Jerusalem Day 2007, Jaffa Road
|Official name||Hebrew: יום ירושלים (Yom Yerushalayim)|
|Observed by||State of Israel|
|Significance||The reunification of Jerusalem under Israeli control after the Six-Day War. The first time Jews control Jerusalem since the Destruction of the Second Holy Temple by the Romans in 70 AD.|
|Begins||Iyar 28 (Hebrew calendar)|
|2014 date||May 28|
|2015 date||May 17|
Jerusalem Day (Hebrew: יום ירושלים, Yom Yerushalayim) is an Israeli national holiday commemorating the reunification of Jerusalem and the establishment of Israeli control over the Old City in the aftermath of the June 1967 Six-Day War. The day is officially marked by state ceremonies and memorial services. While the day is not widely celebrated outside Israel, and has lost its significance for most secular Israelis, the day is still very much celebrated by Israel's Religious Zionist community with parades and additional prayers in the synagogue. The Chief Rabbinate of Israel declared Jerusalem Day a minor religious holiday to mark the regaining of access to the Western Wall.
Under the 1947 UN Partition Plan, which proposed the establishment of two states in the British Mandate of Palestine – a Jewish state and an Arab state – Jerusalem was to be an international city, neither exclusively Arab nor Jewish for a period of ten years, at which point a referendum would be held by Jerusalem residents to determine which country to join. The Jewish leadership accepted the plan, including the internationalization of Jerusalem, but the Arabs rejected the proposal.
As soon as Israel declared its independence in 1948, it was attacked by its Arab neighbours. Jordan took over east Jerusalem and the Old City. Israeli forces made a concerted attempt to dislodge them, but were unable to do so. By the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War Jerusalem was left divided between Israel and Jordan. The Old City and East Jerusalem continued to be occupied by Jordan, and the Jewish residents were forced out. Under Jordanian rule, half of the Old City's fifty-eight synagogues were demolished and the Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives was plundered for its tombstones, which were used as paving stones and building materials.
This state of affairs changed in 1967 as a result of the Six-Day War. Before the start of the war, Israel sent a message to King Hussein of Jordan saying that Israel would not attack Jerusalem or the West Bank as long as the Jordanian front remained quiet. Urged by Egyptian pressure and based on deceptive intelligence reports, Jordan began shelling civilian locations in Israel to which Israel responded on June 6 by opening the eastern front. The following day, June 7, 1967 (28 Iyar 5727), Israel captured the Old City of Jerusalem.
This morning, the Israel Defense Forces liberated Jerusalem. We have united Jerusalem, the divided capital of Israel. We have returned to the holiest of our holy places, never to part from it again. To our Arab neighbors we extend, also at this hour—and with added emphasis at this hour—our hand in peace. And to our Christian and Muslim fellow citizens, we solemnly promise full religious freedom and rights. We did not come to Jerusalem for the sake of other peoples' holy places, and not to interfere with the adherents of other faiths, but in order to safeguard its entirety, and to live there together with others, in unity.
The war ended with a ceasefire on June 11, 1967.
On May 12, 1968, the government proclaimed a new holiday – Jerusalem Day – to be celebrated on the 28th of Iyar, the Hebrew date on which the divided city of Jerusalem became one. On March 23, 1998, the Knesset passed the Jerusalem Day Law, making the day a national holiday.
In 1977, the government advanced the date of Jerusalem Day by a week to avoid it clashing with Election Day.
Religious Zionists recite special holiday prayers with Hallel. Although Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik was reluctant to authorise its inclusion in the liturgy, other scholars, namely Meshulam Roth and others who held positions in the Israeli rabbinate, advocated the reciting of Hallel with its blessings, regarding it as a duty to do so. Today, various communities follow differing practices.
Some Haredim (strictly Orthodox), who do not recognise the religious significance of the State of Israel, do not observe Yom Yerushalayim. Rabbi Moses Feinstein maintained that adding holidays to the Jewish calendar was itself problematic.
40th anniversary celebrations
The slogan for Jerusalem Day 2007, celebrated on May 16, marking the 40th anniversary of the reunification of Jerusalem, was "Mashehu Meyuhad leKol Ehad" (Hebrew: משהו מיוחד לכל אחד, Something Special for Everyone), punning on the words "meyuhad" (special) and "me'uhad" (united). To mark the anniversary, the approach to Jerusalem on the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv highway was illuminated with decorative blue lighting which remained in place throughout the year.
For several years the celebration has been marked by violence, particularly during a part of the celebration called the "March of Flags". Leanne Gale of the Jewish Daily Forward describes the march: "The March of Flags has become an annual tradition in which thousands of ultranationalist Jewish celebrants parade through the city waving Israeli flags. It culminates in a dramatic march through the Muslim Quarter, generally accompanied by racist slogans and incitement to violence. Israeli police arrive in the area earlier in the day, sealing off entry to Palestinian residents "for their own safety". Those Palestinians who live in the Muslim Quarter are encouraged to close their shops and stay indoors, while any Palestinian counter-protest is quickly dispersed." In 2011 24 people were arrested as Israelis marched through the heart of Arab East Jerusalem chanting racist slogans. Five Palestinians were arrested in 2012 for throwing objects, and ten Israelis were arrested for chanting racist slogans. In 2013, 23 Palestinians and 13 Israelis were arrested for disturbances. In 2014, Israelis carrying flags were involved in skirmishes with Palestinians.. 5 Palestinians were arrested for throwing objects, while 10 Israelis were arrested for chanting racist slogans. The previous year 24 people were arrested as Israelis marched through the heart of Arab East Jerusalem chanting racist slogans.In 2014, Israelis carrying flags were involved in skirmishes with Palestinians. In 2013, 23 Palestinians and 13 Israelis were arrested for disturbances. Some participants have "spit at, harassed and chanted anti-Arab slogans", which has resulted in people in the Muslim Quarter closing their business and staying indoors. In an effort to prevent racism, and the same violence and disturbances from taking place in 2015, Jerusalem-based nonprofits Ir Amim and the Secular Yeshiva asked Mayor Nir Barkat and the Jerusalem Police to prevent the flag march from parading through the Muslim Quarter. Rabbis and civic leaders in the religious Zionist movement are contemplating a call to Jews to refrain from verbal or physical attacks against Arabs during “flag march” through the city. Dozens of rabbis have signed a letter deploring the “serious fringe phenomenon of violence during the Jerusalem Day March.”
In May 2015, The High Court of Justice rejected a petition to keep the Jerusalem Day parade from marching through the Muslim sector of the city. The justices said, however, that police must arrest parade participants who shout racist and violent epithets such as "Death to the Arabs!" or commit violent acts. Because the sometimes violent parade of Jewish marchers goes through the Arab quarters, residents and businesses are advised to close shop and stay home, thus disrupting their lives and livelihood. Haaretz noted: "In recent years, the parade has been characterized by numerous acts of racism and violence against Arabs, as well as damage to property at the hands of marchers." In rejecting the petition to keep the parade from the Muslim sector, the judges voiced their "displeasure" that while violent marchers were arrested and held for questioning in 2014, no indictments were served. In May 2015 the day also resulted in violence the police were unable to contain.
- Michael Feige (2009). "Space, Place, and Memory in Gush Emunim Ideology". Settling in the Hearts: Jewish Fundamentalism in the Occupied Territories. Wayne State University Press. p. 56. ISBN 0-8143-2750-8.
Although part of Israeli secular calendar, it has lost almost all meaning for most Israelis. Attempts to revive the day for the Israeli general public have failed miserably.
- Meron Benvenisti (2007). "Jerusalemites". Son of the Cypresses: Memories, Reflections, and Regrets from a Political Life. University of California Press. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-0-520-93001-8.
It is an expression of Jewish antagonism and xenophobia, a chance to hold arcane ceremonies of allegiance and to nurture nationalistic and religious myths. As it grows more routine, the day is drowning in a deep yawn of boredom; perhaps it is no coincidence that the only secular groups that celebrate in the streets of Jerusalem – other than religious zealots on parade – are members of the "pioneer" communities, the kibbutzim and moshavim.
- Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz (2011). "Jerusalem Day, Nowadays". Change & Renewal: The Essence of the Jewish Holidays, Festivals & Days of Remembrance. The Toby Press/KorenPub. p. 289. ISBN 978-1-59264-322-6.
At its inception, Jerusalem Day was a glorious day. This feeling was to a great extent bound up with the Six Day War and its outcome, which for a while produced an exalted feeling of release from dread and anxiety to liberation, well-being, and greatness. Over the years, however, the aura of the day has dimmed.
- Eva Etzioni-Halevy (2002). The Divided People: Can Israel's Breakup be Stopped?. Lexington Books. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-7391-0325-8.
In the first years after the 1967 war, and the reunification of Jerusalem, this was a holiday for virtually all parts of the nation. [...] Today, as Jerusalem's symbolic value for many of the secular has been flagging, this transformation has been reflected also in the celebration of this day: fewer and fewer secular people still observe the occasion, and it has turned into a festive day of symbolic significance for the religious.
- Judy Lash Balint (2001). Jerusalem Diaries: In Tense Times. Gefen Publishing House Ltd. p. 176. ISBN 978-965-229-271-1.
Today, the day commemorating the 34th anniversary of the reunification of Jerusalem was observed by a shrinking portion of the population. [...] Yom Yerushalayim was celebrated mainly by the national religious community. This was apparent at events all over the city. [...] Clearly a majority of those taking part were observant. This was the day of the knitted kipa. It seems that secular Israelis ave tired of expressions of nationalism.
- Adele Berlin (2011). "Yom Yerushalayim". The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Oxford University Press. p. 803. ISBN 978-0-19-973004-9.
- The Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs (PASSIA)
- A New Ruin Rising – Forward.com"
- Alan M. Dershowitz, The case for Israel, p.93/
- Prime Minister speech
- Knesset speeches
- 40th Anniversary of the Reunification of Jerusalem, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 16 May 2007
- My Jewish Learning: Yom Yerushalayim
- Gideon Aran (19 May 1988). "Mystic-Messianic Interpretation of Modern Israeli History: The Six Day War as a Key Event in the Development of the Original Religious Culture of Gush Emunim". In Jonathan Frankel, Peter Y. Medding, Ezra Mendelsohn. Studies in Contemporary Jewry : Volume IV: The Jews and the European Crisis, 1914-1921: Volume IV: The Jews and the European Crisis, 1914-1921. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-19-505113-1.
- Rabbi Ariel, Yakov. "Hallel on Yom Yerushalayim". yeshiva.co. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Marc Angel (1997). Exploring the thought of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-88125-578-2. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Should one recite Hallel on Jerusalem Day?, Shlomo Brody, Jerusalem Post, 17 May, 2012.
- Jewish Affairs. South African Jewish Board of Deputies. 1998. p. 41. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
Yet the attitude of the Adath, and indeed of all the Strictly Orthodox congregations, towards Israel and Zionism is paradoxical. On the one hand, events like Yom Ha-Atzma’ut, Yom Ha-Zikaron and Yom Yerushalayim are ignored….
- Tzvi Rabinowicz (February 1997). A world apart: the story of the Chasidim in Britain. Vallentine Mitchell. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-85303-261-8. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
Although all Chasidim love Zion, they do not approve Zionism. They do not celebrate Yom Atzmaut (Israel's Independence Day), or Yom Yerushalayim (the annual commemoration of the liberation of Jerusalem).
- Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society. Yeshiva Rabbi Jacob Joseph School. 1994. p. 61. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) in Israel
- ‘Go to Hell, Leftist’ and Other Jerusalem Day Slogans The jewish Daily Forward, 29 May 2014
- "Arrests Made at Jerusalem Day Flag March" The jerusalem Fund, 21 May 2012
- Before Jerusalem Day march, opponents aim to thwart racism The Times of Israel, 28 April 2015
- Rabbis come out against Jerusalem Day violence Haaretz, 28 April 2015
- High Court allows Jerusalem Day parade to march through Muslim Quarter Haaretz, 11 May 2015
- In ‘reunified’ Jerusalem, Jewish-Arab rift as deep as ever the Times of Israel, 17 May 2015.
- "Overview: Jerusalem Day". Retrieved 2006-05-27.
- Education week 9-13.5 – 43rd Jerusalem Day
- Jerusalem Day on the official Knesset website
- Hebrew broadcast of the conquering of the Old City, from Voice of Israel Radio, June 7, 1967
- Overview: Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) in My Jewish Learning website
- "Jerusalem in International Diplomacy" from the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs