Jerez de la Frontera

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"Jerez" and "Xeres" redirect here. For the wine, see Sherry. For the wine grape, see Graciano. For other uses, see Jerez (disambiguation).
Jerez
Municipality
Catedral jerez frontera cathedral atardecer01.JPG
Alameda Vieja Panoramica Catedral Camara Oscura Jerez.jpg
San Miguel Fachada Jerez.JPG Catedral jerez frontera cathedral cuesta espiritu santo.JPG
Königlich andulische hofreitschule.jpg
Flag of Jerez
Flag
Coat of arms of Jerez
Coat of arms
Jerez is located in Andalusia
Jerez
Jerez
Location in Andalusia
Jerez is located in Spain
Jerez
Jerez
Location in Spain
Coordinates: 36°42′N 6°7′W / 36.700°N 6.117°W / 36.700; -6.117
Country  Spain
Autonomous community  Andalusia
Province Cádiz
Comarca Campiña de Jerez
Judicial district Jerez de la Frontera
Commonwealth Municipios de la Bahía de Cádiz
Government
 • Alcalde María del Carmen Sánchez Díaz (PSOE)
Area
 • Total 1,188.23 km2 (458.78 sq mi)
Elevation 56 m (184 ft)
Population (2014)
 • Total 212,226
 • Density 180/km2 (460/sq mi)
Demonym Jerezanos
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 11401 – 11409
Official language(s) Spanish
Website www.jerez.es

Jerez de la Frontera is a municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, (Spanish: Andalucía) in southwestern Spain, situated midway between the sea and the mountains. As of 2014, the city, the largest in the province, had 212,226 inhabitants; it is the fifth largest in Andalusia. It has become the transportation and communications hub of the province, surpassing even Cádiz, the provincial capital, in economic activity. Jerez de la Frontera is also, in terms of land area, the largest municipality in the province, and its sprawling outlying areas are a fertile zone for agriculture. There are also many cattle ranches and horse-breeding operations, as well as a world-renowned wine industry (Xerez).

The city is located 12 km (7.46 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Campiña de Jerez, region appropriate to cultivate the vineyards that produce the famous sherry. It pertain to commonwealth Municipios de la Bahía de Cádiz with a metropolitan area of over 650.000 inhabitants. Some famous places in to the city are Alcazar of Jerez, Church of San Miguel, Charterhouse of Jerez, the Cathedral of San Salvador.

Since 1987 the Grand Prix motorcycle racing has been held at the Circuito de Jerez in early May. On this weekend, the city welcomes thousands of bikers from around the world. The same circuit has hosted several Formula 1 Grands Prix, including the 1997 final race of the season, which was marred with controversy for a notable high-profile championship-deciding incident. Other popular festivals in the city are Feria de Jerez, also known as Horse Fair, or the Holy Week in Jerez.

Government[edit]

Allocation of seats, 2015

The city of Jerez is governed by the ayuntamiento (municipality) of Jerez, whose representatives, as in other towns in Spain, are elected every four years by universal suffrage for all citizens older than 18 years of age. The body is chaired by the mayor of Jerez.

Currently, the mayor is María del Carmen Sánchez Díaz, known as Mamen Sánchez, member of Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, who won the municipal election in 2015, by the aid of Ganemos Jerez and IULV-CA.

Economy[edit]

Bodegas Garvey

The economy of Jerez has traditionally been centered on the wine industry, with exports of sherry worldwide. Because it lacks the civil service that other cities enjoy, Jerez has based its economy on industry. The cultivation of fruits, grains, and vegetables and horse and cattle husbandry has also been important to the local economy. It is the home base for the Spanish Military Stud farm, the Yeguada Militar de Jerez de la Frontera.

After the wine crisis in the 1990s, the city is now seeking to expand its industrial base. Tourism has been successfully promoted. The city's strong identity as a center for wine, flamenco, and horses, its popular festivals, MotoGP hosting and its historical heritage have contributed to this success.

The city is the home of Jerez Airport and has also been positioning itself as a logistics hub for western Andalucia, through the integration between the airport, the rail system and nearby ports.

Parque Tecnológico Agroindustrial de Jerez

Name[edit]

Rotonda Venencia Catavino Jerez Simo Riva02

The name Jerez goes back to the Phoenician Xera, Sèrès, later Romanized under the name of Ceret; the location of this settlement, however, remains unknown.[citation needed]

The classical Latin name of Asta Regia, unrelated to the present name, referred to an ancient city now found within Mesas de Asta, a rural district approximately 11 km (6.84 mi) from the center of Jerez.

The current Castilian name came by way of the Arabic name شريش Sherish.[1] In former times, during the Muslim occupation of Iberia, it was called Xerez or Xeres. The name of the famous fortified wine, sherry, which originated here (although some argue that it originated in Shiraz, Persia), represents an adaptation of the city's Arabic name, which is pronounced Sherish. Frontera refers to a Spanish frontier, located on the border between the Moorish and Christian regions of Spain during that period,[when?] a regular host to skirmishes and clashes between the two regions. Over two centuries later, after the Castilian conquest of Granada in 1492, Xerez definitely lost its status as a frontier city, but did not lose that designation.

After the Kingdom of Castile took Jerez on October 9, 1264, following the name given by the Muslims to the city in the period known as the Reconquista, the city was then called Xerez in medieval Castilian, transcribing the consonant /ʃ/ (like the English sh) with the letter x, as was the rule at the time. In the 16th century, the consonant /ʃ/ changed into the consonant /x/, with the corresponding spelling of Jerez.

The old spelling "Xerez" as the name given to the city survived in several foreign languages until very recently, and today continues to influence the name given to sherry: Portuguese Xerez [ʃəˈɾɛʃ], Catalan Xerès [ʃəˈɾɛs], English sherry /ˈʃɛrɪ/, French Xérès [ɡzeʁɛs]. The city's main football team continues to use the old spelling, Xerez.

History[edit]

Jerez in 1835

Traces of human presence in the area date from the upper Neolithic, and humans have inhabited Jerez de la Frontera since at least the Copper or Neolithic Age, but the identity of the first natives remains unclear. The first major protohistoric settlement in the area (around the third millennium BC) is attributed to the Tartessians.[2]

Jerez later became a Roman city under the name of Asta Regia. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Vandals and the Visigoths ruled it until the Arabs conquered the area in 711. In the 11th century it briefly became the seat of an independent taifa. Some years later 'Abdun ibn Muhammad united it with Arcos and ruled both (ca. 1040-1053). In 1053 it was annexed to Seville. From 1145 to 1147 the region of Arcos and Jerez briefly operated as an emirate under dependency of Granada, led by Abu'l-Qasim Ahyal. Later the Almohads conquered the city. In the 12th and 13th centuries Jerez underwent a period of great development, building its defense system and setting the current street layout of the old town.

In 1231 the Battle of Jerez took place within the town's vicinity: Christian troops under the command of Álvaro Pérez de Castro, lord of the House of Castro and grandson of Alfonso VII, king of Castile and León, defeated the troops of the Emir Ibn Hud, despite the numerical superiority of the latter. Castile conquered the city in 1264. The discovery of America and the conquest of Granada, in 1492, made Jerez one of the most prosperous cities of Andalusia through trade and through its proximity to the ports of Seville and Cádiz. Despite the social, economic and political decadence that occurred in the seventeenth century, towards the end of the Habsburg rule, the city managed to maintain a reasonable[citation needed] pace of development, becoming world-famous for its wine industry.

Climate[edit]

Jerez de la Frontera and the rest of the Cádiz metropolitan area has a SubtropicalMediterranean climate with oceanic influences, characterized by very mild and wet winters and long warm to hot and dry summers. The average annual temperature is 24.4 °C (76 °F) during the day and 11.9 °C (53 °F) at night. The average annual precipitation is 570 mm (22.4 in) per year, concentrated in the months of October through April. December is the wettest month with 109 mm (4.3 in). The city averages 53 rainy days, 137 clear days and 2,965 hours of sunshine a year.

Climate data for Jerez de la Frontera (Jerez Airport 27m on the outskirts of the city) (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.3
(77.5)
29.0
(84.2)
30.6
(87.1)
33.6
(92.5)
38.2
(100.8)
42.0
(107.6)
44.7
(112.5)
45.1
(113.2)
41.0
(105.8)
36.5
(97.7)
30.8
(87.4)
26.8
(80.2)
45.1
(113.2)
Average high °C (°F) 16.2
(61.2)
17.8
(64)
20.8
(69.4)
22.2
(72)
25.5
(77.9)
29.9
(85.8)
33.6
(92.5)
33.5
(92.3)
30.4
(86.7)
25.5
(77.9)
20.2
(68.4)
16.9
(62.4)
24.4
(75.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.7
(51.3)
12.1
(53.8)
14.6
(58.3)
16.0
(60.8)
19.0
(66.2)
22.9
(73.2)
25.9
(78.6)
26.1
(79)
23.7
(74.7)
19.6
(67.3)
14.9
(58.8)
12.0
(53.6)
18.1
(64.6)
Average low °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
6.4
(43.5)
8.3
(46.9)
9.8
(49.6)
12.5
(54.5)
15.9
(60.6)
18.1
(64.6)
18.7
(65.7)
17.0
(62.6)
13.7
(56.7)
9.5
(49.1)
7.1
(44.8)
11.9
(53.4)
Record low °C (°F) −5.4
(22.3)
−5.0
(23)
−2.4
(27.7)
−2.0
(28.4)
5.0
(41)
7.0
(44.6)
9.8
(49.6)
10.5
(50.9)
7.0
(44.6)
2.8
(37)
−1.0
(30.2)
−5.4
(22.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 78
(3.07)
56
(2.2)
37
(1.46)
49
(1.93)
30
(1.18)
9
(0.35)
1
(0.04)
2
(0.08)
27
(1.06)
72
(2.83)
96
(3.78)
109
(4.29)
570
(22.44)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 6 6 5 6 4 1 0 0 2 6 7 8 53
Avg. relative humidity (%) 77 73 67 64 60 56 52 55 61 69 75 79 66
Mean monthly sunshine hours 184 187 224 251 300 318 354 334 250 225 184 158 2,965
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[3]

Main sights[edit]

Religious Monuments[edit]

  • The Cathedral
  • Church of San Miguel (15th century). It is in GothicBaroque style
  • Church of San Mateo, in Gothic style, the oldest in the city
  • The Charterhouse
  • Church of Santiago, dating back to Alfonso X of Castile's times
  • Church of San Juan de los Caballeros, created after Alfonso X's conquest of the city in 1264
  • Church of San Marcos (13th century)
  • Church of San Dionisio (13th century), built around 1457
  • Church of San Lucas, built over an old mosque.
  • Church of, San Francisco, where are the rest of the queen Blanca de Borbón
  • Church of San Pedro
  • Chapel of San Juan de Letrán
  • Calvary Chapel
  • Chapel of Los Desamparados
  • Convent of San José
  • Covent of Santa María de Gracia
  • Convento of Espíritu Santo
  • Hermitage of San Isidro Labrador
  • Hermitage of San Telmo
  • Church of Santo Domingo
  • Church of Los Descalzos
  • Convent of Las Reparadoras
  • Church of La Victoria
  • Hermitage of La Ina
  • Basílica del Carmen de Jerez

Palaces and Manor House[edit]

  • Palacio Duque de Abrantes
  • Palacio de Bertemati
  • Palacio de Riquelme
  • Palacio de Camporreal
  • Palacio de Riquelme
  • Palace of Marqués de Montana
  • Palacio Dávila
  • Palacio de Luna
  • Palacio de Villapanés
  • Palacio Pemartín
  • Palacio de Villavicencio
  • Casa Petra de la Riva
  • Casa-palacio de la calle Lealas, número 20
  • Palacio San Blas
  • Palacio del Marqués de Villamarta
  • Palacio del Conde de los Andes
  • Palacio de Mirabal
  • Casa-palacio de los Ponce de León
  • Palacio del Barón de Algar del Campo
  • Palacio de los Condes de Puerto Hermoso
  • Palacio de los Condes de Montegil
  • Casa de los Basurto

Museums and other monuments[edit]

Culture[edit]

Wine[edit]

See also: Brandy de Jerez
Sherry wine
The Toro de Osborne (Osborne bull), was created to advertise Brandy Veterano[4]

Jerez is known as the world capital of sherry wine. Sherry is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the town of Jerez. Jerez has been a centre of viniculture since wine-making was introduced to Spain by the Phoenicians in 1100 BC. The practice was carried on by the Romans when they took control of Iberia around 200 BC. The Moors conquered the region in AD 711 and introduced distillation, which led to the development of brandy and fortified wine. Sherry became very popular in Great Britain. Because sherry was a major wine export to the United Kingdom, many English companies and styles developed. Many of the Jerez cellars were founded by British families.

The city has many bodegas (wineries), many of which are of British origin. The most important are:

  • González Byass: González Byass is one of Spain's most well-known sherry bodegas. Its origins can be traced to 1835 when it was founded by Manuel María González Angel, who was subsequently joined by his English agent, Robert Blake Byass. The firm produces the fino sherry Tío Pepe.
  • Williams & Humbert: It's a winery located in Jerez de la Frontera dedicated to the production of sherry wines and brandies and others liqueurs. It was ounded in 1877 by Sir. Alexander Williams and Arthur Humbert.
  • Grupo Garvey: Grupo Garvey was founded in 1780 by William Garvey Power. Currently it's considered one of the most important companies of wine, brandy and liqueurs.
  • Grupo Estévez: Estevez Group owns the prestigious wineries Marqués del Real Tesoro and Valdespino, one of the oldest in the area (their origins date from 1430).
  • Domeqc: Domecq is a winemaking company foundedn by Álvaro Domecq Díez's father. It's located in Jerez de la Frontera.

Brandy de Jerez is a brandy that is produced only in the Jerez area of Andalusia, Spain (exclusively produced within the "Sherry Triangle", the municipal boundaries of Jerez de la Frontera, El Puerto de Santa María and Sanlúcar de Barrameda, in the province of Cádiz).

"Enoturism" is a quite new kind of tourism that looks for places where wines and distilled beverages are produced. Recently the Route of Sherry Wine and Brandy de Jerez has been established.

Also, Brandy de Jerez is being used in Spanish cuisine in recent years, especially with meats.

Horse[edit]

Jerez is home one of the most popular Andalusian horse breeding line: Caballo cartujano. In 1475, Alvaro Obertos de Valeto decided to built the actual Cartuja de Jerez de la Frontera. Since then, this popular Andalusian horse breeding line has been bred in this city.

Jerez is the home of the Royal Andalusian School of Equestrian Art, a riding school comparable to the world-famous Spanish Riding School in Vienna.

It is also the "Yeguada de la Cartuja - Hierro del Bocado" welcomes the reserve horse world's largest Carthusian.

Other famous equine institution is Yeguada Militar de Jerez de la Frontera, known outside Spain as the Yeguada Militar is the military Spanish stud farm headquartered dedicated to horse breeding of purebred Andalusian horses and Arabian horses. Founded in 1847, it became the state military stud farm in 1893.

Moreover, The 2002 FEI World Equestrian Gamess were held in Jerez de la Frontera in Estadio Municipal de Chapín,which it was remodelated for the event, from September 10 to September 22, 2002. hey were the 4th edition of the games which are held every four years and run by the FEI.

Music[edit]

See also: Flamenco
Flamenco moves and dancers' traditional costumes

Jerez, the city where flamenco singing began, is also proud of its Andalusian Centre of Flamenco. It was founded in 1993 to safeguard and promote the values and standards of flamenco. It is devoted to the investigation, recovery, and collection of flamenco-related historical documents, whether they are in audio, visual, or journalistic form. It also has a collection of flamenco artifacts, including musical instruments, costumes, promotional posters, sheet music, and postcards. The Centre operates a museum and library to help educate the public and serve as a resource for scholars.

Its origins date back to the XVIII century and it's currently considered as intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO.

Many of the most famous personalities of the city are related to the singing and flamenco, as La Paquera de Jerez, Lola Flores or José Mercé.

Festivals[edit]

Since 1987 the Grand Prix motorcycle race has been held at the Circuito de Jerez in early May. Other popular festivals in the city include Feria de Jerez, Holy Week, Flamenco festival de Jerez, Carnival of Jerez and the Christmas holiday season, when the friction drums called zambombas are traditionally played around the city.

Gastronomy[edit]

Other institutions[edit]

There are two museums of note: the Jerez Archaeological Museum and the Atalaya Watch Museum (also known as "Palace of Time").

The old quarter of Jerez, dating from medieval times, has been named an "Artistic Historic Complex". The Easter week celebrations in Jerez are of "National Touristic Interest", and its remarkable Horse Fair (Feria del Caballo) in May is an event of "International Touristic Interest".

Sport[edit]

Circuito de Jerez[edit]

The city of Jerez is the first motorcycling world capital [5]

Jerez is the site of Circuito de Jerez, formerly called the Circuito Permanente de Jerez, where the annual Motorcycle Grand Prix is contested. The race course is a prime destination for Formula One teams who wish to perform off-season testing and hosted the Spanish Formula One Grand Prix from 1986-1990 before the race moved permanently to the Catalunya Circuit near Barcelona. Jerez also hosted the European Grand Prix in 1994 and the controversial race in 1997.

Domecq Stadium[edit]

The Domecq Stadium was the first football stadium in Jerez de la Frontera. It was the home of Xerez CD and Jerez Industrial CF before its demolition. The Stadium del Parque (Park Stadium) was built in 1923 and remodeled (with the name of Domecq Stadium) in 1932 by the architect Francisco Hernández Rubio. It held 20,523 and it was demolished in 1988.

Juventud Stadium[edit]

Juventud Stadium

Currently, the Juventud Stadium is the oldest stadium in the city. It holds 5,000 and is the home of Jerez Industrial CF,founded in 1951, the main rival of Xerez.

Formerly, the football field belonged to the youth hostel which is located in the vicinity thereof, hence its name.

Complejo Municipal de Chapín[edit]

The Complejo Municipal de Chapín is a complex of sports facilities that includes a football stadium and field, a baseball field, equestrian facilities and a Sports Hall, as well as a futsal field and basketball and volleyball courts.

The Estadio Municipal de Chapín, a multi-purpose stadium, was built in 1988 and seats 20,523 spectators. In 2002 the stadium was remodeled to hold the 2002 FEI World Equestrian Games. The whole grandstand was covered with a roof, and a hotel and spa-gym were added. It was historically the home of Xerez CD, the city's club founded in 1947 and known simply as Xerez, which played in the top division in the 2009–2010 season. Currently, the stadium is the home of Xerez Deportivo FC, founded in 2013 to replace the old Xerez club.

The stadium, which has a running track, was designated as an Olympic Stadium. The most important track team training there is the Club Atletismo Xerez Deportivo FC, which won the Spanish championships in 2001 – 2007.[citation needed].

Canasta Unibasket Jerez and DKV Jerez are the city's basketball teams; they play in Palacio Municipal de Deportes de Chapín.

Venenciadores de Jerez, the city's baseball team, is currently without a home field and awaits completion of one in the Complejo Municipal de Chapín.

The main futsal team in Jerez is Xerez Deportivo FC (also known as Xerez Toyota Nimauto for sponsorship reasons). It was founded in 2014 and currently plays in the Ruiz Mateos Sports Center and the Palacio Municipal de Deportes de Chapín in Segunda Andaluza.

The most important rugby club is Club Rugby Xerez, which trains at the Pradera Hípica in Chapín.

Antonio Fernández Marchán Stadium[edit]

It is the CD Guadalcacín stadium, which plays in the Tercera Division. It is placed in Guadalcacín, a neighborhood northern Jerez.

Other sports[edit]

The 2014 Vuelta a España cycle race began in Jerez de la Frontera on 23 August, with a 12.6 km (7.8 mi) team time trial. The race followed a 21-stage route, finishing in Santiago de Compostela on 14 September.

Club Natación Jerez, is the main Swimming Club in Jerez. It has won the "Campeonato de España Master" ("Championship of Spain Master") many times.

Education[edit]

There are 76 elementary schools, 41 secondary schools, 12 adult education centres and 10 public libraries in the city of Jerez.[citation needed]

The University of Cádiz, the provincial university, has a campus in Jerez. It specializes in socio-political studies.

The city is also home to a member of the Official School of Languages (Escuela Oficial de Idiomas) and a centre of the National Distance Education University (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED).

Transportation[edit]

Airport[edit]

Aeropuerto de jerez, also known as Aeropuerto de La Parra, is the main airport in the province of Cádiz. It is located 8 km (5 mi) north of the city centre and is connected to the city by train and bus.

It was built in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by the Nationalists in order to transport soldiers from Africa to Spain. The airport was open to civil traffic in 1992. It is the third most important airport in Andalucia after Malaga and Seville.

Train[edit]

Jerez has had a railway line since 1854, which was one of the first in Spain. The line went between Jerez and El Puerto de Santa María and transported wine barrels for export. La estación de Jerez is the station with more passengers than Cádiz and is the fourth busiest in Andalucia.

Next to the Aeropuerto de Jerez, there is a new train station which connects the airport to nearby Jerez, and also to Cádiz, Sevilla, Lebrija, Utrera, El Puerto de Santa María, and San Fernando.

Bus[edit]

Roads[edit]

Bicycle[edit]

Jerez has 41 km (25 mi) of bike lanes that follow the main avenues of the city.

Demographics[edit]

According to official population data from INE, the municipality of Jerez had 212,226[6] inhabitants as of January 1, 2014. This makes Jerez the most populous city in the province, fifth in Andalusia, and 25th in Spain.

Evolution of the population of Jerez de la Frontera from 1842

Fuente: INE[7]

Population distribution[edit]

Population center names Kind Population 2012 Distance from city center
Cuartillos Rural neighborhood 1,300 inhabitants 11 km east
El Mojo-Baldío de Gallardo Rural neighborhood 400 inhabitants 16 km southeast
El Portal Rural neighborhood 700 inhabitants 6 km south
Estella del Marqués Village 1,650 inhabitants 5,5 km east
El Torno Village 1,300 inhabitants 20 km east
Gibalbín Rural neighborhood 550 inhabitants 30 km northeast
Guadalcacín Village 5,500 inhabitants 5 km northeast
Jerez de la Frontera (city) City 190,000 inhabitants
La Barca de la Florida Village 4,353 inhabitants 20 km east
La Corta Rural neighborhood 550 inhabitants 3,8 km south
La Ina Rural neighborhood 800 inhabitants 10 km southeast
Las Pachecas Rural neighborhood 430 inhabitants 8 km southeast
Las Tablas, Polila y Añina Rural neighborhood 400 inhabitants 6 km west
Lomopardo Rural neighborhood 283 inhabitants 5 km southeast
Los Albarizones Rural neighborhood 420 inhabitants 3,5 km southeast
Majarromaque Rural neighborhood 500 inhabitants 26 km east
Mesas de Asta Rural neighborhood 600 inhabitants 11 km east
Mesas de Santa Rosa Rural neighborhood 300 inhabitants 5 km north
Nueva Jarilla Village 1,600 inhabitants 15 km northeast
Puente de la Guareña Rural neighborhood 500 inhabitants 16 km east
Rajamancera Rural neighborhood 485 inhabitants 8 km southeast
San Isidro del Guadalete Village 650 inhabitants 15 km southeast
Torrecera Village 1,280 inhabitants 20 km southeast
Torremelgarejo Rural neighborhood 730 inhabitants 10 km east

People[edit]

Lola Flores monument

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Jerez de la Frontera is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Deroy Louis, & Mulon Marianne (1992) Dictionnaire des noms de lieux, París: Le Robert
  2. ^ Pedro Bosch Gimpera (1995). El poblamiento antiguo y la formación de los pueblos de España. UNAM. p. 210. ISBN 978-968-36-4439-8. 
  3. ^ "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981-2010)". 
  4. ^ El Toro de Osborne: advertising, community, and myth at sciencedirect.com
  5. ^ http://www.circuitodejerez.com/index.php?id=29&no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=126&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=487&cHash=842ea3c1aaec9e93bd683d28958ca24b JEREZ SERÁ CAPITAL MUNDIAL DEL MOTOCICLISMO EN 2015
  6. ^ Population figures since 1996 from Spain's National Institute of Statistics
  7. ^ INEbase. Variaciones intercensales. En línea: http://www.ine.es/intercensal/ Consultado 10-07-2011. Cuando se dispone del dato de población de hecho y de derecho se ha tomado la cifra más alta.
  8. ^ "Twin towns, Biarritz official website". Biarritz.fr. Retrieved 2013-05-11. 
  9. ^ "Mayor's Newsletter". www.elpasotexas.gov. Retrieved 2012-02-17. 

External links[edit]