Jet trainer

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The Lockheed T-33, the most produced jet trainer

A jet trainer is a jet aircraft for use as a trainer, whether for basic or advanced flight training. Jet trainers are either custom designs or modifications of existing aircraft. With the introduction of military jet-powered aircraft towards the end of the World War II it became a requirement to train pilots in the handling of such aircraft.

History[edit]

The first generation of trainers in the 1940s were modified from existing designs like the Gloster Meteor and Lockheed T-33 but with these were followed by custom training aircraft like the Aero L-29 Delfín and the BAC Jet Provost.

As training developed different air forces used jet trainers for different phases of training. Although most air forces continued to use piston or later turboprop aircraft for basic training, a number of jet trainers like the Cessna T-37 Tweet appeared for the early stages of pilot training. Pilots who were picked to fly fighter or strike aircraft then went on to fly more advanced training aircraft like the Hawker Siddeley Gnat.

As the early jet-trainers became obsolete then further generations have appeared, the British using the single-engine BAE Systems Hawk while the French ordered the Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet. In the Warsaw Pact the Aero L-39 Albatros became the standard jet trainer.

As the jet trainer developed it was also used for weapon training, which led to some trainers being modified as light strike aircraft; for example, the Cessna T-37 Tweet was developed into the Cessna A-37 Dragonfly.

List of jet trainers[edit]

Below is a list of some current and former jet trainers

An Aero L-39 Albatros
The JASDF Kawasaki T-4
A US Navy T-2 Buckeye
Aircraft Country 1st flight No. built Status
Aermacchi MB-326 Italy 1957 800 Limited service
Aermacchi MB-339 Italy 1976 230 Operational[1]
Aero L-29 Delfín Czechoslovakia 1959 3,500 Operational
Aero L-39 Albatros Czechoslovakia 1968 2,800 Operational[1]
Aero L-39NG Czech Republic 2018 4 In development
Aero L-59 Super Albatros Czechoslovakia 1986 60 Operational[1]
Aero L-159 Alca Czech Republic 1997 72 Operational[1]
AIDC AT-3 Tzu Chung Republic of China 1980 63 Operational[1]
AIDC T-5 Brave Eagle Republic of China 2020 5 Operational[2]
BAC Jet Provost United Kingdom 1954 741 Retired
BAe Hawk United Kingdom 1974 1,000 Operational[1]
Boeing/Saab T-7A Red Hawk United States / Sweden 2016 2 In development
CASA C-101 Spain 1977 166 Operational[1]
Canadair CT-133 Silver Star Canada 1952 656 Retired
Canadair CT-114 Tutor Canada 1960 212 Retired
Cessna T-37 Tweet United States 1954 1,269 Limited service[1]
Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet France / Germany 1973 480 Operational[1]
Douglas TA-4E/J Skyhawk United States 1954 547 Operational
Fiat G.80 Italy 1951 4 Retired
FMA IA 63 Pampa Argentina 1984 27 Operational[1]
Fokker S.14 Machtrainer Netherlands 1951 21 Retired
Folland Gnat United Kingdom 1955 105 Retired
Fouga Magister France 1952 929 Retired
Fouga Zéphyr France 1959 32 Retired
Fuji T-1 Japan 1958 66 Retired
Mitsubishi T-2 Japan 1971 90 Retired
Grumman F9F-8T/TF-9J Cougar United States 1951 400 Retired
HAL HJT-16 Kiran India 1964 190 Operational[1]
HAL HJT-36 Sitara India 2003 6 Limited series production
Hispano HA-200 Spain 1955 212 Retired
Hongdu JL-8/Karakorum-8 People's Republic of China / Pakistan 1990 500 Operational[1]
Guizhou JL-9 People's Republic of China 2003 20 Operational
Hongdu JL-10 People's Republic of China 2006 100 Operational[1]
IAR 99 Romania 1985 28 Operational
KAI T-50 Golden Eagle South Korea 2002 82 Operational[1]
Kawasaki T-4 Japan 1985 208 Operational[1]
Leonardo M 346 Master Italy 2004 68 Operational[1]
Lockheed T-33 United States 1948 6,557 Retired
Lockheed T2V SeaStar United States 1953 150 Retired
McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk United States 1988 221 Operational[1]
Morane-Saulnier MS.760 Paris France 1964 165 Retired
North American T-2 Buckeye United States 1959 1,146 Operational
Northrop T-38 Talon[3] United States 1958 529 Operational[1]
PZL I-22 Iryda Poland 1985 17 Retired
PZL TS-11 Iskra Poland 1960 424 Limited Service
Saab 105 Sweden 1963 192 Operational
Soko G-2 Galeb Yugoslavia 1961 248 Limited service
Soko G-4 Super Galeb Yugoslavia 1978 85 Operational[1]
SIAI-Marchetti S.211 Italy 1981 60 Operational[1]
Temco TT Pinto United States 1956 15 Retired
Yakovlev Yak-130 Russia 1996 100 Operational[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "World Air Forces 2021". Flightglobal Insight. 2021. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  2. ^ Taiwan receives first-production T-5 advanced trainer30 NOVEMBER 2021,© Janes.com 2021 All Rights Reserved
  3. ^ Factsheets : T-38 Talon : T-38 Talon Archived 2005-10-21 at the Wayback Machine