"Jesus wept" (Greek: ἐδάκρυσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς, edákrysen o Iesoús lit. "Jesus shed tears") is a phrase famous for being the shortest verse in the King James Version of the Bible, as well as many other versions. It is not the shortest in the original languages. It is found in the Gospel of John, chapter 11, verse 35.
This verse occurs in John's narrative of the death of Lazarus of Bethany, a follower of Jesus. Lazarus's sisters—Mary and Martha—sent word to Jesus of their brother's illness and impending death, but Jesus arrived four days after Lazarus died. Jesus, after talking to the grieving sisters and seeing Lazarus's friends weeping, was deeply troubled and moved. After asking where Lazarus had been laid, and being invited to come see:
|— Gospel of John, 11:35|
|Biblical Greek||ἐδάκρυσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς. |
Edákrusen ho Iēsous.
|Peshitta||ܘܐܵܬ݂ܝܵܢ ܗ̄ܘܲܝ̈ ܕܸܡ̈ܥܵܘܗܝ ܕܝܼܫܘܿܥ. |
Wʾatiyan hway demʿawhy d-Yushwoʿ.
|Vulgate||Et lacrimātus est Iēsus|
|Luther Bible||Und Jesus gingen die Augen über.|
|ASV, Darby Bible, ERV, ESV, HCSB, KJV, NASB, NET, NIV, NJB, NKJV, NLT (pre-2005 version), WEB, YLT, Recovery Version||"Jesus wept."|
|Bible in Basic English||"And Jesus himself was weeping."|
|God's Word||"Jesus cried."|
|The Message||"Now Jesus wept."|
|New American Bible, Douay–Rheims Bible||"And Jesus wept."|
|New Living Translation (2005 Version)||"Then Jesus wept."|
|New Revised Standard Version||"Jesus began to weep."|
|The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures||"Jesus gave way to tears."|
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Significance has been attributed to Jesus's deep emotional response to his friends' weeping, and his own tears, including the following:
- Weeping demonstrates that Christ was a true man, with real bodily functions (such as tears, sweat, blood, eating and drinking—note, for comparison, the emphasis laid on Jesus's eating during the post-resurrection appearances). His emotions and reactions were real; Christ was not an illusion or spirit (see the heresy of Docetism). Pope Leo the Great referred to this passage when he discussed the two natures of Jesus: "In His humanity Jesus wept for Lazarus; in His divinity he raised him from the dead."
- The sorrow, sympathy, and compassion Jesus felt for all mankind.
- The rage he felt against the tyranny of death over mankind.
- Although the bystanders interpreted his weeping to mean that Jesus loved Lazarus (verse 36), Witness Lee considered the Jews' opinion to be unreasonable, given Jesus's intention to resurrect Lazarus. Lee argued instead that every person to whom Jesus talked in John 11 (his disciples, Martha, Mary, and the Jews) was blinded by their misconceptions. Thus he "groaned in his spirit" because even those who were closest to him failed to recognize that he was, as he declared in verse 26, "the resurrection and the life". Finally, at the graveside, he "wept in sympathy with their sorrow over Lazarus's death".
Use as an expletive
In some places in the English-speaking world, including Great Britain, Ireland (particularly Dublin and Belfast) and Australia, the phrase "Jesus wept" is a common mild expletive spoken when something goes wrong or to express incredulity. It is also used sarcastically when expressing unsympathetic indifference to someone else's perceived unfortunate situation or self-pity.
It is commonly used as an expletive in novels by author Stephen King. In his book On Writing, he explained that in grade school he was forced to memorize a verse from the Bible, so he picked "Jesus wept" due to its short length. Other authors using it as an expletive include Neil Gaiman in the Sandman series, David Lodge in Nice Work, Mike Carey in the Hellblazer series and The Devil You Know, Peter F. Hamilton in The Night's Dawn Trilogy, Mark Haddon in The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, Dan Simmons in Hyperion Cantos, Minette Walters in Fox Evil and Jason Matthews in Red Sparrow.
This usage is also evidenced in films and television programmes including Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Get Carter (1971), Razorback (1984), Hellraiser (1987), The Stand (1994), Michael Collins (1996), Dogma (1999), Notes on a Scandal (2006), Cranford (2008), The Bank Job (2008), Call the Midwife (2013), Community (2015), The Magnificent Seven (2016 film) and The Haunting of Hill House (TV series) (2018).
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- In the NIV, Job 3:2 is the shortest biblical verse. Whereas the KJV reads "And Job spake, and said," the NIV simply has "He said".
- The shortest verse in the Greek New Testament is Luke 20:30 ("καὶ ὁ δεύτερος", "And the second") with twelve letters, according to the Westcott and Hort text.
- John 11:1–45
- Luke 19:41
- "Jesus Christ as a Flesh -and - Blood Human". Bibletools.org. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
- The emotional life of Jesus, B. B. Warfield
- Witness Lee, Life-Study of John, Chapter 23, Section 2 (retrieved by searching for "wept" in Life-Study of John)
Lee, Witness (1985), Life-Study of John, Living Stream Ministry, p. PT272, ISBN 978-0736350402
- The Joe Nickell Files: The Shroud of Turin Archived 2008-12-23 at the Wayback Machine, interview with Joe Nickell, August 2000
- E.g. Peevish.co.uk dictionary of slang, Dagree.net Aussie slang
- Newcomb, Horace (2004). Encyclopedia of Television (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 712. ISBN 9781579583941. Retrieved 31 March 2015.