.org