Jewish Babylonian Aramaic

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"Talmudic Aramaic" redirects here. It literally refers to the Aramaic language as found in the Talmud.
Babylonian Aramaic
Region Babylonia, moderm day southern and some of central Iraq
Era ca. 200–1200 CE
Early forms
Old Aramaic
  • Babylonian Aramaic
Hebrew alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3 tmr
Glottolog jewi1240[1]

Babylonian Aramaic was the form of Middle Aramaic employed by writers in Babylonia between the 4th century and the 11th century CE. It is most commonly identified with the language of the Babylonian Talmud (which was completed in the seventh century) and of post-Talmudic (Geonic) literature, which are the most important cultural products of Babylonian Jews. The most important epigraphic sources for the dialect are the hundreds of Aramaic magic bowls written.[2]

Classification and type[edit]

The language was closely related to other Eastern Aramaic dialects such as Mandaic and Syriac language. Its original pronunciation is uncertain, and has to be reconstructed with the help of these kindred dialects and of the reading tradition of the Yemenite Jews,[3] and where available those of the Iraqi, Syrian and Egyptian Jews. The value of the Yemenite reading tradition has been challenged by some scholars.[4] (The vocalized Aramaic texts with which Jews are familiar, from the Bible and the prayer book, are of limited usefulness for this purpose, as they are in a different dialect.)[5]

Talmudic Aramaic bears all the marks of being a specialist language of study and legal argumentation, like Law French, rather than a vernacular mother tongue, and continued in use for these purposes long after Arabic had become the language of daily life. It has developed a battery of technical logical terms, such as tiyuvta (conclusive refutation) and tiqu (undecidable moot point), which are still used in Jewish legal writings, including those in other languages, and have influenced modern Hebrew.

Like the Judean (Galilean Aramaic) and Assyrian Jewish dialects it was written with Hebrew alphabet.

Grammar[edit]

Six major verbal patterns[edit]

There are six major verb stems or verbal patterns (binyanim) in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. The form pe‘al (פְּעַל) “to do”, the form Aph'el (אַפְעֵל) “let do”, and the form Pa'el (פַּעֵל) “like to do”, are all in the active voice. But the form Itpe'el (אִתְפְּעֵל), the form Itaph'al (אִתַפְעַל) and the form Itpa'al (אִתְפַּעַל) are essentially reflexive and have usually function in a passive sense.[6][7]

Aramaic binyan Hebrew binyan Aramaic example Hebrew parallel English translation
פְּעַל Pe'al קַל Qal/Pa'al כְּתַב כָּתַב he wrote
אִתְפְּעֵל Itpe'el נִפְעַל Niphal אִתְכְּתֵיב נִכְּתַב it was written
אַפְעֵל Aph'el הִפְעִיל Hiphil אַפְקֵד הִפְקִיד he deposited
אִתַפְעַל Itaph'al הֻפְעַל Huph‘al אִתַפְקַד הֻפְקַד it was deposited
פַּעֵל Pa'el פִּעֵל Pi'el קַדֵיש קִדֵש he sanctifed
אִתְפַּעַל Itpa'al הִתְפַּעַל Nitpa'al וְיִתְקַדַּשׁ הִתְקַדַּשׁ it was sanctifed

Verbal pattern (binyan): pe‘al (פְּעַל) Basic Verb - Active[edit]

past tense
Aramaic verb WROTE [8] Hebrew verb parallel WROTE Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא כְּתַבִית אֲנִי כָּתַבְתִּי ana q'tavit ani qatavti I wrote
אַתְּ כְּתַבְתְּ אַתָּה כָּתַבְתָּ at q'tavt ata qatavta you (m.) wrote
אַתְּ כְּתַבְתְּ אַתְּ כָּתַבְתְּ at q'tavt at qatavt you (f.) wrote
הוּא כְּתַב הוּא כָּתַב u q'tav u qatav he wrote
הִיא כְּתַבָה הִיא כָּתְּבָה i q'tava i qatva she wrote
אֲנָן כְּתַבִינָן אָנוּ כָּתַבְנוּ anan q'tavinan anu qatavnu we wrote
אַתּוּ כְּתַבִיתּוּ אַתֶּם כְּתַבְתֶּם atu q'tavitu atem qotvim you (m.pl.) wrote
אינון כְּתַבוּ הם כָּתְּבוּ innun q'tavu em qatvu they (m.) wrote
Aramaic verb CAME [9] Hebrew verb parallel CAME Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא אֲתֵיתִי
אֲנָא אֲתַאי
אֲנִי בָּאתִי ana ateti/ana atai ani bati I came
אַתְּ אֲתֵית אַתָּה בָּאתָ at atet ata bata you (m.) came
אַתְּ  ? אַתְּ בָּאת at ? at bat you (f.) came
הוּא אֲתָא הוּא בָּא u ata hu ba he came
הִיא אֲתָת
הִיא אֲתַאי
הִיא אתיא
הִיא בָּאָה i atat/atai/atjia hi ba'a she came
אֲנָן אֲתַאן
אֲנָן אֲתַן
אֲנָן אֲתֵינַן
אָנוּ בָּאנוּ anan atan/atenan anu banu we came
אַתּוּ אֲתֵיתוּ אַתֶּם בָּאתֶם atu atetu atem batem you (m.pl.) came
אינון אֲתוּ הם בָּאוּ innun atu em ba'u they (m.) came
אינין אֲתַיָין
אינין אֲתַאָן
יאינין אתן
הן בָּאוּ innin attajan en ba'u they (f.) came
Participle

The Aramaic verb has two participles: an active participle with suffix [10] and a passive participle with suffix:[11]

active participles with suffix
Aramaic active participle WRITE with suffix Hebrew active participle WRITE Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
כָּתֵיב + אֲנָא ← כָּתֵיבְנָא אֲנִי כּוֹתֵב qatevna←qatev+ana ani qotev I write
כָּתֵיב + אַתְּ ← כָּתְבַתְּ אַתָּה כּוֹתֵב qatvat← qatev+ata ata qotev you write
כָּתְבִי + אֲנָן ← כָּתְבִינָן אָנוּ כּוֹתְבִים qatvinan←qatvi+anan anu qotvim we write
כָּתְבִי + אַתּוּ ← כָּתְבִיתּוּ אַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִים qatvitu← qatvi+atu atem qotvim you (pl.) write
Aramaic active participle COME with suffix[12] Hebrew active participle COME Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אָתֵי / אָתְיָא + אֲנָא ← אָתֵינָא אֲנִי בָּא atena←ate+ana ani ba I come
אָתֵי / אָתְיָא + אַתְּ ← אָתֵיתְּ אַתָּה בָּא atet← ate+at ata ba You come
אָתוּ / אָתֵיָין + אֲנָן ← אָתִינָן אָנוּ בָּאִים atinan←atu+anan anu ba'iim we come
passive participle with suffix
Aramaic passive participle with suffix BUSY Hebrew passive participle BUSY Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
עֲסִיק + אֲנָא ← עֲסִיקְנָא אֲנִי עָסוּק assiqna←assiq+ana ani assuq I am busy
עֲסִיק + אַתְּ ← עֲסִיקַתְּ אַתָּה עָסוּק assiqat← assiq+ata ata assuq you are busy
עֲסִיקִי + אֲנַן ← עֲסִיקִינַן אָנוּ עֲסוּקִים assiqinan←assiqi+anan anu assuqim we are busy
עֲסִיקִי + אַתּוּ ← עֲסִיקִיתּוּ אַתֶּם עֲסוּקִים assiqitu← assiqi+atu atem assuqim you (pl.) are busy
infinitive /gerund
Aramaic infinitive /gerund TO COME Hebrew infinitive /gerund Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
(לְ)מֵיתֵי / לְמֵיתָא (לָ)בוֹא Lemeta/meteji la'vo TO COME
Future tense
Aramaic verb WILL WRITE [13] Hebrew verb parallel WILL WRITE Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא אֶיכְתּוֹב אֲנִי אֶכְתּוֹב ana aehtov ani aehtov I will write
אַתְּ תִּיכְתּוֹב אַתָּה תִּכְתּוֹב at tihtov ata tihtov You (m.sing.)will write
אַתְּ תִּיכְתְּבִין אַתְּ תִּיכְתְּבִי at tihtevin at tihtevi You (f.sing.) will write
הוּא לִיכְתּוֹב הוּא יִכְתּוֹב u lihtov u jihtov He will write
הִיא תִּיכְתּוֹב הִיא תִּכְתּוֹב i tihtov i tihtov She will write
אֲנָן לִיכְתּוֹב אָנוּ נִכְתּוֹב anan lihtov anu nihtov We will write
אַתּוּ תִּיכְתְּבוּן אַתֶּם תִּיכְתְּבוּ atu tihtevu atem tihtevun you (m.pl.) will write
אינון לִיכְתְּבוּן הם יכְתְּבוּ innun laphqedu em japhqidu they (m.pl.) will write

Verbal pattern (binyan): Itpe'el (אִתְפְּעֵל) Basic Verb - Passive[edit]

past tense
Aramaic verb WAS/WERE WRITTEN [14] Hebrew verb parallel WAS/WERE WRITTEN Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא אִי(תְ)כְּתֵיבִית אֲנִי נִכְתַבְתִּי ana itq'tevit ani nihtavti I was written
אַתְּ אִי(תְ)כְּתַבְתְּ אַתָּה נִכְתַבְתָּה at itq'tavt ata nihtavta you (m.s.) were written
אַתְּ אִי(תְ)כְּתַבְתְּ אַתְּ נִכְתַבְתְּ at itq'tavt at nihtavt you (f.s.) were written
הוּא אִי(תְ)כְּתֵיב הוּא נִכְתַבְ u itq'tev u nihtav it (m.) was written
הִיא אִי(תְ)כַּתְבָה הִיא נִכְתְּבָה i itqatva i nihteva it (f.) was written
אֲנָן אִי(תְ)כַּתְבִינָן אָנוּ נִכְתַבְנוּ anan itqatvinan anu nihtavnu we were written
אַתּוּ אִי(תְ)כַּתְבִיתּוּ אַתֶּם נִכְתַבְתֶּם atu itqatvitu atem nihtavtem you (m.pl.) were written
אינון אִי(תְ)כַּתְבוּ הם נִכְתְּבוּ innun itqatvu em nihtevu they (m.pl.) were written
future tense
Aramaic verb Will BE WRITTEN [15] Hebrew verb parallel Will BE WRITTEN Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא אֶ(תְ)כְּתֵיב אֲנִי אֶכָּתֵיב ana aeqqtev ani aeqqatev I will be written
אַתְּ תִ(תְ)כְּתֵיב אַתָּה תִכָּתֵיב at tiqqtev ata tiqqatev you (m.s.) will be written
אַתְּ תִ(תְ)כְּתֵיבִין אַתְּ תִכָּתֵיבִי at tiqqatevin at tiqqatevi you (f.s.) will be written
הוּא לִ(תְ)כְּתֵיב הוּא יִכָּתֵיב u liqqtev u iqqatev it (m.) will be written
הִיא תִ(תְ)כְּתֵיב הִיא תִכָּתֵיב i tiqqtev i tiqqatev it (f.) will be written
אֲנָן לִ(תְ)כְּתֵיב אָנוּ נִכָּתֵיב anan liqqtev anu niqqatev we will be written
אַתּוּ תִ(תְ)כַּתְבוּ אַתֶּם תִכָּתְבוּ atu tiqqat'vu atem tiqqatvu you (m.pl.) will be written
אינון לִ(תְ)קַכְּתֵיבוּן הם יִכָּתבוּ innun liqqtevun em iqqatvu they (s.pl.) will be written
אינין לִ(תְ)כַּתְבָן הן תִכָּתֵבְנָה innin liqqt'van en tiqqatevna they (m.pl.) will be written

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Verbal pattern (binyan): pa‘el (פַּעֵל) Frequentative - Active[edit]

The verbal pattern (binyan) pa‘el are frequentative verbs showing repeated or intense action.

The verbal pattern pa'el is Active Frequentative.

past tense
Aramaic verb SANCTIFIED [16] Hebrew verb parallel SANCTIFIED Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא קַדֵּישִית אֲנִי קִדַּשְתִּי ana qadeshit ani qiddashti I sanctified
אַתְּ קַדֵּישְתְּ אַתָּה קִדַּשְתָּ at qadesht ata qiddashta You (m.s.) sanctified
אַתְּ קַדֵּישְתְּ אַתְּ קִדַּשְתְּ at qadesht at qiddasht You (f.s.) sanctified
הוּא קַדֵּיש הוּא קִדֵּש u qaddesh u qiddesh he sanctified
הִיא קַדִּישָה הִיא קִדְּשָה i qaddisha i qiddsha she sanctified
אֲנָן קַדֵּישְנָן אָנוּ קִדַּשְנוּ anan qaddeshnan anu qiddashnu we sanctified
אַתּוּ קַדֵּישְתּוּ אַתֶּם קִדַּשְתֶּם atu qaddeshtu atem qiddashtem You (m.pl.) sanctified
אינון קַדִּישוּ הם קִדְּשוּ innun qaddishu em qiddshu they (m.pl.) sanctified
future tense
Aramaic verb WILL SANCTIFY [17] Hebrew verb parallel WILL SANCTIFY Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא אֲקַדֵּיש אֲנִי אֲקַדֵּש ana aqadesh ani aqadesh I will sanctify
אַתְּ תְקַדֵּיש אַתָּה תְקַדֵּש at teqadesh ata teqadesh You (m.s.) will sanctify
אַתְּ תְקַדְּשִי אַתְּ תְקַדְּשִי at teqadeshi at teqadeshi You (f.s.) will sanctify
הוּא יְקַדֵּיש הוּא יְקַדֵּש u jeqadesh u jeqadesh he will sanctify
הִיא תְקַדֵּיש הִיא תְקַדֵּש i teqadesh i teqadesh she will sanctify
אֲנָן לְקַדֵּיש אָנוּ נְקַדֵּש anan leqadesh anu neqadesh we will sanctify
אַתּוּ תְקַדְּשוּ אַתֶּם תְקַדְּשוּ atu teqadshu atem teqadshu You (m.pl.) will sanctify
אינון לְקַדְּשוּ הם יְקַדְּשוּ innun leqadshu em jeqadeshu they (m.pl.) will sanctify
אינין לְקַדְּשָן הן תְקַדֵּשְנָה innin leqadshan en teqadeshna they (f.pl.) will sanctify

Verbal pattern (binyan): Itpa'al (אִתְפַּעַל) Frequentative - Passive[edit]

The verbal pattern itpa'al is Passive Frequentative.

Aramaic verb WAS/WERE SANCTIFIED [18] Hebrew verb parallel WAS/WERE SANCTIFIED Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא יִ(תְ)קַדַּשִׁית אֲנִי נִתְקַדַּשְׁתִּי ana jiqqadashit ani nitqadashti I was sanctified
אַתְּ יִ(תְ)קַדַּשְׁתְּ אַתָּה נִתְקַדַּשָׁה at jiqqadasht ata nitqqadasha you (m.s.) were sanctified
אַתְּ יִ(תְ)קַדַּשְׁתְּ אַתְּ נִתְקַדַּשְׁתְּ at jiqqadasht at nitqadasht you (f.s.) were sanctified
הוּא יִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁ הוּא נִתְקַדַּשׁ u jiqqadash u nitqadash it (m.) was sanctified
הִיא יִ(תְ)קַדַּשָׁה הִיא נִתְקַדַּשָׁה i jiqqadasha i nitqadasha it (f.) was sanctified
אֲנָן יִ(תְ)קַדַּשִׁינָן אָנוּ נִתְקַדַּשׁנוּ anu jiqqadashinan anu nitqadashnu we were sanctified
אַתּוּ יִ(תְ)קַדַּשִׁיתּוּ אַתֶּם נִתְקַדַּשְׁתֶּם atu jiqqadashitu innu nitqadashtem they (f.) were sanctified
אִינון יִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁוּ הם נִתְקַדַּשׁוּ innun jiqqadashitu em nitqadashu they (m.) were sanctified
Aramaic verb WILL BE SANCTIFIED [19] Hebrew verb parallel WILL BE SANCTIFIED Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא אֶ(תְ)קַדֵּשׁ אֲנִי אֶתְקַדַּשׁ ana aeqqadash ani aetqadesh I will be sanctified
אַתְּ תִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁ אַתָּה תִתְקַדֵּשׁ at tiqqadash ata titqadesh you (m.s.) will be sanctified
אַתְּ תִ(תְ)קַדְּשִׁין אַתְּ תִתְקַדְּשִׁי at tiqqadshin at titqadshi you (f.s.) will be sanctified
הוּא לִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁ הוּא יִתְקַדֵּשׁ u liqqadash u itqadesh it (m.) will be sanctified
הִיא תִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁ הִיא תִתְקַדֵּשׁ i tiqqadash i titqadesh it (f.) will be sanctified
אֲנָן לִ(תְ)קַדַּשׁ אָנוּ נִתְקַדֵּשׁ anan liqqadash anu nitqadesh we will be sanctified
אַתּוּ תִ(תְ)קַדְּשׁוּ אַתֶּם תִתְקַדְּשׁוּ atu tiqqadshu atem titqadshu you (m.pl.) will be sanctified
אינון לִ(תְ)קַדְּשוּן הם יִתְקַדְּשׁוּ innun liqqadshun em itqadshu they (m.pl.) will be sanctified
אינין לִ(תְ)קַדְּשָׁן הן תִתְקַדֵּשְׁנָה innin liqqadshan en titqadeshna they (f.pl.) will be sanctified

Verbal pattern (binyan): aph‘el (אַפְעֵל) Causative - Active[edit]

The verbal pattern aphel is Active Causative.

past tense
Aramaic verb DEPOSITED [20] Hebrew verb parallel DEPOSITED Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא אַפְקֵידִית אֲנִי הִפְקַדְתִּי ana aphqedit ani iphqadeti I deposited
אַתְּ אַפְקֵידְתְּ אַתָּה הִפְקַדְתָּ at aphqedt ata iphqadetta you (m.s.) deposited
אַתְּ אַפְקֵידְתְּ אַתְּ הִפְקַדְתְּ at aphqedt at iphqadett you (f.s.) deposited
הוּא אַפְקֵיד הוּא הִפְקִיד u aphqed u iphqid he deposited
הִיא אַפְקִידָה הִיא הִפְקִידָה i aphqida i iphqida she deposited
אֲנָן אַפְקְדִינָן אָנוּ הִפְקַדְנוּ anan aphqedinan anu iphqadnu we deposited
אַתּוּ אַפְקְדִיתּוּ אַתֶּם הִפְקַדְתֶּם atu aphqeditu atem iphqadtem you (m.pl.) deposited
אינון אַפְקִידוּ הם הִפְקִידוּ innun aphqidu em iphqidu they (m.pl.) deposited
Aramaic verb BROUGHT [21] Hebrew verb parallel BROUGHT Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא אַיְיתֵית אֲנִי הֵבֵאתִי ana ajtet ani heveti I brought
אַתְּ אַיְיתֵיית אַתָּה הֵבֵאתָ at ajtet ata heveta you (m.s.) brought
הוּא אַיְיתִי הוּא הֵבִיא u ajti u hevi he brought
הִיא אַיְיתָא
הִיא אַתָיְא
הִיא אַתָאי
הִיא הֵבִיאָה i ajta i hevija she brought
אֲנָן אַיְיתֵינָא אָנוּ הֵבֵאנוּ anan ajtena anu hevenu we brought
אינון אַיְיתוּ הם הֵבִיאוּ innun ajtu em hevi'u they (m.pl.) brought
Participle
Aramaic active participle BRING with suffix [22] Hebrew active participle BRING Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
מַיְיתֵי / מַתְיָא + אֲנָא ← מַיְיתֵינָא אֲנִי מֵבִיא maitena ←maite+ana ani mevi I bring
מַיְיתֵי / מַתְיָא + אַתְּ ← מַיְיתֵיתְּ אַתָּה מֵבִיא maitet← maite+at ata mevi you bring
מַיְיתוּ / מַיְתָן + אֲנָן ← מַיְיתִינָן אָנוּ מֵבִיאִים maitinan←atu+maitu anu mev'iim we bring
Future tense
Aramaic verb WILL DEPOSITE [23] Hebrew verb parallel WILL DEPOSITE Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא אַפְקֵד אֲנִי אַפְקִיד ana aphqed ani aphqid I will deposite
אַתְּ תַפְקֵד אַתָּה תַפְקִיד at taphqed ata taphqid you (m.) will deposite
אַתְּ תַפְקְדִי אַתְּ תַפְקִידִי at taphqedi at taphqidi you (f.) will deposite
הוּא לַפְקֵד הוּא יַפְקִיד u laphqed u japhqid he will deposite
הִיא תַפְקֵד הִיא תַפְקִיד i taphqed i taphqid she will deposite
אֲנָן לַפְקֵד אָנוּ נַפְקִיד anan laphqed anu naphqid we will deposite
אַתּוּ תַפְקְדוּ אַתֶּם תַפְקִידוּ atu taphqedu atem taphqidu you (m.pl.) will deposite
אינון לַפְקְדוּ הם יַפְקִידוּ innun laphqedu em japhqidu they (m.) will deposite
Aramaic verb WILL BRING [24] Hebrew verb parallel WILL BRING Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
אֲנָא אַיְיתֵי אֲנִי אָבִיא ana ajite ani avi I will bring
אַתְּ תַיְיתֵי אַתָּה תָּבִיא at tajite ata tavi you (m.) will bring
אַתְּ  ? אַתְּ תָּבִיאי at ? at taviji you (f.) will bring
הוּא לַיְיתֵי הוּא יָבִיא u lajite u javi he will bring
הִיא תַיְיתֵי הִיא תָּבִיא i tajite i tavi she will bring
אֲנָן לַיְיתֵי אָנוּ נָבִיא anan lajite anu navi we will bring
אַתּוּ תַיְתוּ אַתֶּם תָּבִיאוּ atu tajitu atem taviju you (m.pl.) will bring
אינון לַיְתוּ הם יָבִיאוּ innun lajitu em javiju they (m.) will bring

Verbal pattern (binyan): itaphal (אִתַפְעַל) Causative - Passive voice[edit]

The verbal pattern itaphal is Passive Causative.

Aramaic verb was refuted/were refuted [25] Hebrew verb parallel was refuted/were refuted Romanization of Aramaic Romanization of Hebrew English translation
הוּא אִיתּוֹתַב הוּא הוּשַׁב u ittotav u ushav it (m.s.) was refuted
אינון אִיתּוֹתְבוּ הם הוּשְׁבוּ innun ittotvu em ushvu they (m.pl.) were refuted

List of verbs[edit]

Aramaic verb Hebrew verb parallel English translation
בע' [26] רָצָה ask, request, want and require
חז' [27] רָאָה see
עבד [28] עָשָׂה do/make
פלג [29] חלק divide
צרך [30] צריך necessity
את'[31] בָּא come
תנ' [32] שנה teach, learn, state, recite and repeat
תוב [33] שוב return
נפק [34] יָצָא go out
נחת [35] יָרַד go down
סלק [36] עָלָה go up
ילף [37] למד learn, teach
יתב [38] יָשַׁב to sit
זבן[39] מָכַר to come
הדר [40] חָזַר to return
סלק [41] הוֹרִיד, הֵסִיר to remove
גלי [42] גֵּרֵשׁ to reveale
אסי [43] רִפֵּא to heal, cure
הוי [44] דָּן he discussed/raised an objection
קום / קָאֵם [45] הִתְקַיֵּם/עומד to stand
עלל [46] יָשַׁב to sit

Today[edit]

The language has received considerable scholarly attention, as shown in the Bibliography below. However, the majority of those who are familiar with it, namely Orthodox Jewish students of Talmud, are given no systematic instruction in the language, and are expected to "sink or swim" in the course of Talmudic studies, with the help of some informal pointers showing similarities and differences with Hebrew.[47]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (ca. 200–1200 CE)". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Sokoloff 2003
  3. ^ Morag 1988
  4. ^ Morgenstern 2011
  5. ^ Elitzur Bar-Asher Siegal, Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (2013)
  6. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 18:A survey of the aramaic binyanim.
  7. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic: , Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 23:Talmud Bavli Aramaic.
  8. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 22:Past tense: binyan.
  9. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 123:Past tense: came.
  10. ^ Frank (2011), p. 32.
  11. ^ Frank (2011), p. 33.
  12. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 124:active participle with suffix
  13. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 36:Future tense: binyan.
  14. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 25:Past tense: binyan.
  15. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 39:Future tense: binyan.
  16. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 23:Past tense: binyan.
  17. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1,p. 37:Future tense: binyan.
  18. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 26:Past tense: binyan.
  19. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 40:Future tense: banyan.
  20. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 24:Past tense: binyan.
  21. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p.123 f.
  22. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 124:active participle with suffix
  23. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 38:Future tense: binyan.
  24. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 125:Future tense: will bring.
  25. ^ Yitzhak Frank: Grammar for Gemara and targum onkelos: An Introduction to Aramaic, Ariel Institute, Jerusalem 2011 ISBN 978-1-59826-466-1, p. 94:Past tense:was refuted/were refuted.
  26. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 105f.
  27. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 108f.
  28. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 59f.
  29. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 50f.
  30. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 56f.
  31. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 123f.
  32. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 116f.
  33. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 93.
  34. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 68f.
  35. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 70f.
  36. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 74.
  37. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 82f.
  38. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 88f.
  39. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, (Nr. 2 - Index).
  40. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 64.
  41. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 74f.
  42. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 111.
  43. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 114f.
  44. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 126f.
  45. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, 132f.
  46. ^ Frank (2011), p. 49, (Nr. 26 - Index).
  47. ^ Jay Bushinsky, "The passion of Aramaic-Kurdish Jews brought Aramaic to Israel"

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bar-Asher Siegal, Elitzur A., Introduction to the Grammar of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2013 ISBN 978-3-86835-084-5
  • J. N. Epstein, Diqduq Aramit Bavlit ("Grammar of Babylonian Aramaic"), 1960 (Hebrew)
  • Frank, Yitzhak, Grammar for Gemara: An Introduction to Babylonian Aramaic: Jerusalem, Ariel Institute, 2000 ISBN 0-87306-612-X
  • Jastrow, Marcus, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature (reprinted many times) ISBN 1-56563-860-3
  • Kara, Yehiel, Babylonian Aramaic in the Yemenite Manuscripts of the Talmud: Orthography, Phonology and Morphology of the Verb: Jerusalem 1983
  • Klein, Hyman, An Introduction to the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud: London 1943
  • Kutscher, Eduard Yechezkel, Hebrew and Aramaic Studies, ed. Z. Ben-Hayyim, A. Dotan, and G. Sarfatti: Jerusalem, The Magnes Press / The Hebrew University, 1977
  • Levias, Caspar, A grammar of the Aramaic idiom contained in the Babylonian Talmud: 1900 (reprints available)
  • Marcus, David, A Manual of Babylonian Jewish Aramaic: University Press of America, Paperback ISBN 0-8191-1363-8
  • Margolis, Max Leopold, A manual of the Aramaic language of the Babylonian Talmud; grammar chrestomathy & glossaries: Munich 1910 (reprints available)
  • Melamed, Ezra Zion, Dictionary of the Babylonian Talmud, Feldheim 2005 ISBN 1-58330-776-1
  • Morag, Shelomo (1988). Babylonian Aramaic: The Yemenite Tradition – Historical Aspects and Transmission Phonology: the Verbal System . Jerusalem: Ben Zvi Institute. ISBN 0-8018-7233-2.  (in Hebrew)
  • Morgenstern, Matthew (2011). Studies in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Based Upon Early Eastern Manuscripts. Harvard Semitic Studies. ISBN 1-57506-938-5. 
  • Sokoloff, Michael (2003). A Dictionary of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic of the Talmudic and Geonic Periods. Bar Ilan and Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-7233-2. 

External links[edit]