Jewish English varieties
This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2021)
Jewish English is a cover term for varieties of the English language spoken by Jews. They may include significant amounts of vocabulary and syntax taken from Yiddish, and both classical and modern Hebrew. These varieties can be classified into several types: Yeshivish, Yinglish, and Heblish, as well as more flexible mixtures of English and other Jewish languages, which may contain features and other elements from languages other than Yiddish and Hebrew.
The classification "Jewish English" eliminates the need for concern with identifying the specific origin of the non-English components of any such variant. This offsets, for example, misperceptions that can result from failure to note the Hebrew origin of a word that may have become widely known in Anglophone contexts via Yiddish, and may be, therefore, simply regarded as Yiddish. (This problem is illustrated in the list of English words of Yiddish origin.)
Several terms for hybrid Jewish English are being used or have been suggested, such as Englibrew and Yeshivish (hybrid English used in yeshivas, Jewish religious schools).
A set of terms refer to hybrids or mixtures of English and Yiddish rather than with Hebrew, and code-switching may be for representation of religious or cultural affiliation in speech, rather than language transfer reasons. In the US these include: Yinglish, Yidgin English, Yidlish, Yiddiglish, Ameridish, Anglish, Heblish, Engdish, Engliddish, Engbrew, Englibrew, Jewish English, Jewish Dialect, Frumspeak, Yeshivish, Hebonics.
The term Heblish was recorded earliest in 1979, with Hebrish (1989) and Hebglish (1993) appearing later. Other less common terms are Hinglish (recorded from 1982) and Henglish (1983).
- Hebraization of English (or Hebraicization), the use of the Hebrew alphabet to write English
- Yiddish words used in English
- List of English words of Yiddish origin
- Yiddish words used in English
- Lambert, James (2018). "A multitude of "lishes": The nomenclature of hybridity". English World-wide. 39 (1): 8, 13. doi:10.1075/eww.38.3.04lam. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
- Bernstein, Cynthia (2006) . Wolfram, Walt; Ward, Ben (eds.). More than just yada, yada, yada (Jewish English). American voices: how dialects differ from coast to coast. Walden: Blackwell. p. 251. ISBN 9781405121095.
Yinglish, Yidgin English, Yidlish, Yiddiglish, Ameridish, Anglish, Heblish, Engdish, Engliddish, Engbrew, Englibrew, Jewish English, Jewish Dialect, Frumspeak, Yeshivish, Hebonics: all of these terms have been used to name a variety of English spoken by Jews in the United States. ... those who identify closely with religious and cultural aspects of Jewish life often represent their affiliation in speech.
- Grishaver, Joel Lurie (1993). 40 things you can do to save the Jewish people. Alef Design Group. p. 148. ISBN 9781881283041. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
Joel's Nineteenth Law: Said in the name of Rabbi Yosi Gordon: Be an advocate of Hebglish (or if you prefer, Engbrew), the new "Yiddish" which is emerging around English rather than German. Use as many real Hebrew nouns in your English conversation as possible. / So let's talk about our version of "Eskimo Snow." While we know that all "Jewish" (Hebrew) words are good because they enhance identity and transmit culture, building a tikkun olam vocabulary is a triple whammy. / a. It does all the "cultural uniqueness" stuff. Having a Jewish language makes a difference. ....
- Lambert, James. 2018. A multitude of ‘lishes’: The nomenclature of hybridity. English World-wide, 39(1): 25. doi: 10.1075/eww.38.3.04lam
- Gold, David L. 1986. "An Introduction to Jewish English." Jewish Language Review. Vol. 6. Pp. 94-120 [additions and corrections in vol. 7, 1987, p. 622, and Jewish Linguistic Studies, vol. 2, 1990, pp. 525-527].
- Gold, David L. 1985. "Names for Jewish English and Some of Its Varieties." American Speech: A Quarterly of Linguistic Usage. Vol. 60. No. 2. Summer. Pp. 185-187.